American Airlines

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American Airlines, Inc.
American Airlines logo 2013.svg
IATA ICAO Callsign
AA [1] AAL [1] AMERICAN [2]
FoundedApril 15, 1926;93 years ago (1926-04-15) (earliest predecessor airline as American Airways, Inc.)
Chicago, Illinois, United States [3]
Commenced operationsJune 25, 1936 (1936-06-25) [3]
AOC # AALA025A [4]
Hubs
Frequent-flyer program AAdvantage
Alliance Oneworld
Fleet size 965 (mainline) [5]
Destinations 350 [6]
Company slogan"Great is what we're going for"
Parent company American Airlines Group
Traded as NASDAQ:  AAL
Headquarters Fort Worth, Texas, United States
Key people
Revenue See parent
Operating income See parent
Net income See parent
Total assets See parent
Total equity See parent
Employees126,600 (Jun 2018)
Website www.aa.com

American Airlines, Inc. (AA) is a major American airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. It is the world's largest airline when measured by fleet size, revenue, scheduled passengers carried, scheduled passenger-kilometers flown, and number of destinations served. American, together with its regional partners, operates an extensive international and domestic network with almost 6,700 flights per day to nearly 350 destinations in more than 50 countries. [8] American Airlines is a founding member of Oneworld alliance, the third largest airline alliance in the world. Regional service is operated by independent and subsidiary carriers under the brand name American Eagle. [9]

The United States Department of Transportation defines a major carrier or major airline carrier as a U.S.-based airline that posts more than $1 billion in revenue during a fiscal year, grouped accordingly as "Group III".

Fort Worth, Texas City in Texas, United States

Fort Worth is a city in the U.S. state of Texas. It is the 13th-largest city in the United States and fifth-largest city in Texas. It is the county seat of Tarrant County, covering nearly 350 square miles (910 km2) into three other counties: Denton, Parker, and Wise. According to the 2017 census estimates, Fort Worth's population is 874,168. Fort Worth is the second-largest city in the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, which is the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the United States.

The world's largest airlines can be defined in several ways. American Airlines Group is the largest by its fleet size, revenue, profit, passengers carried and revenue passenger mile. Delta Air Lines is the largest by assets value and market capitalization. Lufthansa Group is the largest by number of employees, FedEx Express by freight tonne-kilometers, Turkish Airlines by number of countries served and UPS Airlines by number of destinations served.

Contents

American and American Eagle operates out of ten hubs, with Dallas/Fort Worth being its largest; handling more than 200 million passengers annually with an average of more than 500,000 passengers daily. American operates its primary maintenance base in Tulsa in addition to the maintenance locations located at its hubs. As of 2017, the company employs nearly 130,000 people.[ citation needed ] Through the airline's parent company, American Airlines Group, it is publicly traded under NASDAQ: AAL with a market capitalization of about $25 billion as of 2017, and included in the S&P 500 index. [8]

Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport Airport in Irving serving the Dallas-Fort Worth metro area in Texas, US

Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport is the primary international airport serving the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex area in the U.S. state of Texas.

Tulsa International Airport airport in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States

Tulsa International Airport is a civil-military airport five miles (8 km) northeast of downtown Tulsa, in Tulsa County, Oklahoma. It was named Tulsa Municipal Airport when the city acquired it in 1929; it got its present name in 1963.

History

American Airlines Airbus A321 at Los Angeles International Airport in 2015 N124AA LAX (26109389861).jpg
American Airlines Airbus A321 at Los Angeles International Airport in 2015

American Airlines was started in 1930 via a union of more than eighty small airlines. [10]

The two organizations from which American Airlines was originated were Robertson Aircraft Corporation and Colonial Air Transport. The former was first created in Missouri in 1921, with both being merged in 1929 into holding company The Aviation Corporation. This in turn, was made in 1930 into an operating company and rebranded as American Airways. In 1934, when new laws and attrition of mail contracts forced many airlines to reorganize, the corporation redid its routes into a connected system, and was renamed American Airlines. Between 1970 and 2000, the company grew into being an international carrier, purchasing Trans World Airlines in 2001.[ citation needed ]

Robertson Aircraft Corporation

Robertson Aircraft Corporation was a post-World War I American aviation service company based at the Lambert-St. Louis Flying Field near St. Louis, Missouri, that flew passengers and U.S. Air Mail, gave flying lessons, and performed exhibition flights. It also modified, re-manufactured, and resold surplus military aircraft including Standard J, Curtiss Jenny/Canuck, DeHavilland DH-4, Curtiss Oriole, Spad, Waco, and Travel Air types in addition to Curtiss OX-5 engines.

Colonial Air Transport was an early airline that flew between New York City and Boston, Massachusetts.

Trans World Airlines American airline

Trans World Airlines (TWA) was a major American airline that existed from 1930 until 2001. It was formed as Transcontinental & Western Air to operate a route from New York City to Los Angeles via St. Louis, Kansas City, and other stops, with Ford Trimotors. With American, United, and Eastern, it was one of the "Big Four" domestic airlines in the United States formed by the Spoils Conference of 1930.

DC-3 cabin Passenger cabin of the Flagship Knoxville, a fully restored DC-3 aircraft at the American Airlines C.R. Smith Museum on the campus of the American Airlines Flight Academy, at the southern end of DFW LCCN2015630849.tif
DC-3 cabin

American had a direct role in the development of the DC-3, which resulted from a marathon telephone call from American Airlines CEO C. R. Smith to Donald Douglas, when Smith persuaded a reluctant Douglas to design a sleeper aircraft based on the DC-2 to replace American's Curtiss Condor II biplanes. (The existing DC-2's cabin was 66 inches (1.7 m) wide, too narrow for side-by-side berths.) Douglas agreed to go ahead with development only after Smith informed him of American's intention to purchase 20 aircraft. The prototype DST (Douglas Sleeper Transport) first flew on December 17, 1935, (the 32nd anniversary of the Wright Brothers' flight at Kitty Hawk). Its cabin was 92 in (2.3 m) wide, and a version with 21 seats instead of the 14–16 sleeping berths of the DST was given the designation DC-3. There was no prototype DC-3; the first DC-3 built followed seven DSTs off the production line and was delivered to American Airlines. [11] American Airlines inaugurated passenger service on June 26, 1936, with simultaneous flights from Newark, New Jersey and Chicago, Illinois. [12]

C. R. Smith United States Army general

Cyrus Rowlett "C. R." Smith was the CEO of American Airlines from 1934 to 1968 and from 1973 to 1974. He was also the wartime deputy commander of the Air Transport Command, and United States Secretary of Commerce for a brief period under President Lyndon B. Johnson. He is regarded as one of the titans of U.S. airline history.

Curtiss T-32 Condor II family of airliners and bomber aircraft

The Curtiss T-32 Condor II was a 1930s American biplane airliner and bomber aircraft built by the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company. It was used by the United States Army Air Corps as an executive transport.

Newark, New Jersey City in Essex County, New Jersey, U.S.

Newark is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. As one of the nation's major air, shipping, and rail hubs, the city had a population of 282,090 in 2018, making it the nation's 73rd-most populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000.

In 2011, due to a downturn in the airline industry, American Airlines' parent company AMR Corporation filed for bankruptcy protection. In 2013, American Airlines merged with US Airways but kept the American Airlines name, as it was the better recognized brand internationally; the combination of the two airlines resulted in the creation of the largest airline in the United States, and ultimately the world. [13]

AMR Corporation company

AMR Corporation was a commercial aviation business and airline holding company based in Fort Worth, Texas, which was the parent company of American Airlines, American Eagle Airlines, AmericanConnection and Executive Airlines. AMR filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in November 2011, and merged with US Airways Group on December 9, 2013 to form American Airlines Group, Inc.

US Airways was a major American airline that ceased to operate independently when the Federal Aviation Administration granted a single operating certificate (SOC) for US Airways and American Airlines on April 8, 2015. Publicly, the two carriers appeared to merge when their reservations systems and booking processes were merged on October 17, 2015; however, other systems were still separate at that time. The airline had an extensive international and domestic network, with 193 destinations in 24 countries in North America, South America, Europe, and the Middle East. The airline was a member of the Star Alliance, before becoming an affiliate member of Oneworld in March 2014. US Airways utilized a fleet of 343 mainline jet aircraft, as well as 278 regional jet and turbo-prop aircraft operated by contract and subsidiary airlines under the name US Airways Express via code sharing agreements.

Destinations and hubs

Destinations

An American Airlines Boeing 787-9 taking off from Sydney Airport in July 2018 N834AA taking off from Sydney Airport July 2018.jpg
An American Airlines Boeing 787-9 taking off from Sydney Airport in July 2018
American Airlines aircraft at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport. American Airlines aircraft at PHX (N657AW, N837AW, N604AW, N845NN) - Quintin Soloviev.jpg
American Airlines aircraft at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport.

As of December 2018, American Airlines flies to 95 domestic destinations and 95 international destinations in 55 countries in five continents. [14]

Hubs

Map of American Airlines hubs American Hubs.gif
Map of American Airlines hubs

American currently operates ten hubs. [15]

Alliance and codeshare agreements

American Airlines is a member of the Oneworld alliance and has codeshares with the following airlines: [29]

Joint ventures

In addition to the above codeshares, American has entered into joint ventures with the following airlines: [32] [33] [34]

American DC-3 used in a 1943 war film American DC-3.jpg
American DC-3 used in a 1943 war film

Fleet

American Airlines Boeing 777-300ER landing at London Heathrow Airport in 2013. Boeing 777-323(ER) American Airlines N718AN, LHR London, England (Heathrow Airport), United Kingdom PP1367675556.jpg
American Airlines Boeing 777-300ER landing at London Heathrow Airport in 2013.

On July 20, 2011, American announced an order for 460 narrowbody jets including 260 Airbus A320s. [35] The order broke Boeing's monopoly with the airline and forced Boeing into the re-engined 737 MAX. [36] As this sale included a Most-Favoured-Customer Clause. [37]

On April 6, 2018, adding to its previous order for 42, American has ordered an additional 47 Boeing 787 which includes 22 787-8 and 25 787-9, for over $12 billion at list prices. [38]

As of July 2018, American Airlines operates a fleet of 956 aircraft, [39] [ better source needed ] [40] making it the largest commercial fleet in the world. It primarily operates a mix of Airbus and Boeing planes, with an assortment of Embraer and McDonnell Douglas aircraft.[ citation needed ]

Over two thirds of American's aircraft are narrow-bodies, mainly Airbus A320 series and Boeing 737-800s. It also operates Boeing 757s, Embraer 190s, and McDonnell Douglas MD-82/83s, but most of them are planned to be retired by 2019 and 2020 as they will be replaced by the Boeing 737 MAX 8[ citation needed ] and the Airbus A321neo aircraft [41] , whose first flight departed from Hamburg to Pittsburgh on February 2019. [42] [43]

Its wide-body aircraft are mainly Boeing airliners. It is the third-largest operator of the Boeing 767 series and the fifth-largest operator of the Boeing 777 series. It also operates the Airbus A330. [44]

Cabins

Former First class on American Airlines 777-200 at Dallas/Fort Worth Airport, 2013 American Airlines 777-200ER First Class.jpg
Former First class on American Airlines 777-200 at Dallas/Fort Worth Airport, 2013
Flagship First

Flagship First is American's international first class product. It is only offered on the Boeing 777-300ERs in the fleet. The seats are fully lie-flat and offer direct aisle access in a 1-2-1 reverse herringbone configuration. As with the airline's other premium cabins, Flagship First offers wider food and beverage options, larger seats, and more amenities at certain airports, e.g., lounge access.[ citation needed ]

Flagship Business

Flagship Business is a premium cabin offered on some Boeing 757-200s and all Airbus A330-200s, Airbus A330-300s, Boeing 767-300ERs, Boeing 777-200ERs, Boeing 777-300ERs, Boeing 787-8s, and Boeing 787-9s. All Flagship Business seats are fully lie-flat. [45] [ better source needed ] Only the Boeing 757-200 does not offer direct aisle access from each seat.[ citation needed ]

Transcontinental
American A321T First Class (11424575675).jpg
American A321T business class (11424746783).jpg
First and business class seats on an A321 Transcontinental (top and bottom, respectively)

American has dedicated 17 Airbus A321s (A321T) in its fleet for the specific use of flying transcontinental routes between New York JFKLos Angeles and New York JFK – San Francisco. These aircraft offer two premium cabins, Flagship First and Flagship Business, which are unique among domestic mainline aircraft in American's fleet. Both cabins feature lie-flat seats; Flagship First also includes direct aisle access from each seat.[ citation needed ]

Domestic First Class

First Class is offered on all domestic mainline aircraft, as well as regional aircraft with more than 50 seats. When such aircraft are used on flights to international destinations including Canada, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, the First Class cabin is branded as Business Class. Seats range from 19–21 inches (48–53 cm) in width and have 37–42 inches (94–107 cm) of pitch. [46] [ not in citation given ] Dining options include free snacks, beverages, and alcohol on all flights, with three-course meals offered on flights 900 miles (1,400 km) or longer (some routes under 900 miles also offer meal service). [47] [ better source needed ]

Premium Economy

On December 9, 2015, American announced a new Premium Economy cabin for most long-haul widebody aircraft. The cabin debuted on the airline's Boeing 787-9s in late 2016 and is also available on Boeing 777-200s and -300s, some Boeing 787-8s, and Airbus A330-200s. Premium Economy seats are wider than seats in Main Cabin (American's economy cabin) and provide more amenities: Premium Economy customers get two free checked bags, priority boarding, and enhanced food and drink service including free alcohol. This product made American Airlines the first U.S. carrier to offer a four-cabin aircraft. [48] [ better source needed ]

Main Cabin Extra

American's economy plus product (not to be confused with premium economy), Main Cabin Extra, is available on most of the mainline fleet and American Eagle regional aircraft with more than 50 seats. Main Cabin Extra seats include greater pitch than is available in Main Cabin, [46] along with free alcoholic beverages. [49] [ better source needed ] American retained Main Cabin Extra when the new Premium Economy product entered service in late 2016. [48] [ better source needed ]

Main Cabin
American Airlines Boeing 737-800 economy class cabin on an international flight YUL-MIA in April 2010 American Airlines.Boeing 737-800.Cabin.2010.JPG
American Airlines Boeing 737-800 economy class cabin on an international flight YUL-MIA in April 2010

Main Cabin is American's economy product, and is found on all mainline and regional aircraft in its fleet. Seats range from 17–18.5 inches (43–47 cm) in width and have 30–32 inches (76–81 cm) of pitch. [50] [ not in citation given ]

American Airlines marketed increased legroom in economy class as "More Room Throughout Coach", also referred to as "MRTC", starting in February 2000. [51] [ better source needed ] Two rows of economy class seats were removed on Boeing 737 and McDonnell Douglas MD-80 aircraft. [52] Amid financial losses, this scheme was discontinued in 2004. [52] [53]

On some routes, American also offers Basic Economy, the airline's lowest main cabin fare. Basic economy is located in main cabin, but comes with restrictions. These restrictions include waiting until check-in for a seat assignment, no upgrades or refunds, and boarding in the last group. [54] [ better source needed ]

In May 2017, American announced it would be adding more seats to some of its Boeing 737 MAX jetliners and reducing overall legroom in the basic economy class. The last three rows will lose 2 inches (5.1 cm), going from the current 31 inches (79 cm) to 29 inches (74 cm). The remainder of the economy cabin will have 30 inches (76 cm) of legroom. [55]

Cabin fume events

A National Transportation Safety Board inquiry into American Airlines flight 132 to Nashville in 1988 found that the flight crew ignored the cabin crew's warning of smoke in the cabin since in a previous flight there was a fume event due to the Auxiliary power unit; however, the event was caused by improperly packaged hazardous materials, and the flight crew persisted in ignoring the cabin crew also when the cabin floor became soft exposing the crew and passenger to the threat of smoke and fire longer than necessary. [56] [57] In 2011, an American Airlines former flight attendant reached a settlement with Boeing over toxic fume events that according to the lawsuit caused memory loss, tremors, and severe headaches. The health condition was triggered by a 2007 event in which oil fumes and toxic smoke leaked into the cabin while the aircraft taxied to the gate. [58] In a January 2017 incident on flight 1896, seven flight attendants were hospitalized. The Airbus A330 involved subsequently underwent a "thorough maintenance inspection", having been involved in three fume events in three months. [59] [60] In January 2019, two pilots and three flight attendants on Flight 1897 from Philadelphia to Fort Lauderdale were hospitalized following complaints of a strange odor. [61] [62]

In 2009, Mike Holland, deputy chairman for radiation and environmental issues at the Allied Pilots Association and an American Airlines pilot, said that the pilot union had started alerting pilots of the danger of contaminated bleed air, including contacting crew members that the union thinks were exposed to contamination based on maintenance records and pilot logs. [63] In August 2018, American Airlines flight attendant picketed in front of the Fort Worth company headquarters over a change in sick day policy, complaining that exposure to ill passengers, toxic uniforms, toxic cabin air, radiation exposure, and other issues cause them to be sick. [64] [65]

Discrimination

On 24 October 2017, the NAACP issued a travel advisory for American Airlines urging African Americans to "exercise caution" when traveling with the airline. The NAACP issued the advisory after four incidents. In one incident a black woman was moved from first class to coach while her white traveling companion was allowed to remain in first class. In another incident, a black man was forced to give up his seats after being confronted by two unruly white passengers. [66] According to the NAACP, while they did receive complaints on other airlines, most of their complaints in the year prior to their advisory were on American. [67] In July 2018 the NAACP lifted their travel advisory saying that American has made improvements to mitigate discrimination and unsafe treatment of African Americans. [68]

Reward programs

AAdvantage©

AAdvantage logo (2013-present) AAdvantage logo 2013.svg
AAdvantage logo (2013-present)

AAdvantage© is the frequent flyer program for American Airlines. It was launched on May 1, 1981, and it remains the largest frequent flyer program with over 67 million members as of 2011. Miles accumulated in the program allow members to redeem tickets, upgrade service class, or obtain free or discounted car rentals, hotel stays, merchandise, or other products and services through partners. The most active members, based on the amount and price of travel booked, are designated AAdvantage© Gold, AAdvantage© Platinum, AAdvantage© Platinum Pro, and AAdvantage© Executive Platinum elite members, with privileges such as separate check-in, priority upgrade and standby processing, or free upgrades. They also receive similar privileges from AA's partner airlines, particularly those in oneworld©. [69] [ better source needed ]

AAdvantage© co-branded credit cards are also available and offer other benefits. The cards are issued by CitiCards©, a subsidiary of Citigroup, and Barclaycard in the United States, by MBNA in the United Kingdom, by Butterfield Bank and Scotiabank in the Caribbean, and by Banco Santander in Brazil.[ citation needed ]

AAdvantage© allows one-way redemption, starting at 5,000 miles. [70] [ better source needed ]

Admirals Club

The Admirals Club was conceived by AA president C.R. Smith as a marketing promotion shortly after he was made an honorary Texas Ranger. Inspired by the Kentucky colonels and other honorary title designations, Smith decided to make particularly valued passengers "admirals" of the "Flagship fleet" (AA called its aircraft "Flagships" at the time). [71] [ better source needed ] The list of Admirals included many celebrities, politicians, and other VIPs, as well as more "ordinary" customers who had been particularly loyal to the airline.[ citation needed ]

There was no physical Admirals Club until shortly after the opening of LaGuardia Airport. During the airport's construction, New York Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia had an upper-level lounge set aside for press conferences and business meetings. At one such press conference, he noted that the entire terminal was being offered for lease to airline tenants; after a reporter asked whether the lounge would be leased as well, LaGuardia replied that it would, and a vice president of AA immediately offered to lease the premises. The airline then procured a liquor license and began operating the lounge as the "Admirals Club" in 1939.[ citation needed ]

The second Admirals Club opened at Washington National Airport. Because it was illegal to sell alcohol in Virginia at the time, the club contained refrigerators for the use of its members, so they could store their own liquor at the airport.[ citation needed ] For many years, membership in the Admirals Club (and most other airline lounges) was by the airline's invitation. After a passenger sued for discrimination, [72] the Club (and most other airline lounges) switched to a paid membership program.[ citation needed ]

Flagship Lounge

Though affiliated with the Admirals Club and staffed by many of the same employees, the Flagship Lounge is a separate lounge specifically designed for customers flying in First Class and Business Class on international flights and transcontinental domestic flights, as well as AAdvantage Concierge Key, Executive Platinum, Platinum Pro, and Platinum, as well as Oneworld Emerald and Sapphire frequent flyers. As of May 2019, Flagship Lounges are located at five airports: New York-JFK. [73] Chicago-O'Hare, [74] Miami International, [75] Los Angeles, [76] and Dallas/Fort Worth. [77] Flagship Lounges are planned for London-Heathrow and Philadelphia. [73]

Corporate affairs

Headquarters

American Airlines is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, adjacent to the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. [78] The headquarters is located in two office buildings in the CentrePort office complex and these buildings together have about 1,400,000 square feet (130,000 m2) of space. As of 2014 over 4,300 employees work at this complex. [79]

Before it was headquartered in Texas, American Airlines was headquartered at 633 Third Avenue in the Murray Hill area of Midtown Manhattan, New York City. [80] [81] In 1979, American moved its headquarters to a site at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, which affected up to 1,300 jobs. Mayor of New York City Ed Koch described the move as a "betrayal" of New York City. [82] American moved to two leased office buildings in Grand Prairie, Texas. [83] On January 17, 1983, the airline finished moving into a $150 million ($377,000,000 when adjusted for inflation), 550,000-square-foot (51,000 m2) facility in Fort Worth; $147 million (about $370,000,000 when adjusted for inflation) in Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport bonds financed the headquarters. The airline began leasing the facility from the airport, which owns the facility. [83] Following the merger of US Airways and American Airlines, US Airways consolidated the corporate headquarters of the new company in Fort Worth, leaving their current headquarters in Phoenix, AZ, which had also been the headquarters of the airline that brought US Airways out of bankruptcy, America West Airlines.

As of 2015, American Airlines is the corporation with the largest presence in Fort Worth. [84]

In 2015, the airline announced it will build a new headquarters in Fort Worth. Groundbreaking began in the spring of 2016 and occupancy is scheduled for summer 2019. [85] The airline plans to house 5,000 new workers in the building. [84]

It will be located on a 41-acre (17 ha) property adjacent to the airline's flight academy and conference and training center, west of Texas State Highway 360, 2 miles (3.2 km) [85] west from the current headquarters. The airline will lease a total of 300 acres (120 ha) from Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport and this area will include the headquarters. [84] Construction of the new headquarters began after the demolition of the Sabre facility, previously on the site. [85]

The airline considered developing a new headquarters in Irving,TX on the old Texas Stadium site, before deciding to keep the headquarters in Fort Worth. [84]

Branding

American Airlines' fourth logo, used from 1967 to January 16, 2013 American Airlines logo.svg
American Airlines' fourth logo, used from 1967 to January 16, 2013

In 1931, Goodrich Murphy, an American employee, designed the AA logo. [86] The logo was redesigned by Massimo Vignelli in 1967. [87] [88] Thirty years later, in 1997, American Airlines was able to make its logo Internet-compatible by buying the domain AA.com. AA is also American's two-letter IATA airline designator. [89]

On January 17, 2013, American launched a new rebranding and marketing campaign with FutureBrand dubbed, "A New American". This included a new logo replacing the logo used since 1967. American Airlines calls the new logo the "Flight Symbol, incorporating the eagle, star, and the letter “A” of the classic logo. [90] [ better source needed ]

On June 3, 2016, American Airlines sought to register their 2013 logo with the United States Copyright Office. [91] However, in October of that year, the Copyright Office ruled that the logo was ineligible for copyright protection, as it did not pass the threshold of originality. [91] American submitted multiple requests for the Copyright Office to reconsider their determination. However, on January 8, 2018, the Copyright Office made a final decision that affirmed its initial determination that American's new logo was ineligible for copyright protection and is thus in the public domain. [91] [92]

American's early liveries varied widely, but a common livery was adopted in the 1930s, featuring an eagle painted on the fuselage. [93] The eagle became a symbol of the company and inspired the name of American Eagle Airlines. Propeller aircraft featured an international orange lightning bolt running down the length of the fuselage, which was replaced by a simpler orange stripe with the introduction of jets.[ citation needed ]

A Boeing 737 in the Astrojet livery American Airlines Astrojet N951AA.jpg
A Boeing 737 in the Astrojet livery

In the late 1960s, American commissioned designer Massimo Vignelli to develop a new livery. The original design called for a red, white, and blue stripe on the fuselage, and a simple "AA" logo, without an eagle, on the tail; instead, Vignelli created a highly stylized eagle, which remained the company's logo until January 16, 2013. In 1999, American painted a new Boeing 757 (N679AN) in its 1959 international orange livery. One Boeing 777 and one Boeing 757 were painted in standard livery with a pink ribbon on the sides and on the tail, in support of Susan G. Komen for the Cure. One Boeing 757 is painted with a yellow ribbon on the tailfin on the aircraft and on the side of the body says "Flagship Freedom". American Eagle, the airline's regional airline has the same special livery on ERJ-145 aircraft.[ citation needed ]

AA "Flagship Freedom" Boeing 757-200, labeled with a "yellow awareness ribbon" symbol, representing support of the United States Armed Forces overseas operations. AA Flagship Freedom.JPG
AA "Flagship Freedom" Boeing 757-200, labeled with a "yellow awareness ribbon" symbol, representing support of the United States Armed Forces overseas operations.

On January 17, 2013, American unveiled a new livery. [94] Before then, American had been the only major U.S. airline to leave most of its aircraft surfaces unpainted. This was because C. R. Smith hated painted aircraft, and refused to use any liveries that involved painting the entire plane. Robert "Bob" Crandall later justified the distinctive natural metal finish by noting that less paint reduced the aircraft's weight, thus saving on fuel costs. [95]

Airbus A319 of US Airways wearing Carolina Panthers livery US Airways A319-112 LAS N717UW.jpg
Airbus A319 of US Airways wearing Carolina Panthers livery

In January 2013, American launched a new rebranding and marketing campaign dubbed, "The New American". In addition to a new logo, American Airlines introduced a new livery for its fleet. The airline calls the new livery and branding "a clean and modern update". [90] The current design features an abstract American flag on the tail, along with a silver-painted fuselage, as a throw-back to the old livery. The new design was painted by Leading Edge Aviation Services in California. [96] Doug Parker, the incoming CEO indicated that the new livery could be short-lived, stating that "maybe we need to do something slightly different than that ... The only reason this is an issue now is because they just did it right in the middle, which kind of makes it confusing, so that gives us an opportunity, actually, to decide if we are going to do something different because we have so many airplanes to paint". [97]

In the end, American let its employees decide the new livery's fate. On an internal website for employees, American posted two options, one the new livery and one a modified version of the old livery. All of the American Airlines Group employees (including US Airways and other affiliates) were able to vote. [98] American ultimately decided to keep the new look. Parker announced that American would keep a US Airways and America West heritage aircraft in the fleet, with plans to add a heritage TWA aircraft and a heritage American plane with the old livery. [99]

Labor unions

Environmental record

Violations occurring over a 4½ year period—from October 1993 to July 1998—targeted American Airlines for using high-sulfur fuel in motor vehicles at 10 major airports around the country. Under the federal Clean Air Act high sulfur fuel cannot be used in motor vehicles. American Airlines promptly identified and corrected these violations of the Clean Air Act. [105]

American Airlines' wastewater treatment plant recycles water used at the base to wash aircraft, process rinse water tanks, and irrigate landscape. That alone has saved almost $1 million since 2002. In addition to that, American Airlines has also won the award for the reduction of hazardous waste that saved them $229,000 after a $2,000 investment. A bar code system is used to track hazardous waste. It has led to reduction of waste by 50 percent since 2000. [106]

Accidents and incidents

As of March 2019, the airline has had almost sixty aircraft hull losses due to all causes since the crash of an American Airways Ford 5-AT-C Trimotor in August 1931. [107] [108] Of these most were propeller driven aircraft, including three Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprop aircraft (of which one, the crash in 1959 of Flight 320, resulted in fatalities). [108] Seventeen jet aircraft have been written off due to crashes[ citation needed ] – including Flight 587 in 2001, Flight 965 in 1995, Flight 191 in 1979, Flight 1 in 1962.

Two aircraft were hijacked and destroyed in the September 11 attacks: Flight 11 crashed into the north facade of the North Tower of the World Trade Center, and Flight 77 crashed into the Pentagon; both were bound for Los Angeles International Airport. [109]

Other accidents include the Flight 383 engine failure and fire in 2016. There were two training flights in which only the crew were killed and six that resulted in no fatalities. [108] Another four jet aircraft have been written off due to incidents while they were parked between flights or while undergoing maintenance. [108]

See also

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British Airways (BA) is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Waterside, Harmondsworth. It is the second largest airline in the United Kingdom, based on fleet size and passengers carried, behind easyJet. The airline is based in Waterside near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. In January 2011 BA merged with Iberia, creating the International Airlines Group (IAG), a holding company registered in Madrid, Spain. IAG is the world's third-largest airline group in terms of annual revenue and the second-largest in Europe. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and in the FTSE 100 Index. British Airways is the first passenger airline to have generated more than $1 billion on a single air route in a year.

Qantas Airways Limited is the flag carrier of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations. It is the third oldest airline in the world, after KLM and Avianca having been founded in November 1920; it began international passenger flights in May 1935. The Qantas name comes from "QANTAS", an acronym for its original name, "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services", and it is nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo". Qantas is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance.

Virgin Atlantic, a trading name of Virgin Atlantic Airways Limited and Virgin Atlantic International Limited, is a British airline with its head office in Crawley, United Kingdom. The airline was established in 1984 as British Atlantic Airways, and was originally planned by its co-founders Randolph Fields and Alan Hellary to fly between London and the Falkland Islands. Soon after changing the name to Virgin Atlantic Airways, Fields sold his shares in the company after disagreements with Sir Richard Branson over the management of the company. The maiden flight from Gatwick Airport to Newark Liberty International Airport took place on 22 June 1984.

Deutsche Lufthansa AG , commonly known as Lufthansa, is the largest German airline and, when combined with its subsidiaries, also the largest airline in Europe in terms of passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from the German word Luft "air" and Hansa, the Hanseatic League. Lufthansa is one of the five founding members of Star Alliance, the world's largest airline alliance, formed in 1997.

China Airlines (CAL) is the national carrier of Taiwan and its largest airline. It is headquartered in Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport and operates over 1400 flights weekly to 102 cities across Asia, Europe, North America and Oceania. Carrying over 19 million passengers and 5700 tons of cargo in 2017, the carrier was the 33rd and 10th largest airline in the world in terms of passenger revenue per kilometer (RPK) and freight RPK, respectively. China Airlines has three airline subsidiaries: China Airlines Cargo, a member of SkyTeam Cargo, operates a fleet of freighter aircraft and manages its parent airline's cargo-hold capacity; Mandarin Airlines operates flights to domestic and low-demand regional destinations; Tigerair Taiwan is a low-cost carrier established by China Airlines and Singaporean airline group Tigerair Holdings, but is now wholly owned by China Airlines Group.

Malaysia Airlines Berhad (MAB), formerly known as Malaysian Airline System (MAS), branded as Malaysia Airlines, is an airline operating flights from Kuala Lumpur International Airport and from secondary hubs in Kota Kinabalu and Kuching to destinations throughout Asia, Oceania and Europe. Malaysia Airlines is the flag carrier of Malaysia and a member of the oneworld airline alliance. The company headquarters are located at Kuala Lumpur International Airport. In August 2014, the Malaysian government's sovereign wealth fund Khazanah Nasional—which then owned 69.37% of the airline—announced its intention to purchase remaining ownership from minority shareholders and de-list the airline from Malaysia's stock exchange, thereby renationalising the airline.

Singapore Airlines the flag carrier airline of Singapore

Singapore Airlines Limited (SIA) is the flag carrier airline of Singapore with its hub at Singapore Changi Airport. The airline uses the Singapore Girl as its central figure in corporate branding. It is ranked as the world's best airline, since 2018, while winning the top spot in three other categories in the same year including "Best First Class", "Best First Class Airline Seat", and "Best Airline in Asia". In 2018, the airline was placed 18th on the top 50 most admired companies worldwide, first in Asia and the only airline on the list.

Japan Airlines Co., Ltd. (JAL), also known as Nikkō (日航), is an international airline, headquartered in Shinagawa Tokyo, Japan. Its main hubs are Tokyo's Narita International Airport and Tokyo International Airport, as well as Osaka's Kansai International Airport and Osaka International Airport. JAL group companies include Japan Airlines, J-Air, JAL Express, Japan Air Commuter, Japan Transocean Air, ZIPAIR Tokyo and Ryukyu Air Commuter for domestic feeder services, and JAL Cargo for cargo and mail services.

All Nippon Airways Co., Ltd., also known as Zennikkū (全日空) or ANA, is the largest airline in Japan on the basis of fleet size. Its headquarters Is located In Shiodome City Center in the Shiodome area of Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It operates services to both domestic and international destinations and had more than 20,000 employees as of March 2016. In May 2010, ANA's total passenger traffic was up year-on-year by 7.8%, and its international services grew by 22% to 2.07 million passengers in the first five months of 2010. ANA's main international hubs are at Narita International Airport outside Tokyo and Kansai International Airport outside Osaka. Its main domestic hubs are at Tokyo International Airport (Haneda), Osaka International Airport (Itami), Chūbu Centrair International Airport, and New Chitose Airport.

Envoy Air Inc. is an air carrier headquartered in Irving, Texas, in the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of American Airlines Group that, along with several carriers outside the group, feeds the American Airlines route network under the American Eagle brand. With over 1000 flights a day, serving 150 cities across the United States, Canada, Mexico and the Caribbean, Envoy is considered to be one of the world's largest regional airline systems. Envoy is an affiliate member of the Oneworld airline alliance.

Philippine Airlines (PAL), a trade name of PAL Holdings, Inc., also known historically as Philippine Air Lines, is the flag carrier of the Philippines. Headquartered at the PNB Financial Center in Pasay City, the airline was founded in 1941 and is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name. Out of its hubs at Ninoy Aquino International Airport of Manila, Clark International Airport of Angeles, Mactan-Cebu International Airport of Cebu, and Francisco Bangoy International Airport of Davao, Philippine Airlines serves 31 destinations in the Philippines and 41 overseas destinations in Southeast Asia, East Asia, Middle East, Oceania, North America and Europe.

Korean Air Lines Co., Ltd., operating as Korean Air, is the largest airline and flag carrier of South Korea based on fleet size, international destinations and international flights. The airline's global headquarters are located in Seoul, South Korea. Korean Air was founded as Korean National Airlines in 1946. After several years of service and expansion, the airline was fully privatized in 1969.

EVA Air Corporation, of which "EVA" stands for Evergreen Airways, is a Taiwanese international airline based at Taoyuan International Airport near Taipei, Taiwan, operating passenger and dedicated cargo services to over 40 international destinations in Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. EVA Air is largely privately owned and flies a fully international route network. It is a 5-star airline, rated by Skytrax. It is the second largest Taiwanese airline. EVA Air is headquartered in Luzhu, Taoyuan City, Taiwan.

Qatar Airways Company Q.C.S.C., operating as Qatar Airways, is the state-owned flag carrier of Qatar. Headquartered in the Qatar Airways Tower in Doha, the airline operates a hub-and-spoke network, linking over 150 international destinations across Africa, Central Asia, Europe, Far East, South Asia, Middle East, North America, South America and Oceania from its base at Hamad International Airport, using a fleet of more than 200 aircraft. Qatar Airways Group employs more than 43,000 people. The carrier has been a member of the Oneworld alliance since October 2013, the first Gulf carrier to sign with one of the three airline alliances.

Etihad Airways flag-carrier airline of the United Arab Emirates

Etihad Airways is the second-largest airline in the United Arab Emirates. Its head office is in Khalifa City, Abu Dhabi, near Abu Dhabi's International Airport. Etihad commenced operations in November 2003.

US Airways' aircraft livery has varied both under the US Airways and USAir name. In general the Express and Shuttle divisions have had liveries that closely parallel the company-wide livery at the time. The US Airways livery has been replaced with the new American Airlines livery, in accordance with their merger.

Qantas Flights 7 and 8 longest regularly scheduled non-stop commercial flights in the world

Qantas Flight 7 (QF7/QFA7) and Qantas Flight 8 (QF8/QFA8) are flights operated by Australian airline Qantas between Sydney Airport and Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, which, from 2013 to 2016, were the longest regularly scheduled non-stop commercial flights in the world. They are currently the seventh longest regularly scheduled non-stop commercial flights in the world as measured by distance—13,804 kilometres, which is over one third of the distance around Earth. Both flights are operated with Airbus A380 aircraft.

First class (aviation) commercial passenger travel service level in aviation

First class is a travel class on some passenger airliners intended to be more luxurious than business class, premium economy, and economy class. On a passenger jetliner, first class usually refers to a limited number of seats or cabins toward the front of the aircraft which have more space, comfort, service, and privacy. In general, first class is the highest class offered, although some airlines have branded their new products as above first class. Propeller airliners often had first class in the rear, away from the noise of the rotating propeller, while first class on jet aircraft is normally positioned near the front of the aircraft, normally in front of the business class section, or on the top deck for aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and Airbus A380.

This is the history of United States commercial air transportation company American Airlines.

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Further reading