American hog-nosed skunk

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American hog-nosed skunk
Hog-nosed-skunk.png
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Mephitidae
Genus: Conepatus
Species:
C. leuconotus
Binomial name
Conepatus leuconotus
(Lichtenstein, 1832)
Conepatus leuconotus range.PNG
Conepatus leuconotus range

The American hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus leuconotus) is a species of hog-nosed skunk from Central and North America, and is one of the largest skunks in the world, growing to lengths of up to 2.7 feet (82 cm). [2] Recent work has concluded the western hog-nosed skunk (formerly Conepatus mesoleucus) is the same species, and Conepatus leuconotus is the correct name of the merged populations. [3]

Contents

In Texas, it is commonly known as the rooter skunk for its habit of rooting and overturning rocks and debris in search of food.

Description

Hog-nosed skunk Hognosed skunk.jpg
Hog-nosed skunk

The distinguishing feature of the American hog-nosed skunk is it has a single, broad white stripe from the top of the head to the base of the tail, with the tail itself being completely white. It is the only skunk that lacks a white dot or medial bar between the eyes and has primarily black body fur. The snout of C. leuconotus is relatively long, with a naked nose pad, and resembles the nose of a small hog. The nose pad (20 mm wide by 25 mm long) is about three times wider than that of Mephitis mephitis. The ears are small and rounded, and the eyes are relatively small. The fur is short and coarse.

A hog-nosed skunk skeleton on exhibit at the Museum of Osteology, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Hog-nosed Skunk Skeleton.jpg
A hog-nosed skunk skeleton on exhibit at the Museum of Osteology, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

The American hog-nosed skunk has stocky legs and plantigrade feet (the entire sole of the foot touches the ground). Its hind feet are broad and large with soles that are naked for about one-half their length. Its upper body is powerfully built, and the fore claws are very long. Length can range from 44.4–93.4 cm (17.5–36.8 in) and weight is typically 1,130–4,500 g (2.49–9.92 lb). [4] The striped skunk can broadly overlap in size with this species, but in comparison the striped, has a shorter head-and-body length and a longer tail than the hog-nosed skunk. [5] Males of this species average about 10% larger than females.

The American hog-nosed skunk is adapted for digging, and resembles badgers rather than other species of skunks in this respect. The rectangular-shaped scapula, strong forearms, and shape of the humeri of C. leuconotus resemble those of badgers. The nostrils are located ventrally and open downward. Their sense of smell is acute, and the nose is used in locating and capturing buried prey. This skunk species also is a capable climber, although not as agile as the spotted skunks of the genus Spilogale. [6]

Reproduction

C. leuconotus breeds from late February through early March; most adult females are pregnant by the end of March. Typically, gestation lasts about 60 days. Birth occurs in April and May. Half-grown young have been observed in late July and mid-August, and by late August young begin to disperse. The litter size is one to five young, although two to four are most common. [6]

Range and habitat

This species occurs in canyons, stream sides, and rocky terrain. It has been collected in a variety of habitats in Mexico, including open desert-scrub and mesquite-grasslands, tropical areas, mountains, coastal plains, cornfields surrounded by brushland or adjacent to grassy plains and thickets of bull-horn acacia, thorn woodland, and riparian forests, characterized by live-oaks, pecans, sycamores, and Texas persimmons and an understory of briars, grasses, and weeds. It also has been found in pine–oak forest and in scrub and cacti. In Kleberg County, Texas, C. leuconotus occurs in mesquite-brushland, pastures, and native grassland, used exclusively for cattle ranching. Thorny brush and cactus are the predominant vegetation in the region of southern Texas where this species occurs. [6]

It is omnivorous, feeding primarily on insects and vegetation, though it will take small mammals and reptiles when available. While sometimes considered a pest by crop farmers due to their rooting habits, this is largely misplaced, as it generally prefers insects to agricultural plants. Like all skunk species, it possesses powerful anal glands used to deter would-be attackers.

Subspecies

Three subspecies are currently recognized, [6] although one may be extinct:

Conservation

Although not threatened through most of its range, one subspecies, the Big Thicket hog-nosed skunk (C. l. telmalestes) of Oklahoma and southeastern Texas, is now considered extinct by the IUCN.

Globally, this species is of low concern for conservation efforts, but at the local level, it is considered threatened in some states. In Colorado, for instance, it was ranked as "critically imperiled because of extreme rarity (five or fewer records of occurrence in the state or less than 1,000 individuals)" as of 2006. In New Mexico and Oklahoma, it was ranked as "Imperiled because of rarity (six to 20 occurrences or less than 3,000 individuals)", also as of 2006. The situation is far different in Texas and Arizona, though; the populations are high enough for the species to be legally harvested throughout the year and is designated as a "fur bearer" by the United States Forest Service. [7]

Related Research Articles

Skunk Common name of mammals in the family Mephitidae

Skunks are North and South American mammals in the family Mephitidae. While related to polecats and other members of the weasel family, skunks have as their closest Old World relatives the stink badgers. The animals are known for their ability to spray a liquid with a strong, unpleasant smell. Different species of skunk vary in appearance from black-and-white to brown, cream or ginger colored, but all have warning coloration.

Tehuantepec jackrabbit species of mammal

The Tehuantepec jackrabbit is easily distinguished from other species of jackrabbits by two black stripes that run from the base of the ears to the nape, and by its white flanks. Underparts are white, upperparts are bright-brown washed with black, rump is gray, and the tail is black. This leporid is one of the largest jackrabbits and has large ears and legs. Adults weigh about 3500 to 4000 grams.

Hog-nosed skunk genus of mammals

The hog-nosed skunks belong to the genus Conepatus and are members of the family Mephitidae (skunks). They are native to the Americas. They have white backs and tails and black underparts.

Striped hog-nosed skunk species of mammal

The striped hog-nosed skunk is a skunk species from Central and South America. This species of skunk is considered a generalist species because they are able to thrive in and withstand disturbed environmental conditions. They can live in a wide range of habitats including carrasco, arboreal caatinga, mango orchard, and dry forest scrub and occasionally, in rainforest.

Molinas hog-nosed skunk species of mammal

Molina's hog-nosed skunk is similar to the common skunk with scent glands used to spray an odorous liquid to offend potential predators. They have a resistance to pit viper venom, distinct thin white markings and a pink, hog-like, fleshy nose.

Striped skunk Species of mammal

The striped skunk is a skunk of the genus Mephitis that occurs across most of North America, including southern Canada, the United States, and northern Mexico. It is currently listed as least concern by the IUCN on account of its wide range and ability to adapt to human-modified environments.

Hooded skunk species of mammal

The hooded skunk is a species of mammal in the family Mephitidae. Mephītis in Latin means "foul odor", μακρός (makrós) in Greek translates to "long" and οὐρά (ourá) translates to "tail".

Western spotted skunk species of mammal

The western spotted skunk is a spotted skunk of western North America.

Humboldts hog-nosed skunk species of mammal

Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk, also known as the Patagonian hog-nosed skunk, is a type of hog-nosed skunk indigenous to the open grassy areas in the Patagonian regions of South Argentina and Chile. It belongs to the order Carnivora and the family Mephitidae.

Haile Quarry site

The Haile Quarry or Haile sites are an Early Miocene and Pleistocene assemblage of vertebrate fossils located in the Haile quarries, Alachua County, northern Florida. The assemblage was discovered during phosphate mining, which began in the late 1940s. Haile sites are found in the Alachua Formation. Two sites within the Ocala Limestone yielded Upper Eocene Valvatida and mollusks.

References

  1. Cuarón, A.D.; Reid, F. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Conepatus leuconotus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2009.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  2. Eastern Hog-nosed Skunk (Conepatus leuconotus) Archived 2017-11-10 at the Wayback Machine . Nsrl.ttu.edu. Retrieved on 2011-09-16.
  3. Western Hog-nosed Skunk Archived 2008-09-20 at the Wayback Machine . Museum.utep.edu. Retrieved on 2011-09-16.
  4. Conepatus leuconotus. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
  5. Dohring, A. 2002. Conepatus leuconotus leuconotus. eastern hog-nosed skunk. Animal Diversity Web
  6. 1 2 3 4 Dragoo, Jerry W.; Sheffield, Steven R (2009). "Conepatus leuconotus (carnivora: mephitidae)". Mammalian Species. 827: 1. doi: 10.1644/827.1 .
  7. Meaney, Carron A., Anne K. Ruggles, and Gary P. Beauvais. American Hog-nosed Skunk (Conepatus leuconotus): A Technical Conservation Assessment. Archived 2011-08-17 at the Wayback Machine 21 Dec 2006. Prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Species Conservation Project, Accessed 25 Jan 2010.