Amlaíb, King of Scotland

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Amlaíb mac Illuilb
King of Alba
Amlaib mac Illuilb (Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489, folio 33v).jpg
Amlaíb's name as it appears on folio 33v of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489 (the Annals of Ulster ). [1]
Reign971/976977
Predecessor Cuilén mac Illuilb or Cináed mac Maíl Choluim
Successor Kenneth II
Died977
House Alpínid dynasty
Father Illulb mac Custantín

Amlaíb mac Illuilb (died 977) was a tenth-century King of Alba. [note 1] He was one of three sons of Illulb mac Custantín, King of Alba, and a member of Clann Áeda meic Cináeda, a branch of the Alpínid dynasty. Amlaíb's paternal grandfather possessed strong connections with the Scandinavian dynasty of Dublin, and there is evidence to suggest that Illulb and Amlaíb bore names of Old Norse origin. If Amlaíb's name indeed represents a Gaelicised Scandinavian name, it could indicate that his mother was a member of the Uí Ímair, and possibly a granddaughter of Amlaíb Cúarán or Amlaíb mac Gofraid.

Kingdom of Dublin former country

Vikings invaded the territory around Dublin in the 9th century, establishing the Norse Kingdom of Dublin, the earliest and longest-lasting Norse kingdom in Ireland. Its territory corresponded to most of present-day County Dublin. The Norse referred to the kingdom as Dyflin, which is derived from Irish Dubh Linn, meaning 'black pool'. The first reference to the Vikings comes from the Annals of Ulster and the first entry for 841 AD reads: "Pagans still on Lough Neagh". It is from this date onward that historians get references to ship fortresses or longphorts being established in Ireland. It may be safe to assume that the Vikings first over-wintered in 840–841 AD. The actual location of the longphort of Dublin is still a hotly debated issue. Norse rulers of Dublin were often co-kings, and occasionally also Kings of Jórvík in what is now Yorkshire. Under their rule, Dublin became the biggest slave port in Western Europe.

Old Norse North Germanic language

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th centuries.

Uí Ímair royal Norse dynasty

The Uí (h)Ímair[iː ˈiːvˠaɾʲ](listen), or Dynasty of Ivar, was a royal Norse-Gael dynasty which ruled much of the Irish Sea region, the Kingdom of Dublin, the western coast of Scotland, including the Hebrides and some part of Northern England, from the mid 9th century.

Contents

Following Illulb's death in 962, the kingship of Alba was taken up by Dub mac Maíl Coluim, a member of Clann Custantín meic Cináeda, a rival branch of the Alpínid dynasty. This king soon faced opposition from Amlaíb's brother, Cuilén, before the latter secured the kingship for himself in 966. Cuilén and another son of Illulb were slain in 971, after which the kingship was taken up by Dub's brother, Cináed mac Maíl Choluim. According to Irish sources, the latter slew Amlaíb in 997. The fact that these sources style Amlaíb as a king, and fail to accord a royal title to Cináed, suggests that Amlaíb was successful in seizing the kingship from his rival. Amlaíb's short reign appears to date to 971/976977.

The Kingdom of Alba refers to the Kingdom of Scotland between the deaths of Donald II in 900 and of Alexander III in 1286, which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. The name is one of convenience, as throughout this period the elite and populace of the Kingdom were predominantly Pictish-Gaels or later Pictish-Gaels and Scoto-Norman, and differs markedly from the period of the Stuarts, in which the elite of the kingdom were speakers of Middle English, which later evolved and came to be called Lowland Scots. There is no precise Gaelic equivalent for the English terminology "Kingdom of Alba", as the Gaelic term Rìoghachd na h-Alba means 'Kingdom of Scotland'. English-speaking scholars adapted the Gaelic name for Scotland to apply to a particular political period in Scottish history during the High Middle Ages.

Cuilén was an early King of Alba (Scotland). He was a son of Illulb mac Custantín, King of Alba, after whom he is known by the patronymic mac Illuilb of Clann Áeda meic Cináeda, a branch of the Alpínid dynasty. During the 10th century, the Alpínids rotated the kingship of Alba between two main dynastic branches. Dub mac Maíl Choluim, a member of a rival branch of the kindred, seems to have succeeded after Illulb's death in 962. Cuilén soon after challenged him but was defeated in 965. Dub was eventually expelled and slain in 966/967. Whether Cuilén was responsible for his death is uncertain.

Parentage and personal names

The name of Illulb mac Custantin as it appears on 29v of Paris Bibliotheque Nationale MS Latin 4126 (the Poppleton manuscript): "Indolf filius Constantini". Illulb mac Custantin (Lat. 4126, folio 29v).jpg
The name of Illulb mac Custantín as it appears on 29v of Paris Bibliothèque Nationale MS Latin 4126 (the Poppleton manuscript ): "Indolf filius Constantini".

Amlaíb was one of three sons of Illulb mac Custantín, King of Alba (died 962). [14] Amlaíb's paternal grandfather was Custantín mac Áeda, King of Alba (died 952), a man who possessed strong connections with the Scandinavian dynasty of Dublin. [15] There is evidence to suggest that some of Custantín's descendants bore Scandinavian names. [16] For instance, Illulb's name could be a Gaelicised form of the Old English personal name Eadwulf , [17] or else a Gaelicised form of the Old Norse personal name Hildulfr. [18]

Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French. This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English.

Eadwulf is an Anglo-Saxon male name. Notable people with the name include:

A hogback grave slab on display in Glasgow. Such stones may be indicative of Scandinavian settlement in Perthshire and Fife. The evidence of Scandinavian influence upon Amlaib's immediate family could indicate that his kindred was involved with such immigration. Cast of hogback stone, Kelvingrove Museum, Glasgow - DSC06243.JPG
A hogback grave slab on display in Glasgow. Such stones may be indicative of Scandinavian settlement in Perthshire and Fife. The evidence of Scandinavian influence upon Amlaíb's immediate family could indicate that his kindred was involved with such immigration.

Evidence of Scandinavian influence on the Scottish court may be a possible epithet accorded to Amlaíb's brother, Cuilén (died 971), by the ninthtwelfth-century Chronicle of the Kings of Alba . [20] In one instance, this source records Cuilén's name as "Culenrīg". [21] The bar above the letter "i" in this word appears to indicate that rīg should be expanded to "ring". [22] Whilst it is possible that this word represents the Old Norse hringr, meaning "ring" [23] or "ring-giver", [24] the name may be corrupted from a scribal error, and the word itself might refer to something else. [25]

An epithet is a byname, or a descriptive term, accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied to seemingly real or fictitious people, divinities, objects, and binomial nomenclature. It can also be a descriptive title: for example, Pallas Athena, Alfred the Great, Suleiman the Magnificent or Władysław I the Elbow-high.

The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, or Scottish Chronicle, is a short written chronicle of the Kings of Alba, covering the period from the time of Kenneth MacAlpin until the reign of Kenneth II. W.F. Skene called it the Chronicle of the Kings of Scots, and some have called it the Older Scottish Chronicle, but Chronicle of the Kings of Alba is emerging as the standard scholarly name.

I letter in the Latin alphabet

I is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

Amlaib's name as it appears on 15r of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 488 (the Annals of Tigernach): "Amlaim mac Illuilb". Amlaib mac Illuilb (Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 488, folio 15r).jpg
Amlaíb's name as it appears on 15r of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 488 (the Annals of Tigernach ): "Amlaim mac Illuilb".

Other possible evidence of Scandinavian influence upon Custantín's family may be Amlaíb's own name. Although his name may represent a 'modernised' form of the Gaelic personal name Amalgaid , [27] a name often confused with Amlaíb in mediaeval sources, [28] the latter name usually represents a Gaelicised form of the Old Norse personal name Óláfr . [29] In fact, Amlaíb's name could indicate that his mother was a member of a Scandinavian kindred [30] perhaps the Uí Ímair and conceivably a descendant of Amlaíb Cúarán (died 980/981) or Amlaíb mac Gofraid (died 941). [31] [note 2] Certainly, members of Gaelic dynasties were accorded Scandinavian names by the end of the century, just as members of insular Scandinavian dynasties began to bear Gaelic names. If Amlaíb's name is indeed Scandinavian in origin, he would be one of the first figures to bear such a cross-ethnic personal name. [34]

Kin-strife amongst the Alpínids

The name of Cuilen's rival kinsman, Dub mac Mail Choluim, as it appears on folio 32v of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489. Dub mac Mail Choluim (Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489, folio 32v).jpg
The name of Cuilén's rival kinsman, Dub mac Maíl Choluim, as it appears on folio 32v of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489.

Amlaíb and his immediate family were members of the ruling Alpínid dynasty, the patrilineal descendants of Cináed mac Ailpín, King of the Picts (died 858). [38] The root of this kindred's remarkable early success laid in its ability to successfully rotate the royal succession amongst its members. [39] For example, Illulb's fathera member of the Clann Áeda meic Cináeda branch of the dynastysucceeded Domnall mac Causantín (died 900)a member of the Clann Custantín meic Cináeda branchand following a remarkable reign of forty years resigned the kingship to this man's son, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (died 954). [40] [note 3] Amlaíb's father succeeded to the kingship following Máel Coluim's demise, and ruled as king until his own death in 962. [43] The record of Illulb's fall at the hands of an invading Scandinavian host is the last time Irish and Scottish sources note Viking encroachment into the kingdom. [44] The Scandinavian Kingdom of York had collapsed by the 950s, and the warbands of the kings of Dublin seem to have ceased their overseas adventures during this period as well. Unlike English monarchs who had to endure Viking depredations from the 980s to the 1010s, the kings of Alba were left in relative peace from about the time of Illulb's fall. Free from such outside threats, however, the Alpínids seem to have struggled amongst themselves. [45]

The name of Cuilen mac Illuilb as it appears on folio 33r of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489. Cuilen mac Illuilb (Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489, folio 33r).jpg
The name of Cuilén mac Illuilb as it appears on folio 33r of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489.

There is some uncertainty regarding the succession after Illulb's demise. On one hand, he may well have been succeeded by Máel Coluim's son, Dub (died 966/967). [47] On the other hand, there is reason to suspect that the kingship was temporarily shared by Dub and Cuilén, and that neither man had been strong enough to displace the other in the immediate aftermath of Illulb's passing. [48] Although the Alpínid branches represented by Illulb and Dub seem to have maintained peace throughout Illulb's reign, [49] inter-dynastic conflict clearly erupted in the years that followed. [50] Dub appears to have spent much of his reign contending with Cuilén, [51] Certainly, the two battled each other in 965. [52] Dub was expelled from the kingship in the following year, and is recorded to have been slain in 966/967. [53] Cuilén's undisputed reign seems to have spanned from 966 to 971. [54] As far as surviving sources record, Cuilén's reign appears to have been relatively uneventful. [55] His death in 971 is noted by several sources. According to the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, Cuilén and his brother, Eochaid (died 971), were killed by Britons. [56] There is reason to suspect that Cuilén's killer, a certain Rhydderch ap Dyfnwal (fl. 971), was a son of Dyfnwal ab Owain, King of Strathclyde (died 975). [57]

Reign and death

The name of Cuilen's apparent successor, Cinaed mac Mail Choluim, as it appears on folio 15r of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 488: "Cinaeth mac Mail Cholaim". Cinaed mac Mail Choluim (Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 488, folio 15r).jpg
The name of Cuilén's apparent successor, Cináed mac Maíl Choluim, as it appears on folio 15r of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 488: "Cinaeth mac Mail Cholaim".

Although the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba reports that Dub's brother, Cináed mac Maíl Choluim (died 995), was the next King of Alba, [59] Irish sourcessuch as royal genealogies, [60] the fourteenth-century Annals of Tigernach [61] and the fifteenthsixteenth-century Annals of Ulsterappear to reveal that Amlaíb possessed the kingship before his death at Cináed's hands. [62] Whilst Cináed may well have initially succeeded to the kingship, [63] it seems that Amlaíb was able to mount a successfulif only temporarybid for the throne. Certainly, the aforesaid annal-entries style Amlaíb a king and accord Cináed a mere patronymic name. [64] [note 4] Although there is no specific evidence that Amlaíb and Cináed had constantly fought after Cuilén's demise, the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba ends its account at about 973, and the twelfth-century Prophecy of Berchán an important source for the hostilities between Dub and Cuilénsuffers from a lacuna in its account of Cináed's reign. [66] One possibility is that the kingship had been shared between Amlaíb and Cináed until the former's elimination. [67]

An early twentieth-century depiction of Edgar, King of the English being rowed down the River Dee by eight kings. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Edgar met six kings at Chester. By the twelfth century, chroniclers alleged that eight kings rowed Edgar down the river in an act of submission. The assembly itself took place in 975, when Amlaib may have reigned as king. Edgar, King of the English, rowed on the River Dee.jpg
An early twentieth-century depiction of Edgar, King of the English being rowed down the River Dee by eight kings. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , Edgar met six kings at Chester. By the twelfth century, chroniclers alleged that eight kings rowed Edgar down the river in an act of submission. The assembly itself took place in 975, when Amlaíb may have reigned as king.

Amlaíb's reign is not attested by any Scottish king-list, [70] and it would appear that his regime was indeed brief, perhaps dating from 971/976977. [71] In the midst of this interval, the ninthtwelfth-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reveals that Edgar, King of the English (died 975) assembled a massive naval force and met with six kings at Chester in 975. [72] Although later sources corroborate the event, the reliability of the names accorded to the assembled kings is less certain. [73] Two of the named kings appear to be the aforesaid Dyfnwal and Cináed. [74] Considering the fact that the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle numbers the kings at six, if Cináed was indeed present, it is unlikely that Amlaíb was in attendance as well. [75] Although the chronology concerning the reigns of Cináed and Amlaíb is uncertainwith Cináed's reign perhaps dating from 971/977995 [76] the part played by the particular King of Alba at the assembly could well have concerned the frontier of his realm. [77] One of the other named kings seems to have been Maccus mac Arailt (fl. 974), [78] whilst another could been this man's brother, Gofraid (died 989). [79] These two Islesmen may have been regarded a threats by the Scots [80] and Cumbrians. [81] Maccus and Gofraid are recorded to have devastated Anglesey at the beginning of the decade, [82] which could indicate that Edgar's assembly was undertaken as a means to counter the menace posed by these energetic siblings. [83] In fact, there is evidence to suggest that, as a consequence of the assembly at Chester, the brothers may have turned their attention from the British mainland westwards towards Ireland, [84] and that Gofraid ceased his operations in Wales until the next decade. [85] Whatever the case, within two years both Dyfnwal and Edgar were dead. [86] Contemporary English sources described the period after Edgar's demise as a time of "dissension", "trouble", "sedition", [87] and "most unhappy times". [88] In fact, the upheaval caused by the deaths of these men may well have contributed to Cináed's elimination of Amlaíb. [89]

Amlaib's title as it appears on folio 33v of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489. Amlaib mac Illuilb (Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489, folio 33v) 2.jpg
Amlaíb's title as it appears on folio 33v of Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489.

According to the twelfth-century De primo Saxonum adventu , at some point Edgar granted Lothian to Cináed in return for his recognition of English overlordship. If correct, one possibility is that the transaction dates to the 960s/970s, and was entended to assist Cináed's opposition against Amlaíb. [93] The revolving succession within the Alpínid dynasty reveals that the inter-dynastic struggle between Cuilén and Dub was continued by their respective brothers. [94] As for Cuilén's other brother, Eochaid, this man's death with Cuilén seems to be evidence of his prominent position within the kingdom. The fact that Amlaíb reigned after his brother's death likewise appears to indicate that he too played an important part in Cuilén's regime. [95] One of Cináed's first acts as king was evidently an invasion of the kingdom of the Cumbrians. [96] Although this campaign may well have been a retaliatory response to Cuilén's killing, [97] it may be more likely that Cináed carried out this enterprise in the context of crushing a British affront to Scottish authority rather than as a means of avenging the death of his kinsman. [98] In any event, Cináed's invasion ended in defeat, [99] a fact which coupled with Cuilén's killing reveals that the Kingdom of Strathclyde was indeed a power to be reckoned with. [100]

Notes

  1. Since the 1990s, academics have accorded Amlaíb various patronymic names in English secondary sources: Amblaib mac Idulb, [2] Amblaih mac Idulb, [2] Amlaíb mac Iduilb, [3] Amlaíb mac Illuilb, [4] and Óláfr mac Castantín. [5] Likewise since the 1990s, academics have accorded Amlaíb various personal names in English secondary sources: Amalgaid, [6] Amblaih, [7] Amlaíb, [8] Anlaf, [9] Olaf, [10] Óláfr, [11] and Ólafr. [12]
  2. Likewise, if Illulb's own name is indeed of Old Norse origin, then it could indicate that this man's mother was similarly a member of a Scandinavian kindred, [32] like the Uí Ímair. [33]
  3. This alternating succession was similar to that practiced in Ireland by the Cenél nEógain and Clann Cholmáin branches of the Uí Néill in regards to the latter kindred's monopolisation of the kingship of Tara between the eighth- and tenth centuries. [41] The aforesaid two branches of the Alpínid dynasty are not attested by contemporary records, but rather deduced as a result of the succession. [42]
  4. The Annals of Ulster misidentifies Cináed's father as Domnall. [65]
  5. Amlaíb's patrilineal ancestor Áed mac Cináedaeponym of Clann Áed meic Cináedais the last king to be accorded the Latin title rex Pictorum ("king of the Picts"). [91] Scottish kings were afterwards styled in Gaelic rí Alban ("king of Alba"). [92]

Citations

  1. The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 977.4; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 977.4; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 489 (n.d.).
  2. 1 2 Walker (2013).
  3. Hudson (1994).
  4. Busse (2006a); Dumville (2000).
  5. Oram (2011).
  6. Hudson (1994).
  7. Walker (2013).
  8. Busse (2006a); Dumville (2000); Hudson (1994).
  9. Clarkson (2014).
  10. Broun (2015b); Broun (2015e); Walker (2013); Broun (2004b).
  11. Oram (2011); Downham (2007).
  12. Busse (2006a).
  13. Howlett (2000) p. 65; Skene (1867) p. 131; Lat. 4126 (n.d.) fol. 29v.
  14. Broun (2004b); Broun (2004d); Hudson (1994) pp. 91, 164, 169.
  15. Broun (2004a); Broun (2004d); Driscoll (1998) p. 113.
  16. Broun (2004d); Woolf (2001); Driscoll (1998) p. 113, 113 n. 55.
  17. Clarkson (2014) ch. 6; Walker (2013) ch. 4; Woolf (2007) p. 192; Dumville (2000) p. 81; Hudson (1998b) p. 159 n. 56; Hudson (1994) p. 89.
  18. Clarkson (2014) ch. 6; Walker (2013) ch. 4; Woolf (2009) p. 258; Downham (2007) p. 151; Woolf (2007) p. 192; Busse (2006b); Dumville (2000) p. 81; Driscoll (1998) p. 113 n. 55; Hudson (1998b) p. 159 n. 56; Hudson (1994) p. 89; Anderson (1922) pp. 475 n. 6, 484485 n. 3.
  19. Broun (2015b).
  20. Broun (2015b); Downham (2007) p. 151; Busse (2006b); Dumville (2000) p. 81; Driscoll (1998) p. 113 n. 55; Hudson (1998a) p. 66.
  21. Woolf (2007) pp. 199, 203; Duncan (2002) pp. 2021; Hudson (1998a) p. 66; Hudson (1998b) p. 151; Skene (1867) p. 10.
  22. Woolf (2007) p. 203.
  23. Woolf (2007) p. 203; Busse (2006b); Duncan (2002) p. 20; Driscoll (1998) p. 113 n. 55; Hudson (1998a) p. 66; Hudson (1998b) p. 151 n. 34.
  24. Broun (2015b).
  25. Woolf (2007) p. 203; Duncan (2002) pp. 2021; Hudson (1998a) p. 66; Hudson (1998b) pp. 141, 151 n. 34.
  26. The Annals of Tigernach (2010) § 977.4; Annals of Tigernach (2005) § 977.4; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 488 (n.d.).
  27. Hudson (1994) p. 94.
  28. Clancy, T (2016) p. 64; Sellar (2004) p. 53; Hudson (1994) p. 94; Ó Corráin; Maguire (1981) p. 22.
  29. Woolf (2009) p. 258; Woolf (2007) p. 206; Dumville (2000) p. 81; Hudson (1994) p. 94.
  30. Clarkson (2014) ch. 7; Woolf (2009) p. 258; Woolf (2001); Williams, DGE (1997) p. 96 n. 33.
  31. Woolf (2007) p. 206.
  32. Broun (2015d); Downham (2007) p. 155.
  33. Downham (2007) p. 155.
  34. Woolf (2009) p. 258; Woolf (2007) p. 206.
  35. Lynch (2001); Woolf (2000) p. 146 tab. 1; Hudson (1994) p. 169.
  36. Woolf (2000) p. 146 tab. 1.
  37. The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 967.1; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 967.1; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 489 (n.d.).
  38. Lynch (2001); Woolf (2000) p. 146 tab. 1; Hudson (1994) p. 169.
  39. Broun (2001).
  40. Clancy, TO (2006); Broun (2001); Woolf (2001); Woolf (2000) p. 152.
  41. McGuigan (2015) p. 274; Woolf (2009) p. 258; Broun (2001).
  42. McGuigan (2015) p. 274.
  43. Broun (2015d); Walker (2013) ch. 4; Broun (2004d); Duncan (2002) p. 20; Broun (2001).
  44. Duncan (2002) p. 20; Dumville (2000) p. 81.
  45. Duncan (2002) p. 20.
  46. The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 971.1; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 971.1; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 489 (n.d.).
  47. Walker (2013) ch. 4; Woolf (2009) p. 258; Broun (2004c); Broun (2004d).
  48. Hudson (1994) pp. 9192.
  49. Broun (2004c).
  50. Broun (2015c); Broun (2004c); Hudson (1994) pp. 9192.
  51. Woolf (2000) p. 157.
  52. Walker (2013) ch. 4; Charles-Edwards (2008) p. 183; Woolf (2007) pp. 199, 201202; Duncan (2002) p. 20; Dumville (2000) p. 77; Woolf (2000) pp. 260261; Hudson (1994) p. 92.
  53. Broun (2015c); McGuigan (2015) p. 275; Walker (2013) ch. 4; Woolf (2007) pp. 196, 200, 199, 202; Duncan (2002) pp. 2022; Dumville (2000) p. 77; Hudson (1996) p. 88 n. 99; Hudson (1994) p. 92.
  54. Walker (2013) ch. 4; Monarchs of Scotland (8421707) (2011); Busse (2006b); Hudson (1994) p. 163 tab. 1; Williams; Smyth; Kirby (1991) pp. 9192.
  55. Walker (2013) ch. 4.
  56. Clarkson (2010) ch. 9; Woolf (2007) pp. 199, 204; Hudson (1998b) pp. 151, 160; Hudson (1996) p. 88 n. 100; Hudson (1994) p. 93; Anderson (1922) p. 475; Skene (1867) p. 10.
  57. Broun (2015b); Walker (2013) ch. 4; Clarkson (2012) ch. 9; Oram (2011) chs. 2, 5; Clarkson (2010) ch. 9; Busse (2006c); Broun (2004f) p. 135; Macquarrie (2004); Macquarrie (1998) pp. 6, 16; Williams; Smyth; Kirby (1991) pp. 92, 104.
  58. The Annals of Tigernach (2010) § 977.4; Annals of Tigernach (2005) § 977.4; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 488 (n.d.).
  59. Walker (2013) ch. 4; Woolf (2009) p. 258; Woolf (2007) p. 205; Hudson (1998b) pp. 151, 161; Anderson (1922) pp. 512513; Skene (1867) p. 10.
  60. Book of Leinster (2015) § Genelach rig Alban; Duncan (2002) p. 21; Hudson (1994) p. 94.
  61. The Annals of Tigernach (2010) § 977.4; Annals of Tigernach (2005) § 977.4; Duncan (2002) p. 21; Anderson (1922) p. 484.
  62. Walker (2013) ch. 4; The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 977.4; Woolf (2009) p. 258; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 977.4; Woolf (2007) pp. 196, 205; Duncan (2002) p. 21; Hudson (1994) p. 93; Anderson (1922) pp. 484485 n. 3, 485 n. 4.
  63. Broun (2015e); Walker (2013) ch. 4; Broun (2004b); Broun (2004e); Duncan (2002) p. 21.
  64. Walker (2013) ch. 4; Duncan (2002) p. 21.
  65. The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 977.4; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 977.4; Duncan (2002) p. 21 n. 45; Anderson (1922) p. 485 n. 4.
  66. Hudson (1994) p. 94.
  67. Clarkson (2014) ch. 7.
  68. Cassell's History of England (1909) p. 53.
  69. Williams, A (2004).
  70. Duncan (2002) p. 22.
  71. Duncan (2002) pp. 2122; Hudson (1994) p. 93.
  72. Clarkson (2014) ch. 7; Downham (2007) p. 224; Matthews (2007) p. 10; Woolf (2007) pp. 207208; Whitelock (1996) p. 229; Hudson (1994) pp. 9798; Thorpe (1861) pp. 224226.
  73. Woolf (2007) pp. 207208; Williams, A (2004).
  74. Clarkson (2014) ch. 7; Downham (2007) p. 224; Woolf (2007) p. 208.
  75. Woolf (2007) p. 208.
  76. Woolf (2007) pp. 208209.
  77. Matthews (2007) p. 25.
  78. Clarkson (2014) ch. 7; Downham (2007) pp. 124125, 222; Matthews (2007) p. 25.
  79. Clarkson (2014) ch. 7; Downham (2007) pp. 125 n. 10, 222; Matthews (2007) p. 25.
  80. Matthews (2007) p. 25.
  81. Woolf (2007) p. 208.
  82. Gough-Cooper (2015) p. 43 § b993.1; Clarkson (2014) ch. 7; Matthews (2007) p. 9; Woolf (2007) pp. 206207; Anderson (1922) pp. 478479 n. 6; Rhŷs (1890) p. 262; Williams Ab Ithel (1860) pp. 2425.
  83. Downham (2007) pp. 222223; Matthews (2007) pp. 9, 15; Woolf (2007) pp. 207208.
  84. Downham (2007) pp. 126127, 222223; Woolf (2007) p. 208.
  85. Woolf (2007) p. 208.
  86. Woolf (2007) pp. 207208.
  87. Keynes (2008) p. 52; Raine (1879) p. 448.
  88. Keynes (2008) p. 52; Birch (1893) pp. 604605. § 1290.
  89. Woolf (2007) pp. 207208.
  90. The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 977.4; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 977.4; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 489 (n.d.).
  91. Woolf (2009) pp. 251252; Broun (2007) p. 72; Woolf (2007) p. 340.
  92. Broun (2015a) pp. 120, 122123; Woolf (2009) p. 252.
  93. McGuigan (2015) pp. 142143, 144 n. 470; Woolf (2007) p. 211; Anderson, AO (1908) p. 77; Arnold (1885) pp. 382383.
  94. Walker (2013) ch. 4; Hudson (1994) p. 93.
  95. Woolf (2007) pp. 205206.
  96. Clarkson (2014) ch. 7; Walker (2013) ch. 4; Woolf (2009) p. 259; Busse (2006a); Clarkson (2010) ch. 9; Broun (2004e).
  97. Walker (2013) ch. 4; Woolf (2009) p. 259.
  98. Walker (2013) ch. 4.
  99. Clarkson (2010) ch. 9; Broun (2004e).
  100. McGuigan (2015) p. 140; Clarkson (2012) ch. 9; Clarkson (2010) ch. 9.

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Amlaíb mac Illuilb
Clann Áeda meic Cináeda
Cadet branch of the Alpínid dynasty
 Died: 977
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Cuilén
King of Alba
971/976–977
Succeeded by
Kenneth II