|Elevation||6,288 m (20,630 ft)|
|Prominence||1,997 m (6,552 ft)|
|Volcanic belt||Central Volcanic Zone|
|First ascent||Inca, pre-Columbian|
|Easiest route||snow / glacier climb|
Ampato (possibly from Quechua hamp'atu 6,288-metre (20,630 ft) stratovolcano in the Andes of southern Peru. It lies about 70–75 kilometres (43–47 mi) northwest of Arequipa and is part of a north-south chain that includes the volcanoes Hualca Hualca and Sabancaya, the last of which has been active in historical time.or from Aymara jamp'atu , both meaning "frog") is a dormant
Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes. It is one of only a handful of Native American languages with over one million speakers. Aymara, along with Spanish, is one of the official languages of Bolivia and parts of Peru. It is also spoken, to a much lesser extent, by some communities in northern Chile, where it is a recognized minority language.
A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile with a summit crater and periodic intervals of explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed summit craters called calderas. The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far, due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows are uncommon, but have travelled as far as 15 km (9.3 mi).
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, about 200 to 700 km wide, and of an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina.
Ampato consists of three volcanic cones, which lie on top of an older eroded volcanic edifice. They were formed sequentially by extrusion of lava flows, but Ampato has also had explosive eruptions which have deposited ash, lapilli and pumice in the surrounding landscape. One young lava flow has been dated to 17,000 ± 6,000 years before present, but a summit lava dome is even younger, and Holocene ash layers in surrounding peat bogs may testify to the occurrence of recent eruptions.
In volcanology, an explosive eruption is a volcanic eruption of the most violent type. A notable example is the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Such eruptions result when sufficient gas has dissolved under pressure within a viscous magma such that expelled lava violently froths into volcanic ash when pressure is suddenly lowered at the vent. Sometimes a lava plug will block the conduit to the summit, and when this occurs, eruptions are more violent. Explosive eruptions can send rocks, dust, gas and pyroclastic material up to 20 km into the atmosphere at a rate of up to 100,000 tonnes per second, traveling at several hundred meters per second. This cloud may then collapse, creating a pyroclastic flow of hot volcanic matter.
Lapilli is a size classification term for tephra, which is material that falls out of the air during a volcanic eruption or during some meteorite impacts. Lapilli means "little stones" in Latin.
Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals. It is typically light colored. Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles, thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored and denser.
The present-day volcano is covered by an ice cap, and during the last glacial maximum glaciers advanced to low altitudes. In 1995, an Inca mummy known as Mummy Juanita was discovered on Ampato by Johan Reinhard; it had been offered as a human sacrifice more than six hundred years earlier on the mountain.
An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area. Larger ice masses covering more than 50,000 km2 are termed ice sheets.
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions. Some authorities restrict the use of the term to bodies deliberately embalmed with chemicals, but the use of the word to cover accidentally desiccated bodies goes back to at least 1615 AD.
Momia Juanita, also known as the Lady of Ampato, is the well-preserved frozen body of an Inca girl who was killed as an offering to the Inca gods sometime between 1450 and 1480 when she was approximately 12–15 years old. She was discovered on Mount Ampato in southern Peru in 1995 by anthropologist Johan Reinhard and his Peruvian climbing partner, Miguel Zárate. "Juanita" has been on display in the Catholic University of Santa María's Museum of Andean Sanctuaries in Arequipa, Peru, almost continuously since 1996, and was displayed on a tour of Japan in 1999.
Ampato lies south of the Colca Canyon and at the southern end of a chain of volcanoes formed by Hualca Hualca and Sabancaya, 70–75 kilometres (43–47 mi) to the southeast.the last of which has been historically active. Clockwise from northeast the towns of Colihuiri, Cajamarcana, Sallalli, Japo, Baylillas, Corinta and Collpa surround the volcano; the city of Arequipa lies
Colca Canyon is a canyon of the Colca River in southern Peru, located about 160 kilometres (99 mi) northwest of Arequipa. It is Peru's third most-visited tourist destination with about 120,000 visitors annually. With a depth of 3,270 metres (10,730 ft), it is one of the deepest in the world. The Colca Valley is a colorful Andean valley with pre-Inca roots, and towns founded in Spanish colonial times, still inhabited by people of the Collagua and the Cabana cultures. The local people maintain their ancestral traditions and continue to cultivate the pre-Inca stepped terraces, called andenes.
Hualca Hualca is an extinct volcano in Arequipa Region in the Andes of Peru. It has a height of 6,025 metres.
Sabancaya is an active 5,976-metre-high (19,606 ft) stratovolcano in the Andes of southern Peru, about 70 kilometres (43 mi) northwest of Arequipa. It is considered part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, one of the three distinct volcanic belts of the Andes. The Central Volcanic Zone includes a number of volcanoes, some of which like Huaynaputina have had large eruptions and others such as Sabancaya and Ubinas have been active in historical time. Sabancaya forms a volcanic complex together with Hualca Hualca to the north and Ampato to the south and has erupted andesite and dacite. It is covered by a small ice cap which leads to a risk of lahars during eruptions.
Ampato is part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes,which in Peru manifests itself as several dozen Pleistocene volcanoes, some of which erupted in historical time including El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya and Ubinas. The largest historical eruption of the Andes took place at Huaynaputina. Other volcanoes in the Peruvian Central Volcanic Zone are Sara Sara, Solimana, Coropuna, Chachani, Ticsani, Tutupaca, Yucamane and Casiri.
Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.
The Pleistocene is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations. The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period and also with the end of the Paleolithic age used in archaeology.
Huaynaputina is a stratovolcano in a volcanic upland in southern Peru. The volcano does not have an identifiable mountain profile but instead is a large volcanic crater. It has produced high-potassium andesite and dacite. On 19 February 1600, it exploded catastrophically, in the largest volcanic explosion in South America in historical times. The eruption continued with a series of events into March. An account of the event was included in Fray Antonio Vázquez de Espinosa's Compendio y Descripción de las Indias, which was translated into English as Compendium and description of the West Indies in 1942.
The volcano Ampato consists of three individual steep-sided cones which rise from a gentle glacially eroded foot. These three cones are lined up in southwest-northeast direction and the highest one reaches an elevation of 6,280 metres (20,600 ft) or 6,288 metres (20,630 ft). Ampato is one of the highest volcanoes in the Central Volcanic Zone and the 35th highest summit in the Andes.
The summit of the volcano is covered with an ice cap 4,250–4,450 metres (13,940–14,600 ft) elevation has been attributed to the last glacial maximum between 25,000-17,000 years ago, the middle one between 4,400–4,650 metres (14,440–15,260 ft) to a late readvance at the Pleistocene-Holocene epoch boundary and the higher ones above 4,800 metres (15,700 ft) to Holocene advances., and the edifice is incised by glacial valleys. The volcano is surrounded by three sets of moraines, the lowermost one at
Off the western coast of South America, the Nazca Plate subducts beneath the South America Plate 5–6 centimetres per year (2.0–2.4 in/year). This subduction process is responsible for volcanism in the Central Volcanic Zone and started during the Jurassic period after the opening of the southern Atlantic Ocean, which triggered the onset of subduction of the Nazca Plate.at a rate of
Volcanic arc-associated volcanism originally occurred within the Cordillera de la Costa in the Jurassic, but later it migrated resulting in the emplacement of the Tacaza and Toquepala groups and finally the Neogene Barroso group. The present-day volcanic arc is situated in the area of the Barroso group but has a narrower extent.
The basement beneath Ampato is formed by sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Western Cordillera of Peru, and the rocks are of Mesozoic to Cenozoic age. A high plateau formed by ignimbrites and lavas of Pliocene to Miocene age rises above this basement. The terrain is cut by several different fault systems; one of these, the northeastward striking Sepina fault has been seismically active in the 20nd and 21st centuries and seems to have controlled the development of the Ampato and Sabancaya volcanoes.
Ampato has erupted different volcanic rocks at different stages, with the earliest ones generating andesite and daciteand which define a potassium-rich suite. The rocks contain amphibole, biotite, iron oxide, olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene and titanium oxide.
Processes such as fractional crystallization, magma mixing and the absorption of crustal material by developing magmas have been invoked to explain the formation of the magmas of both Ampato and Sabancaya. 0.08–0.09 cubic kilometres per millennium (0.019–0.022 cu mi/ka). This rate does not consider "spurt"-like behaviour; volcano growth in fits and spurts has been observed at many other volcanic arc volcanoes.Estimating the rate of magma production at Ampato is difficult owing to the uncertainties in determining the volume of the edifice and the duration of repose times between eruptions; on average it appears to be
The Western Cordillera features various climate zones, such as the quechua and suni zones. The vegetation that occurs at high altitudes is dominated by pioneer plants, with wetlands constituting additional centres of biodiversity.
A 200–600-metre (660–1,970 ft) thick pile of andesitic lava flows with additional scoria and which crops out on the southern, southeastern and southwestern side of the Ampato volcano is the oldest volcanic stage of this volcano, with argon-argon dating yielding ages between 400,000 - 450,000 years before present. Above this formation, another pile of dacitic lava flows constructed the first Ampato edifice, which was about the same size as the present-day volcano. This pile ("Moldepampa stage") is about 200–300 metres (660–980 ft) thick in outcrops and was emplaced between 230,000 - 200,000 years before present.
After a pause in volcanic activity 200–300-metre (660–980 ft) thick unit on top of eroded remnants of the older Ampato volcanics, the andesitic northern cone formed as the first of the three present-day cones. The southern cone developed in several different stages; a first stage generated lava flows emanating from the summit; dating of two such flows has produced ages of 34,000 ± 8,000 and 40,000 ± 3,000 years before present. More than 20 metres (66 ft) of block-and-ash flows was erupted onto the eastern and western flanks of Ampato, and these flows consist of one andesitic and one dacitic formation; both appear to relate to a lava dome forming stage of volcanic activity. These block-and-ash flows are themselves covered on both the eastern and the western flanks by more thick lava flows, which make up a 150–200 metres (490–660 ft) thick unit and again consist of one andesitic and one dacitic unit; both units appear to have been erupted during the last glacial maximum.and an intermediary stage ("Yanajaja stage"; one date obtained on this stage is 77,000 ± 4,000 years before present) that produced andesitic-dacitic lava flows which form a
Either during or before the last glacial maximum, Ampato erupted tephra during multiple explosive eruptions which today is preserved in two units, the Baylillas and the Corinta deposits. The first consists of lapilli, pumice and scoria and individual layers form thick sequences at large distances from the volcano, but are heavily eroded and thus difficult to measure in extent. Scoria flows identified on the southwestern-southern flanks of Ampato correspond to this unit. The dacitic Corinta deposits conversely were created during one large eruption 3–4-metre (9.8–13.1 ft) thick tephra deposits which contain pumice embedded within ash-rich layers, and it is probably also the source of the pumice flow deposits on the south-southwestern flank. These contain dacitic pumice fragments in a matrix rich in ash and have thicknesses of more than 10 metres (33 ft) in the few outcrops; much of this unit was likely eroded away by glacial activity.which also left a crater on Ampato; it generated stratified
The central cone grew in the gap between the northern and southern edifice and consists of lava flows again of andesitic to dacitic composition. These flows are together maximally 400–600 metres (1,300–2,000 ft) thick and one flow has been dated to 17,000 ± 6,000 years before present. A dacitic summit lava dome is not affected by glacial erosion and appears to be the youngest eruption product of Ampato.
Early Holocene (11,000 - 8,000 years before present) ash layers in peat bogs around the volcano may have originated either on Ampato or on Sabancaya.Late Holocene tephra layers dated to 1,790 ± 110, 2,050 ± 70 and 4,500 ± 125 likewise may have been erupted from Ampato, but Sabancaya is a more likely source for these ash layers.
Presently, Ampato is considered to be a dormant volcano.Potential hazards from future eruptions at Ampato are lahars induced by melting of the icecap and sub-Plinian eruptions, considering the history of explosive eruptions at this volcano.
The Peruvian geological service has published a hazard map that describes danger areas of both Ampato and Sabancaya. Hazards mapped include both the fall of ash and the formation of lahars which can advance to distances of 20 kilometres (12 mi) in the southerly valleys of Ampato. Pyroclastic fallout primarily threatens the direct neighbourhood of the volcano but large eruptions can result in fallout over large areas around the volcanic complex.
Ampato was the site of human sacrifice during Inca times, when about 1466 the Mummy Juanita was offered for sacrifice on the mountain, along with two other girls and a boy. The sacrifice took place on a platform on the summit of the volcano and was presumably intended to calm the mountain spirits during an eruption of the neighbouring volcano Sabancaya.The mummies were discovered in 1995 by Johan Reinhard and colleagues on the summit of the mountain.
Such sacrifices with children being the usual subjects are known as capacocha and the discoveries of their mummies on mountains in the Andes has gained them a lot of attention. The process served to tie the Inka empire more closely together, since children to be sacrificed were selected from the entire realm and the children adorned and their names remembered after the sacrifice.
Parinacota, Parina Quta or Parinaquta is a dormant stratovolcano on the border of Chile and Bolivia. Together with Pomerape it forms the Nevados de Payachata volcanic chain. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, its summit reaches an elevation of 6,380 metres (20,930 ft) above sea level. The symmetrical cone is capped by a summit crater with widths of 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) or 500 metres (1,600 ft). Farther down on the southern slopes lie three parasitic centres known as the Ajata cones. These cones have generated lava flows. The volcano overlies a platform formed by lava domes and andesitic lava flows.
Cerro Azul, sometimes referred to as Quizapu, is an active stratovolcano in the Maule Region of central Chile, immediately south of Descabezado Grande. Part of the South Volcanic Zone of the Andes, its summit is 3,788 meters (12,428 ft) above sea level, and is capped by a summit crater that is 500 meters (1,600 ft) wide and opens to the north. Beneath the summit, the volcano features numerous scoria cones and flank vents.
Chachani is the highest of the mountains near the city of Arequipa in southern Peru.
Lascar is a stratovolcano within the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, a volcanic arc that spans the countries of Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile. It is the most active volcano in the region, with records of eruptions going back to 1848. It is composed of two separate cones with several summit craters. The westernmost crater of the eastern cone is presently active. Volcanic activity is characterized by constant release of volcanic gas and occasional vulcanian eruptions.
Nevado de Longaví is a volcano in the Andes of central Chile. The 3,242 m (10,636 ft) high volcano lies in the Linares Province, which is part of the Maule Region. It features a summit crater and several parasitic vents. The volcano is constructed principally from lava flows. Two collapses of the edifice have carved collapse scars into the volcano, one on the eastern slope known as Lomas Limpias and another on the southwestern slope known as Los Bueye. The volcano features a glacier and the Achibueno and Blanco rivers originate on the mountain.
Ollagüe or Ullawi is a massive andesite stratovolcano in the Andes on the border between Bolivia and Chile, within the Antofagasta Region of Chile and the Potosi Department of Bolivia. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, its highest summit is 5,868 metres (19,252 ft) above sea level and features a summit crater that opens to the south. The western rim of the summit crater is formed by a compound of lava domes, the youngest of which features a vigorous fumarole that is visible from afar.
Taapaca is a Holocene volcanic complex in northern Chile's Arica y Parinacota Region. Located in the Chilean Andes, it is part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andean Volcanic Belt, one of four distinct volcanic chains in South America. The town of Putre lies at the southwestern foot of the volcano.
Calabozos is a Holocene caldera in central Chile's Maule Region. Part of the Chilean Andes' volcanic segment, it is considered a member of the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), one of the three distinct volcanic belts of South America. This most active section of the Andes runs along central Chile's western edge, and includes more than 70 of Chile's stratovolcanoes and volcanic fields. Calabozos lies in an extremely remote area of poorly glaciated mountains.
Yucamane, Yucamani or Yucumane is an andesitic stratovolcano in the Tacna Region of southern Peru. It is part of the Peruvian segment of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the three volcanic belts of the Andes generated by the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South America plate. Peru's active volcanoes Ubinas, Sabancaya and El Misti are also part of the Central Volcanic Zone.
The Andagua volcanic field is a volcanic field in southern Peru. Located between the Coropuna and Sabancaya volcanoes, it is formed from a number of lava domes and scoria cones that have generated lava flows. Activity ranges from the early Pleistocene until historical times.
Cerro Chao is a lava flow complex associated with the Cerro del León volcano in the Andes. It is the largest known Quaternary silicic volcano body and part of the most recent phase of activity in the Altiplano–Puna volcanic complex.
Huambo volcanic field is a volcanic field in Peru. Andahua-Orcopampa lies north-northeast and Sabancaya east of Huambo, east of the Rio Colca. The town of Huambo lies between the two fields.
Laguna del Maule is a volcanic field in the Andes mountain range of Chile, close to, and partly overlapping, the Chile-Argentina frontier. The bulk of the volcanic field is in the Talca province of Chile's Maule Region. It is a segment of the Southern Volcanic Zone, part of the Andean Volcanic Belt. Many of the volcanic centres in the Laguna del Maule volcanic field formed during postglacial times, after glaciers had retreated from the area. This activity has generated cones, lava domes, lava coulees and lava flows which surround Laguna del Maule lake. The field gets its name from the lake which is also the source of the Maule river. Some of the volcanic centres were active during and before the last glaciation; at least three caldera formation events are associated with the system.
Tata Sabaya is a 5,430-metre (17,810 ft) high volcano in Bolivia. It is part of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of several volcanic belts in the Andes which are separated by gaps without volcanic activity. This section of the Andes was volcanically active since the Jurassic, with an episode of strong ignimbritic volcanism occurring during the Miocene. Tata Sabaya lies in a thinly populated region north of the Salar de Coipasa salt pan.
Tutupaca is a volcano in the region of Tacna in Peru. It is part of the Peruvian segment of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of several volcanic belts in the Andes. Tutupaca consists of three overlapping volcanoes formed by lava flows and lava domes made out of andesite and dacite, which grew on top of older volcanic rocks. The highest of these is usually reported to be 5,815 metres (19,078 ft) high and was glaciated in the past.
Ticsani is a volcano in Peru. It consists of two volcanoes that form a complex: "old Ticsani", which is a compound volcano that underwent a large collapse in the past and shed 15–30 cubic kilometres (3.6–7.2 cu mi) of mass down the Rio Tambo valley; the other is a complex of three lava domes which were emplaced during the Holocene. The last eruption occurred after the 1600 eruption of neighbouring Huaynaputina.
Sara Sara is a 5,505-metre-high (18,061 ft) volcano lying between Lake Parinacochas and Ocoña River in Peru. It is situated in the Parinacochas Province, Puyusca District, and in the Paucar del Sara Sara Province, in the districts of Pausa and Sara Sara.
Ubinas is a stratovolcano in the Moquegua Region of southern Peru, 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of the city of Arequipa. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is 5,672 metres (18,609 ft) above sea level. The volcano's summit is cut by a 1.4-kilometre (0.87 mi) wide and 150-metre (490 ft) deep caldera, which itself contains a smaller crater. Below the summit, Ubinas has the shape of an upwards-steepening cone with a prominent notch on the southern side. The gently sloping lower part of the volcano is also known as Ubinas I and the steeper upper part as Ubinas II; they represent different stages in the geologic history of Ubinas.