Amrit Kumar Bohara
|Political party||Nepal Communist Party|
Communism in Nepal
Amrit Kumar Bohara (Nepali : अमृतकुमार बोहरा), born April 27, 1948, is a leader of the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) (CPN-UML). He is a member of the Standing Committee of the party and was its acting General Secretary.
Nepali, also known as Nepalese, is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari. It is the official language of Nepal and one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. Also known by the endonym Khas kura, the language is also called Gorkhali or Parbatiya in some contexts. It is spoken mainly in Nepal and by about a quarter of the population in Bhutan. In India, Nepali has official status in the state of Sikkim, and significant number of speakers in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Uttarakhand and West Bengal's Darjeeling district and Kalimpong. It is also spoken in Burma and by the Nepali diaspora worldwide. Nepali developed in proximity to a number of Indo-Aryan languages, most notably the other Pahari languages and Maithili, and shows Sanskrit influence. However, owing to Nepal's location, it has also been influenced by Tibeto-Burman languages. Nepali is mainly differentiated from Central Pahari, both in grammar and vocabulary, by Tibeto-Burman idioms owing to close contact with this language group.
Bohara was released in early May 2005 along with his colleague, CPN-UML General Secretary Madhav Kumar Nepal, after being detained for several months on King Gyanendra's orders.
Madhav Kumar Nepal is a Nepalese politician who was Prime Minister of Nepal from May 25, 2009 to February 6, 2011. Nepal announced his resignation as prime minister on June 30, 2010. He was previously the General Secretary of Communist Party of Nepal for 15 years. He is also one of the only Prime Ministers in the world whose name features the name of his country, i.e., Nepal.
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev reigned as the last King of Nepal from 2001 to 2008 and is also known as the world's last Hindu King. As a child, he was briefly king from 1950 to 1951, when his grandfather, Tribhuvan, went into exile in India with the rest of his family. His second reign began after the 2001 Nepalese royal massacre.
Bohara was the top candidate of CPN-UML in the proportional representation list for the April 2008 Constituent Assembly election.Following the election, in which the CPN-UML was defeated, Madhav Kumar Nepal resigned as General Secretary and Bohara became acting General Secretary.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. If n% of the electorate support a particular political party as their favorite, then roughly n% of seats will be won by that party. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result—not just a plurality, or a bare majority. The most prevalent forms of proportional representation all require the use of multiple-member voting districts, as it is not possible to fill a single seat in a proportional manner. In fact, the implementations of PR that achieve the highest levels of proportionality tend to include districts with large numbers of seats.
A general election for the Constituent Assembly was held in Nepal on 10 April 2008 after having been postponed from earlier dates of 7 June 2007 and 22 November 2007. The Nepalese Constituent Assembly will draft a new constitution; it will therefore decide, amongst other things, on the issue of federalism. The number of eligible voters was around 17.5 million. The Constituent Assembly will have a term of two years.
The Nepali Congress is a social-democratic political party in Nepal. It is the largest opposition party in the House of Representatives and the National Assembly.
The Communist Party of Nepal was one of the two major communist parties in Nepal. The party was formed in January 1991 with the unification of the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist) and the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist). It has led four governments: from 1994 to 1995 under Man Mohan Adhikari, from 2009 to 2011 under Madhav Kumar Nepal, in 2011 under Jhala Nath Khanal, and from 2015 to 2016 under KP Sharma Oli. The party was also a junior partner in five coalition governments: in 1997 under Lokendra Bahadur Chand, from 1998 to 1999 under Girija Prasad Koirala, from 2008 to 2009 under Pushpa Kamal Dahal, from 2011 to 2013 under Baburam Bhattarai, and from 2014 to 2015 under Sushil Koirala. It dissolved on 17 May 2018 to make way for the Nepal Communist Party in a merger with the Communist Party of Nepal.
Nepal RatnaMadan Kumar Bhandari commonly known as Madan Bhandari, was a popular Nepali political leader belonging to the Communist Party of Nepal, a democratic communist party in Nepal. He defeated the incumbent Prime Minister Krishna Prasad Bhattarai in the 1991 general election. Known for his charismatic style, Bhandari had propounded the popular communist principle or thought People's Multiparty Democracy. He is widely regarded for peaking the Nepal's communist movement to a greater height. He died in a mysterious jeep accident in Dasdhunga, Chitwan, in 1993 of which the cause of death has not yet revealed. It has been dubbed as an unsolved murder.
Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist), a splinter group from the Communist Party of Nepal formed on March 5, 1998. Sahana Pradhan was the chair of the party and Bam Dev Gautam the general secretary. Within the CPN(UML) a power struggle had taken place after the death of Madan Bhandari. Gautam and Pradhan advocated a tactical alliance with the Rastriya Prajatantra Party, which the CPN(UML) general secretary Madhav Kumar Nepal opposed. Moreover, CPN(ML) opposed the Mahakali river treaty with India. CPN(ML) described the split in the following wordings in the manifesto:
Chandra Prakash Mainali more commonly known as CP Mainali is a communist politician in Nepal. He was born to Dhanpati and Chandrakumari Mainali. In the early 1970s he was one of the radical communists who led the Jhapa rebellion, inspired by the Naxalite movement in India
Radha Krishna Mainali, better known as R. K. Mainali is a Nepalese politician. In the early 1970s he was one of the radical communists who led the Jhapa rebellion, inspired by the Naxalite movement in India.
Young Communist League, Nepal is the youth wing of Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (CPN-Maoist). The president of YCL is Ganeshman Pun and the general secretary of YCL is Dilip Kumar Prajapati. The Young Communist League (YCL) was formed by the CPN–Maoist at some point during the ‘people’s war’ to support the revolution. Ganeshman Pun, chairman of the YCL, has stated that the League was reactivated in November 2006. According to him, the YCL "is a fusion of the Party’s military and political character, and it is composed of PLA members who have an interest in politics." As the party’s youth wing, its role is to "organise youth, be involved in events, conduct political awareness, and take part in development work as volunteers." Once the CPN-Maoist was proscribed, the YCL was also forced underground. After the April 2006 Jana Andolan and the subsequent over-ground role of the insurgents, the CPN-Maoist revived the YCL.
The Nepal Communist Party (NCP) is the ruling political party in Nepal and is the largest communist party in South Asia and the third largest in Asia. It was founded on 17 May 2018, from the unification of two leftist parties, Communist Party of Nepal and Communist Party of Nepal. The unification was completed by the Party Unification Coordination Committee, after 8 months of planning. The two predecessor parties subsequently dissolved, making way for the new united party. The party retains the electoral symbol of the CPN, the sun. The party is the largest political party in the House of Representatives, National Assembly and in all but one of the seven provincial assemblies. KP Sharma Oli, the Prime Minister of Nepal since 15 February 2018, is co-chairman of the party along with Pushpa Kamal Dahal.
Sahana Pradhan was a Nepalese politician from a Newar family in Kathmandu. She resigned as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Nepal on April 16, 2008. She also served as Deputy Prime Minister of Nepal within the coalition government of Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala from 2007 to 2008.
The 1st Nepalese Constituent Assembly was a unicameral body of 601 members that served from May 28, 2008 to May 28, 2012. It was formed as a result of the first Constituent Assembly election held on April 10, 2008. The Constituent Assembly was tasked with writing a new constitution, and acting as the interim legislature for a term of two years. 240 members were elected in single seat constituencies, 335 were elected through proportional representation, and the remaining 26 seats were reserved for nominated members.
Jhakku Prasad Subedi is a Nepalese politician, belonging to the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). He is a teacher by profession.
Bishnu Prasad Paudel is a Nepalese politician, and the current General Secretary of Nepal Communist Party (NCP). He is the current Member of Parliament from Rupandehi constituency no. 2. He won the election with a margin of 22,000 votes in the parliamentary election of 2017. During the second Constituent Assembly Election in 2013, he defeated the former Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai from Rupendehi Constituent No. 4.
Indirect presidential elections were held in Nepal in July 2008. The first round of voting was held on 19 July, with a run-off on 21 July. The Nepalese Constituent Assembly (CA) elected in April 2008 elected a new President and Vice-President after the Fifth Amendment to the Interim Constitution was passed on 14 July. This would be the first President to be elected after Nepal became a republic a few months earlier.
Jhala Nath Khanal is a Nepalese politician who was the 35th Prime Minister of Nepal from February 2011 to August 2011. He was the chairman of the Communist Party of Nepal and Leader of the Constituent Assembly Parliamentary Party of the CPN (UML).
Bam Dev Gautam is the former Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of Nepal. He is a senior leader of the Communist Party of Nepal. He is currently the senior Vice Chairman of CPN(UML) and a member of the Standing Committee of the Party. Bam dev Gautam joined the Communist party of Nepal in 1964 and participated in full-time party activities from Rupandehi District in 1969. He became District Secretary of CPN Rupandehi in 1972. He played a major role in establishing Mukti Morcha with Madan Bhandari and Jeev Raj Ashrit. He later became Central member of Communist Party of Nepal(Marxist-Leninist) in 1980. After the merger, he was made a Politburo member of CPN(UML) and also attained the position of Deputy General Secretary of the party.
Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli, more commonly known as KP Sharma Oli, is a Nepalese politician and the current Prime Minister of Nepal. He is the Chairman of the Nepal Communist Party (NCP). Oli previously served as prime minister from 11 October 2015 to 3 August 2016 and was the first elected prime minister under the newly adopted Constitution of Nepal.
Yogesh Bhattarai is a Nepali politician and current Minister of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation. He was elected to the House of Representatives from Taplejung constituency in the 2017 general elections. In April 2015, Bhattarai criticised the then UCPN (Maoist) chairman Pushpa Kamal Dahal, while in February 2017, he urged then Prime Minister Dahal to step down due to failure in conducting the local elections. After the merger of CPN-UML and UCPN (Maoist), he called on both KP Oli and Pushpa Kamal Dahal to retire from active politics.
Communism in Nepal traces its roots back to the pro-democracy movement of 1951, and the subsequent overthrow of the autocratic Rana regime and the establishment of democracy in Nepal. The communist movement in Nepal has split into factions multiple times and multiple factions have come together into a single fold at times as well. It has a history of getting banned from open political discourse; as well as multiple instances of embracing guerrilla insurgency, most notably, the Maoist insurgency in the 1990s and early 2000s that led to the Nepalese civil war, claiming at least 15,000 lives. After the Maoists and other main political parties formed a united coalition, launching a successful peaceful civil resistance against the dictatorial coup d'etat by the monarchy, which resulted in the abolition of monarchy and drafting of a new constitution affirming Nepal as a secular, federal, democratic republic striving towards democratic socialism, the two main communist parties of Nepal contested the first election according to the new constitution as a coalition, eventually leading to the unification of two parties with a strong majority in the federal parliament as well as six out of seven provinces of Nepal.
|Party political offices|
Madhav Kumar Nepal
| General Secretary of the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) |
Jhala Nath Khanal
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