This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)
|Founded by||Guru Ram Das|
|• Body||Municipal Corporation Amritsar|
|• Mayor||Karamjit Singh Rintu (INC)|
|• Deputy Commissioner||Gurpreet SIngh Khaira|
|• Metropolis||139 km2 (54 sq mi)|
|• Density||8,100/km2 (21,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro rank||44th|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Telephone code||91 183 XXX XXXX|
|Vehicle registration||PB-01(commercial vehicles), PB-02, PB-81, PB-89|
Amritsar (Punjabi pronunciation: [əmːˈɾɪtsəɾ] ( listen )), historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is the second largest city in the Indian state of Punjab, after Ludhiana. It is a major cultural and economic centre located in the Majha region of Punjab. The city is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district.
According to the 2011 census, the population of Amritsar was 1,132,761. It is one of the ten Municipal Corporations in the state, and Karamjit Singh Rintu is the current mayor of the city. 217 km (135 mi) northwest of state capital Chandigarh, 455 km (283 miles) northwest of New Delhi, the national capital, and 47 km (29.2 miles) northeast of Lahore, Pakistan, with the Indo-Pak Border (Wagah) being only 28 km (17.4 mi) away.The city is situated
Amritsar has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY scheme of the Government of India.Amritsar is home to Harmandir Sahib, popularly known as "the Golden Temple," one of Sikhism's most spiritually significant and most-visited gurudwaras. The city is also known for its wooden chessboards and chess pieces manufacturing industry.
The Bhagwan Valmiki Tirath Sthal situated at Amritsar is believed to be the Ashram site of Maharishi Valmiki, the writer of Ramayana.As per the Ramayana, Sita gave birth to Lava and Kusha, sons of lord Rama at Ramtirth ashram. Large number of people visit Ramtirth Temple at annual fair. Nearby cities to Amritsar, Lahore and Kasur were said to be founded by Lava and Kusha, respectively. During Ashvamedha Yagna by Lord Rama, Lava and Kush caught the ritual horse and tied Lord Hanuman to a tree near to today's Durgiana Temple.
Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh guru is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition.Two versions of stories exist regarding the land where Ram Das settled. In one based on a Gazetteer record, the land was purchased with Sikh donations, for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung.
According to the historical Sikh records, the site was chosen by Guru Amar Das and called Guru Da Chakk, after he had asked Ram Das to find land to start a new town with a man-made pool as its central point.After his coronation in 1574, and the hostile opposition he faced from the sons of Amar Das, Ram Das founded the town named after him as "Ramdaspur". He started by completing the pool, and building his new official Guru centre and home next to it. He invited merchants and artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him. The town expanded during the time of Arjan financed by donations and constructed by voluntary work. The town grew to become the city of Amritsar, and the pool area grew into a temple complex after his son built the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, and installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604.
The construction activity between 1574 and 1604 is described in Mahima Prakash Vartak, a semi-historical Sikh hagiography text likely composed in 1741, and the earliest known document dealing with the lives of all the ten Gurus.
In 1766, Ahmad Shah of the Durrani Empire invaded the Sikh Confederacy, besieged Amritsar, massacred the populace and destroyed the city.
During Sikh Empire in 1822 Maharaja Ranjit Singh fortified the city starting from a wall at Katra Maha Singh area. Later, Sher Singh continued with the construction of the wall with twelve gates (Lahori Darwaza, Khazana, Hakeema, Rangar Nangalia, Gilwali, Ramgarhia, Doburji, Ahluwalia, Deori Kalan, Rambagh Deori, Shahzada and Lohgarh) in it and a fort named Dhoor Kot that had fortification 25 yards broad and 7 yards high. The circumference of the walled city was around five miles. When in 1849, British annexed Punjab, Amritsar was a walled city and they build thirteenth gate to it known as Hall Gate.
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, involving the killings of hundreds of Indian civilians on the orders of a senior British military officer, Reginald Edward Harry Dyer, took place on 13 April 1919 in the heart of Amritsar, the holiest city of the Sikhs, on a day sacred to them as the birth anniversary of the Khalsa (Vaisakhi day).
In Punjab, during World War I (1914–18), there was considerable unrest particularly among the Sikhs, first on account of the demolition of a boundary wall of Gurdwara Rakab Ganj at New Delhi and later because of the activities and trials of the Ghadarites, almost all of whom were Sikhs. In India as a whole, too, there had been a spurt in political activity mainly owing to the emergence of two leaders: Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948) who after a period of struggle against the British in South Africa, had returned to India in January 1915, and Annie Besant (1847–1933), head of the Theosophical Society of India, who on 11 April 1916 established the Home Rule League with autonomy for India as its goal. In December 1916, the Indian National Congress, at its annual session held at Lucknow, passed a resolution asking the king to issue a proclamation announcing that it is the "aim and intention of British policy to confer self-government on India at an early date".
On 10 April 1919, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, two popular proponents of the Satyagraha movement led by Gandhi, were called to the deputy commissioner's residence, arrested and sent off by car to Dharamsetla, a hill town, now in Himachal Pradesh. This led to a general strike in Amritsar. Excited groups of citizens soon merged into a crowd of about 50,000 marchings on to protest to the deputy commissioner against the arrest of the two leaders. The crowd, however, was stopped and fired upon near the railway foot-bridge. According to the official version, the number of those killed was 12 and of those wounded between 20 and 30. Evidence before an inquiry of the Indian National Congress put the number of the dead between 20 and 30.
Three days later, on 13 April, the traditional festival of Baisakhi, thousands of Sikhs, Muslims and Hindus gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh. An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 16:30, Dyer arrived with a group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Baluchi soldiers. Without warning the crowd to disperse, Dyer blocked the main exits and ordered his troops to begin shooting toward the densest sections of the crowd. Firing continued for approximately ten minutes. A British inquiry into the massacre placed the death toll at 379.The Indian National Congress determined that approximately 1,000 people were killed.
Operation Blue Star (1 – 6 June 1984) was an Indian military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of Indiato curb and remove Sikh militants from the Golden Temple in Amritsar. The operation was carried out by Indian army troops with tanks and armoured vehicles. Militarily successful, the operation aroused immense controversy, and the government's justification for the timing and style of the attack are hotly debated. Operation Blue Star was included in the Top 10 Political Disgraces by India Today magazine.
Official reports put the number of deaths among the Indian army at 83, with 493 civilians and Sikh militants killed.While independent estimates place the numbers upwards of 5,000 people, a majority of them pilgrims, including women and children. In addition, the CBI is considered responsible for seizing historical artefacts and manuscripts in the Sikh Reference Library before burning it down. Four months after the operation, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards in what is viewed as an act of vengeance. Following her assassination, more than 17,000 Sikhs were killed in the 1984 anti-Sikh riots.
Amritsar is located at metres (768 ft). Amritsar is located in the Majha region of the state of Punjab in North India lies about 15 miles (25 km) east of the border with Pakistan. Administrative towns includes Ajnala, Attari, Beas, Budha Theh, Chheharta Sahib, Jandiala Guru, Majitha, Rajasansi, Ramdass, Rayya, Verka Town and Baba Bakala.with an average elevation of 234
Typically for Northwestern India, Amritsar has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh) bordering on a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Cwa) and experiences four primary seasons: winter (December to March), when temperatures can drop to −1 °C (30 °F); summer (April to June), when temperatures can reach 45 °C (113 °F); monsoon (July to September); and post-monsoon (October to November). Annual rainfall is about 703.4 millimetres (27.7 in). The lowest recorded temperature is −3.6 °C (25.5 °F), was recorded on 9 December 1996 and the highest temperature, 47.8 °C (118.0 °F), was recorded on 9 June 1995. The official weather station for the city is the civil aerodrome at Rajasansi. Weather records here date back to 15 November 1947.
|Record high °C (°F)||26.8|
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||23.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||18.4|
|Average low °C (°F)||3.4|
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||−0.5|
|Record low °C (°F)||−2.9|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||26.2|
|Average rainy days||2.1||3.3||3.2||2.0||2.4||3.8||8.6||6.9||3.5||1.1||0.6||1.4||39.0|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||63||55||49||32||28||39||64||69||61||50||54||61||52|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||181.7||192.7||219.4||265.0||294.7||269.0||215.5||227.7||240.8||253.2||220.1||182.2||2,762|
|Source 1: India Meteorological Department|
|Source 2: NOAA (sun 1971–1990)|
As of the [update] 2011 census, Amritsar municipality had a population of 1,132,761 and the urban agglomeration had a population of 1,183,705. The municipality had a sex ratio of 879 females per 1,000 males and 9.7% of the population were under six years old. Effective literacy was 85.27%; male literacy was 88.09% and female literacy was 82.09%. The scheduled caste population is 28.8%
According to 2011 Census of India, Hinduism and Sikhism were the main religions of the Amritsar city at 49.4% and 48% of the population, respectively. In Amritsar city, Christianity was followed by 1.23% and Islam by 0.51%. Around 0.74% of the population of the city stated 'No Particular Religion' or another religion.
Amritsar is the holiest city in Sikhism and about 30 million people visit it each year for pilgrimage.
Amritsar is an attractive destination for tourists,especially those part of Golden Triangle. Major destinations are:
Amritsar is the second-largest city and district of Punjab. It is also one of the fastest-growing cities of Punjab. In the mid-1980s the city was famous for its textile industry. After the 1984 Sikh riots, Amritsar faced a blow in industrial growth, but there are still many textile mills present in the city. It is famous for its pashmina shawls, woolen clothes, blankets, etc. Among handicrafts, the craft of the Thatheras of Jandiala Guru in Amritsar district got enlisted on UNESCO's List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2014,and the effort to revive this craft under the umbrella of Project Virasat is among India's biggest government-sponsored craft revival programs.
Amritsar hosts Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport. The airport is connected to other parts of India and other countries with direct international flights to cities. The Airport is 12th busiest Airport of India in terms of International Traffic.The Airport serves not only Amritsar, but also may other districts in Punjab and neighbouring states.
Amritsar Junction Railway Station is the primary terminus station serving Amritsar. It is the busiest Railway Station in Indian State of Punjab and one of the highest revenue generating station of Northern Railways. Due to high traffic at the Amritsar Junction Railway Station, Indian Railways has planned to develop 2 satellite stations-Chheharta and Bhagtanwala, in order to decongest traffic at this station. As many as 6 trains would be shifted to Chheharta Railway Station in the first phase.The Indian Railway Stations Development Corporation has also planned to make the Amritsar Junction Railway Station, a world class railway station on lines of International Airport based on PPP Model. The project has received an overwhelming response with bids from 7 private firms, including GMR.
Amritsar is located on the historic Grand Trunk Road (G.T Road), also known as NH 1 now renumbered as National Highway 3. An expressway by name of Delhi-Amritsar-Katra Expressway at the cost of ₹25,000 crore is approved under Bharatmala scheme which will cut the travel time from Amritsar to New Delhi by road from current 8 hours, to 4 hours. Another expressway, called Amritsar Jamnagar Expressway is under construction which will connect Amritsar to Jamnagar in Rajasthan. Additionally, NH 54 (Old NH15), NH 354 and NH 503A connect Amritsar to other parts of state and rest of India. A ring road will also be built surrounding all 4 sides of Amritsar
₹ 450,000,000 is being spent to expand the Amritsar-Jalandhar stretch of G.T. Road to four lanes. In 2010, elevated road with four lanes connected to the National highway for better access to the Golden Temple has been started.
Amritsar has a bus rapid transit service, the Amritsar Metrobus which was launched on 28 January 2019. 93 fully air-conditioned Tata Marcopolo buses are used for the service connecting places like
Following cities are Sister Cities of Amritsar
Patiala is a city in southeastern Punjab, northwestern India. It is the fourth largest city in the state and is the administrative capital of Patiala district. Patiala is located around the Qila Mubarak constructed by the Sidhu Jat chieftain Ala Singh, who founded the royal dynasty of Patiala State in 1763, and after whom the city is named.
Operation Blue Star was the codename of a military operation carried out by Indian security forces between 1 and 10 June 1984 in order to Damdami Taksal leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his followers from the buildings of the Golden Temple, a holy site for Sikhs located in Amritsar, Punjab, India. The decision to launch the operation rested with the erstwhile Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, who had already authorized military preparation for a confrontation at the temple complex 18 months prior according to the then-Vice Chief of the Army Staff, S. K. Sinha. In July 1982, Harchand Singh Longowal, the president of the Sikh political party Shiromani Akali Dal, had invited Bhindranwale to take up residence in the Golden Temple to evade arrest by government authorities.
Jalandhar is third most-populous City in the Indian state of Punjab and Largest city in Doaba Region. Jalandhar lies alongside the Grand Trunk Road and is a well-connected rail and road junction. Jalandhar is 146 km northwest of Chandigarh, the state capital of Punjab and Haryana and 82.5 km (51.2 mi) South-East of Amritsar.
Jallianwala Bagh is a historic garden and ‘memorial of national importance’ which is close to the Golden Temple complex in Amritsar, Punjab, India, preserved in memory of those who were wounded and killed in the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre that occurred on the site on the festival of Baisakhi, 13 April 1919. The 7-acre (28,000 m2) site houses a museum, gallery and several memorial structures. It is managed by the Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Trust. It was renovated between 2019 and 2021.
Udham Singh was an Indian Marxist revolutionary belonging to Ghadar Party and HSRA, best known for assassinating Michael O'Dwyer, the former lieutenant governor of the Punjab in India, on 13 March 1940. The assassination was done in revenge for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar in 1919, for which O'Dwyer was responsible. Singh was subsequently tried and convicted of murder and hanged in July 1940. While in custody, he used the name Ram Mohammad Singh Azad, which represents the three major religions of India and his anti-colonial sentiment.
The Akal Takht is one of five takhts of the Sikhs. It is located in the Darbar Sahib complex in Amritsar, Punjab, India. The Akal Takht was built by Shri Guru Hargobind Ji as a place of justice and consideration of temporal issues; the highest seat of earthly authority of the Khalsa and the place of the Jathedar, the highest spokesman of the Sikhs. The current Jathedar of Akal Takht appointed by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee is Giani Harpreet Singh, while the Sarbat Khalsa calls for the reinstitution of Jagtar Singh Hawara.
Batala is the eighth largest city in the state of Punjab, India in terms of population after Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Patiala, Bathinda, Mohali and Hoshiarpur. Batala ranks as the second-oldest city after Bathinda. It is a municipal corporation in Gurdaspur district in the Majha region of the state of Punjab, India. It is located about 32 km from Gurdaspur, the headquarters of the district. It is also a Police District. Batala holds the status of the most populated town of the district with 31% of the total population of district. It is the biggest industrial town in the district. Batala is the centre of the Majha region of Punjab.
The Namdharis are a separate religion and followers of 'Kookaism' that differs from mainstream Sikhs chiefly in that it believes that the lineage of Sikh Gurus did not end with Guru Gobind Singh, thus continuing the succession of Sikh Gurus through the centuries from Guru Nanak Dev to the present day. Ram Singh Kuka who moved the sects centre to Bhaini Sahib (Ludhiana) and is regarded as the first Indian to use non-cooperation and non-violence boycott in order to combat the British Empire in India.
Majha is a region located in the central parts of the historical Punjab region split between India and Pakistan. It extends north from the right banks of the river Beas, and reaches as far north as the river Jhelum. People of the Majha region are given the demonym "Mājhī", however some people who belong to the this region use Majhail too. Most inhabitants of the region speak the Majhi dialect, which is the basis of the standard register of the Punjabi language. The most populous city in the area is Lahore on the Pakistani side and Amritsar on the Indian side of the border.
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919. A large but peaceful crowd had gathered at the Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab to protest against the arrest of pro-Indian independence leaders Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satya Pal. In response to the public gathering, the British Brigadier-General R. E. H. Dyer surrounded the Bagh with his soldiers. The Jallianwala Bagh could only be exited on one side, as its other three sides were enclosed by buildings. After blocking the exit with his troops, he ordered them to shoot at the crowd, continuing to fire even as the protestors tried to flee. The troops kept on firing until their ammunition was exhausted. Estimates of those killed vary between 379 and 1500+ people and over 1,200 other people were injured of whom 192 were seriously injured.
Patti is an Old City and a municipal council of the Tarn Taran district in the Majha region of Indian state of Punjab, located 47 Kilometres from Amritsar. Patti city also near of India bordering Pakistan. It is connected through rail starting from Amritsar station to Khem Karan station, with Khem Karan being its last station of India.
The economy of Punjab is the 16th largest state economy in India with ₹5.29 lakh crore (US$70 billion) (FY2020-21) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of US$2,090, ranking 19th amongst Indian states. Punjab ranked first in GDP per capita amongst Indian states in 1981 and fourth in 2001, but has experienced slower growth than the rest of India in recent years, having the second-slowest GDP per capita growth rate of all Indian states and UTs between 2000 and 2010, behind only Manipur. Between 1992 and 2014, Punjab's life expectancy also grew slower than most Indian states; while rising from 69.4 to 71.4 years, Punjab's rank amongst Indian states in life expectancy at birth fell from first to sixth.
Ramgarhia Bunga or Burj is the three-storeyed red stone watchtowers complex located near southeastern edge of the Golden Temple, Amritsar. The two minaret-style Ramgarhia Bunga high towers are visible from the parikrama (circumambulation) walkway around the Harmandir Sahib Sarovar. It is a pre-Ranjit Singh structure built by Sikh warrior and Ramgarhia misl chief Jassa Singh Ramgarhia in late 18th-century, after the 1762 destruction and desecration of the Sikh holy temple and site by the Afghan Muslim forces led by Ahmed Shah Abdali. The Bunga watchtowers-related infrastructure was constructed to station sentinels to watch for any surprise attack, house soldiers to help fortify the area, and to protect the holy complex from desecration.
Punjab is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the north and northeast, Haryana to the south and southeast, and Rajasthan to the southwest, by the Indian union territory of Chandigarh to the east, and by Jammu and Kashmir to the north. It is bordered by Punjab, a province of Pakistan to the west. The state covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres, 1.53% of India's total geographical area. It is the 20th-largest Indian state by area. With over 27 million inhabitants, Punjab is the 16th-largest state by population, comprising 23 districts. Punjabi, written in the Gurmukhi script, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The main ethnic group are the Punjabis, with Sikhs and Hindus as the dominant religious groups. The state capital is Chandigarh, a union territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. The five tributary rivers of the Indus River from which the region took its name are the Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum rivers; the Sutlej, Ravi and Beas rivers flow through the Indian Punjab.
The Golden Temple is a gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. It is the preeminent spiritual site of Sikhism.
Taragarh Talawa is a village which now officially called Taragarh located at two kilometers from Jandiala Guru, Amritsar district, Punjab, India on the Grand Trunk Road, located at 31° 33' 41N 75° 1'36E at an altitude of 229 m (754 ft).
The Akali movement, also called the Gurdwara Reform Movement, was a campaign to bring reform in the gurdwaras in India during the early 1920s. The movement led to the introduction of the Sikh Gurdwara Bill in 1925, which placed all the historical Sikh shrines in India under the control of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC).
The state of Punjab is renowned for its cuisine, culture and history. Punjab has a vast public transportation and communication network. Some of the main cities in Punjab are Amritsar, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Patiala, Mohali, Bathinda, Firozpur and Pathankot. Patiala is known for its historical forts. Punjab also has a rich Sikh religious history.
Ram Bagh is a garden built during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in Amritsar, Punjab, India. Ram Bagh palace also known as Ram Bagh Mahal, is a palace situated in the centre of this garden, which was used as the summer residence of Ranjit Singh. It was completed in 1831 and is named after the fourth guru of the Sikhs, Guru Ram Das, who founded the city of Amritsar. The whole Ram Bagh complex including the palace and other monuments is both a state protected monument and a monument of national importance. The complex is also at the centre of a long drawn legal battle, which has adversely affected its conservation and restoration.
Amritsar is a city situated in the state of northern Punjab, the northwestern region of India. It is 25 kilometres away from the Pakistan border. This important Punjab city is the main centre of commerce, culture, and transportation. It is the centre of Sikhism and the principal place of worship for Sikhs. Amritsar is attractive destination for tourists, especially those part of Golden Triangle. Major destinations are:
around 17,000 Sikhs were burned alive or killed
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Amritsar .|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Amritsar .|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Amritsar|