|Coordinates: 31°38′N74°52′E / 31.64°N 74.86°E|
|Founded by||Guru Ram Das|
|• Body||Amritsar Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Karamjit Singh Rintu (AAP)|
|• Deputy Commissioner||Gurpreet SIngh Khaira |
|• Metropolis||240 km2 (90 sq mi)|
|• Rank||2nd in Punjab|
|• Density||6,600/km2 (17,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro rank||44th|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Telephone code||91 183 XXX XXXX|
|Vehicle registration||PB-01 (commercial vehicles), PB-02|
Amritsar (Punjabi pronunciation: [əmːˈɾɪtsəɾ] ( listen )), historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar   , is the second largest city in the Indian state of Punjab, after Ludhiana. It is a major cultural, transportation and economic centre, located in the Majha region of Punjab. The city is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district. It is situated 217 km (135 mi) north-west of Chandigarh, 455 km (283 mi) north-west of New Delhi, and 47 km (29 mi) north-east of Lahore, Pakistan, with the India-Pakistan border only 28 km (17.4 mi) away.
According to the 2011 census, the city had a population of 1,989,961. It is one of the ten municipal corporations in the state; Karamjit Singh Rintu is serving as the mayor of the city.  According to the United Nations, as of 2018, Amritsar is the second-most populous city in Punjab and the most populous metropolitan region in the state with a population of roughly 2 million. Amritsar is the centre of the Amritsar Metropolitan Region.
Amritsar is the economic capital of Punjab. It is a major tourist centre with nearly a hundred thousand daily visitors. The city has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY scheme of the Government of India.  It is home the Golden Temple, one of Sikhism religion's most spiritually significant and most-visited gurudwaras. The city is also known for Amritsari food, its wooden chessboards and chess pieces manufacturing industry. 
The Bhagwan Valmiki Tirath Sthal situated at Amritsar is believed to be the Ashram site of Maharishi Valmiki, the writer of Ramayana.   As per the Ramayana, Sita gave birth to Lava and Kusha, sons of lord Rama at Ramtirath ashram. Large number of people visit Ramtirath Temple at annual fair. Nearby cities to Amritsar, Lahore and Kasur were believed to be founded by Lava and Kusha, respectively. It is believed that During Ashvamedha Yajna by Lord Rama, Lava and Kush caught the ritual horse and tied Lord Hanuman to a tree near to today's Durgiana Temple.[ citation needed ]
Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh guru is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition.   Two versions of stories exist regarding the land where Guru Ram Das Ji settled. In one based on a Gazetteer record, the land was purchased with Sikh donations, for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. 
According to the historical Sikh records, the site was chosen by Guru Amar Das and called Guru Da Chakk, after he had asked Ram Das to find land to start a new town with a man-made pool as its central point.   After his coronation in 1574, and the hostile opposition he faced from the sons of Guru Amar Das,  Guru Ram Das ji founded the town named after him as "Ramdaspur". He started by completing the pool, and building his new official Guru centre and home next to it. He invited merchants and artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him. The town expanded during the time of Guru Arjan Dev ji financed by donations and constructed by voluntary work. The town grew to become the city of Amritsar, and the pool area grew into a temple complex after his son built the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, and installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604. 
The construction activity between 1574 and 1604 is described in Mahima Prakash Vartak, a semi-historical Sikh hagiography text likely composed in 1741, and the earliest known document dealing with the lives of all the ten Gurus. 
In 1762 and 1766–1767, Ahmad Shah of the Durrani Empire invaded the Sikh Confederacy, besieged Amritsar, massacred the populace and destroyed the city. 
During Sikh Empire in 1822 Maharaja Ranjit Singh fortified the city starting from a wall at Katra Maha Singh area. Later, Sher Singh continued with the construction of the wall with twelve gates (Lahori Darwaza, Khazana, Hakeema, Rangar Nangalia, Gilwali, Ramgarhia, Doburji, Ahluwalia, Deori Kalan, Rambagh Deori, Shahzada and Lohgarh) in it and a fort named Dhoor Kot that had fortification 25 yards broad and 7 yards high. The circumference of the walled city was around five miles. When in 1849, British annexed Punjab, Amritsar was a walled city and they built a thirteenth gate to it known as Hall Gate. 
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, involving the killings of hundreds of Indian civilians on the orders of British Colonel Reginald Edward Harry Dyer, took place on 13 April 1919 in the heart of Amritsar, the holiest city of the Sikhs, on a day sacred to them as the birth anniversary of the Khalsa (Vaisakhi day). 
In Punjab, during World War I (1914–18), there was considerable unrest particularly among the Sikhs, first on account of the demolition of a boundary wall of Gurdwara Rakab Ganj at New Delhi and later because of the activities and trials of the Ghadarites, almost all of whom were Sikhs. In India as a whole, too, there had been a spurt in political activity mainly owing to the emergence of two leaders: Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948) who after a period of struggle against the British in South Africa, had returned to India in January 1915, and Annie Besant (1847–1933), head of the Theosophical Society of India, who on 11 April 1916 established the Home Rule League with autonomy for India as its goal. In December 1916, the Indian National Congress, at its annual session held at Lucknow, passed a resolution asking the king to issue a proclamation announcing that it is the "aim and intention of British policy to confer self-government on India at an early date". 
On 10 April 1919, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, two popular proponents of the Satyagraha movement led by Gandhi, were called to the deputy commissioner's residence, arrested and sent off by car to Dharamsetla, a hill town, now in Himachal Pradesh. This led to a general strike in Amritsar. Excited groups of citizens soon merged into a crowd of about 50,000 marchings on to protest to the deputy commissioner against the arrest of the two leaders. The crowd, however, was stopped and fired upon near the railway foot-bridge. According to the official version, the number of those killed was 12 and of those wounded between 20 and 30. Evidence before an inquiry of the Indian National Congress put the number of the dead between 20 and 30.[ citation needed ]
Three days later, on 13 April, the traditional festival of Baisakhi, thousands of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh. An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 16:30, Dyer arrived with a group of sixty-five Gurkha soldiers (from the 9th Gorkha Rifles) and twenty-five Baluchi soldiers (from the 59th Scinde Rifles). Without warning the crowd to disperse, Dyer blocked the main exits and ordered his troops to begin shooting toward the densest sections of the crowd; the firing continued for approximately ten minutes. A British government inquiry into the massacre placed the death toll at 379.  The Indian National Congress, on the other hand, estimated that approximately 1,000 people were killed. 
Operation Blue Star (1 – 6 June 1984) was an Indian military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India  to curb and remove Sikh militants from the Golden Temple in Amritsar. The operation was carried out by Indian army troops with tanks and armoured vehicles.  Militarily successful, the operation aroused immense controversy, and the government's justification for the timing and style of the attack are hotly debated.  Operation Blue Star was included in the Top 10 Political Disgraces by India Today magazine. 
Official reports put the number of deaths among the Indian army at 83, with 493 civilians and Sikh militants killed.   While independent estimates place the numbers upwards of 5,000 people, a majority of them pilgrims, including women and children.  In addition, the CBI is considered responsible for seizing historical artefacts and manuscripts in the Sikh Reference Library before burning it down.   Four months after the operation, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards in what is viewed as an act of vengeance. Following her assassination, more than 17,000 Sikhs were killed in the 1984 anti-Sikh riots. 
Amritsar is located at 31°38′N74°52′E / 31.63°N 74.87°E  with an average elevation of 234 metres (768 ft) in the Majha region of the state of Punjab in North India and lies about 15 miles (24 km) east of the border with Pakistan. Administrative towns includes Ajnala, Attari, Beas, Budha Theh, Chheharta Sahib, Jandiala Guru, Majitha, Rajasansi, Ramdass, Rayya, Verka Town and Baba Bakala.[ citation needed ]
Typically for Northwestern India, Amritsar has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh) bordering on a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Cwa). Temperatures in Amritsar usually range from −1 to 45 °C (30 to 113 °F). It experiences four primary seasons: winter (December to March), when temperatures can drop to −1 °C (30 °F); summer (April to June), when temperatures can reach 45 °C (113 °F); monsoon (July to September); and post-monsoon (October to November). Annual rainfall is about 726.0 millimetres (28.6 in).  The lowest recorded temperature is −3.6 °C (25.5 °F), was recorded on 9 December 1996 and the highest temperature, 48.0 °C (118.4 °F), was recorded on 23 May 2013.  The official weather station for the city is the civil aerodrome at Rajasansi. Weather records here date back to 15 November 1947.[ citation needed ]
|Record high °C (°F)||26.8|
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||22.7|
|Average high °C (°F)||17.7|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||11.0|
|Average low °C (°F)||3.8|
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||−0.3|
|Record low °C (°F)||−2.9|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||27.1|
|Average rainy days||2.1||3.1||2.4||1.9||2.0||4.8||8.1||7.0||3.7||1.0||0.6||0.8||37.4|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||68||58||50||32||26||40||65||70||64||52||53||63||53|
|Average dew point °C (°F)||7.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||181.7||192.7||219.4||265.0||294.7||269.0||215.5||227.7||240.8||253.2||220.1||182.2||2,762|
|Average ultraviolet index||2||4||6||7||8||9||7||6||5||5||4||2||5|
|Source 1: India Meteorological Department    Time and Date (dewpoints, 2005-2015) |
|Source 2: NOAA (sun 1971–1990)  Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1991–2020);  Weather Atlas |
As of the [update] 2011 census, Amritsar municipality had a population of 1,132,761  and the urban agglomeration had a population of 1,183,705.  The municipality had a sex ratio of 879 females per 1,000 males and 9.7% of the population were under six years old.  Effective literacy was 85.27%; male literacy was 88.09% and female literacy was 82.09%.  The scheduled caste population is 28.8% 
|Religion in Amritsar City (2011) |
According to 2011 Census of India, Hinduism is the main religion of the Amritsar city at 49.5% of the population, followed by Sikhism (47.9%), Christianity (1.2%), and Islam (0.5%). Around 0.9% of the population of the city stated 'No Particular Religion' or other religion. 
Amritsar is the holiest city in Sikhism and about 80 million people visit it each year for pilgrimage. 
| Religious |
|1891  : 68||1901  : 44||1911  : 20||1921  : 23||1931  : 26||1941  : 32||2011 |
|Hinduism||56,652||41.42%||65,117||40.09%||58,720||38.44%||65,313||40.77%||98,001 [lower-alpha 2]||37%||144,522 [lower-alpha 2]||36.96%||572,076||49.5%|
The city is part of the Amritsar (Lok Sabha constituency).
|Constituency number||Constituency name||Reserved for (SC/None)||Electors (2017)  [ needs update ]||District |
Amritsar is the second-largest city and district of Punjab. It is also one of the fastest-growing cities of Punjab. In the mid-1980s the city was famous for its textile industry. Amritsar’s trade and industry faced a blow during militancy period in 1980s, but there are still many textile mills, knitting units and embroidery factories functional in the city. It is famous for its pashmina shawls, woolen clothes, blankets, etc. Among handicrafts, the craft of the Thatheras of Jandiala Guru in Amritsar district got enlisted on UNESCO's List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2014,  and the effort to revive this craft under the umbrella of Project Virasat is among India's biggest government-sponsored craft revival programs.  Tourism and hospitality have recently become the backbone of local economy due to heavy tourist arrivals. Hundreds of small and some large hotels have sprung up to cater to the increased tourist inflow. Restaurants, taxi operators, local shopkeepers have all benefited from the tourist boom.[ citation needed ]
Amritsar hosts Sri Guru Ramdasji International Airport. The airport is connected to other parts of India and other countries with direct international flights to cities and is the 12th busiest airport in the country in terms of international traffic.  It serves Amritsar and several other districts in Punjab and neighbouring states.[ citation needed ]
Amritsar Central Railway Station is the main station serving Amritsar. It is the busiest Railway Station in Indian State of Punjab and one of the highest revenue generating station of Northern Railways. Due to high traffic at the Amritsar Central Railway Station, Indian Railways has planned to develop 2 satellite stations-Chheharta and Bhagtanwala, in order to decongest traffic at this station. As many as 6 trains would be shifted to Chheharta Railway Station in the first phase.  The Indian Railway Stations Development Corporation has also planned to make the Amritsar Central Railway Station, a world class railway station on lines of International Airport based on PPP Model. The project has received an overwhelming response with bids from 7 private firms, including GMR. 
Amritsar is located on the historic Grand Trunk Road (G.T Road), also known as NH 1 now renumbered as National Highway 3. An expressway by name of Delhi-Amritsar-Katra Expressway at the cost of ₹25,000 crore is approved under Bharatmala scheme which will cut the travel time from Amritsar to New Delhi by road from current 8 hours, to 4 hours.  Another expressway, called Amritsar Jamnagar Expressway is under construction which will connect Amritsar to Jamnagar in Gujarat. Additionally, NH 54 (Old NH15), NH 354 and NH 503A connect Amritsar to other parts of state and rest of India. A ring road will also be built surrounding all 4 sides of Amritsar 
₹ 450,000,000 is being spent to expand the Amritsar-Jalandhar stretch of G.T. Road to four lanes. In 2010, elevated road with four lanes connected to the National highway for better access to the Golden Temple has been started. 
Amritsar has a bus rapid transit service, the Amritsar Metrobus which was launched on 28 January 2019. 93 fully air-conditioned Tata Marcopolo buses are used for the service connecting places like[ citation needed ]
Following cities are Sister Cities of Amritsar:
Patiala is a city in southeastern Punjab, northwestern India. It is the fourth largest city in the state and is the administrative capital of Patiala district. Patiala is located around the Qila Mubarak constructed by the Sidhu Jat Sikh chieftain Ala Singh, who founded the royal dynasty of Patiala State in 1763, and after whom the city is named.
Jalandhar is a city in the Indian state of Punjab. With a considerable population, it ranks as the third most-populous city in the state and is the largest city in Doaba region. Jalandhar lies alongside the historical Grand Trunk Road and is a well-connected junction for both rail and road networks.
Jallianwala Bagh is a historic garden and memorial of national importance close to the Golden Temple complex in Amritsar, Punjab, India, preserved in the memory of those wounded and killed in the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre that took place on the site on the festival of Baisakhi, 13 April 1919. The 7-acre (28,000 m2) site houses a museum, gallery and several memorial structures. It is managed by the Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Trust, and was renovated between 2019 and 2021.
Udham Singh was an Indian revolutionary belonging to Ghadar Party and HSRA, best known for assassinating Michael O'Dwyer, the former lieutenant governor of the Punjab in India, on 13 March 1940. The assassination was done in revenge for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar in 1919, for which O'Dwyer was responsible. Singh was subsequently tried and convicted of murder and hanged in July 1940. While in custody, he used the name Ram Mohammad Singh Azad, which represents the three major religions in India and his anti-colonial sentiment.
Batala is the eighth largest city in the state of Punjab, India in terms of population after Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Patiala, Bathinda, Mohali and Hoshiarpur. Batala ranks as the second-oldest city after Bathinda. It is a municipal corporation in Gurdaspur district in the Majha region of the state of Punjab, India. It is located about 32 km from Gurdaspur, the headquarters of the district. It is also a Police District. Batala holds the status of the most populated town of the district with 31% of the total population of district. It is the biggest industrial town in the district. Batala is the centre of the Majha region of Punjab.
The Namdharis, also known as Kuka and Kukaism, are a Sikh sect that differs from mainstream Sikhs chiefly in that it believes that the lineage of Sikh Gurus did not end with Guru Gobind Singh (1666–1708), as they recognize Balak Singh (1797–1862) as the 11th Guru of the Sikh religion, thus continuing the succession of Sikh Gurus through the centuries from Guru Nanak Dev to the present day. The 12th Guru was Ram Singh (1816–1885), who moved the sects centre to Bhaini Sahib (Ludhiana) and is regarded as the first Indian to use non-cooperation and non-violence boycott in order to combat the British Empire in India.
Majha is a region located in the central parts of the historical Punjab region split between India and Pakistan. It extends north from the right banks of the river Beas, and reaches as far north as the river Jhelum. People of the Majha region are given the demonym "Mājhī" or "Majhail". Most inhabitants of the region speak the Majhi dialect, which is the basis of the standard register of the Punjabi language. The most populous city in the area is Lahore on the Pakistani side, and Amritsar on the Indian side of the border.
Tarn Taran district is one of the districts in the Majha region of Punjab, India. The main cities are Tarn Taran Sahib, Bhikhiwind, Khadur Sahib and Patti. The City of Tarn Taran Sahib is a holy place for Sikhs.
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919. A large, peaceful crowd had gathered at the Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab, British India, to protest against the Rowlatt Act and arrest of pro-independence activists Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satyapal. In response to the public gathering, the temporary brigadier general R. E. H. Dyer, surrounded the protesters with his Gurkha, Baloch, Rajput and Sikh troops from 2-9th Gurkhas, the 54th Sikhs and the 59th Scinde Rifles of the British Indian Army. The Jallianwala Bagh could only be exited on one side, as its other three sides were enclosed by buildings. After blocking the exit with his troops, he ordered them to shoot at the crowd, continuing to fire even as the protestors tried to flee. The troops kept on firing until their ammunition was exhausted. Estimates of those killed vary from 379 to 1,500 or more people and over 1,200 other people were injured of whom 192 were seriously injured. Britain has never formally apologised for the massacre but expressed "deep regret" in 2019.
Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir was an Indian politician and Punjabi language writer. He was the Chief Minister of Punjab from 1 November 1966 to 8 March 1967.
Patti is an old city, near Tarn Taran Sahib city and a municipal council of the Tarn Taran district in the Majha region of Indian state of Punjab, located 47 Kilometres from Amritsar. Patti city is situated close to the Pakistani border. It is connected through a rail network starting from Amritsar station to Khem Karan station, with Khem Karan being its last station of India.
Ramgarhia Bunga or Burj is the three-storeyed red stone watchtowers complex located near southeastern edge of the Golden Temple, Amritsar. The two minaret-style Ramgarhia Bunga high towers are visible from the parikrama (circumambulation) walkway around the Harmandir Sahib Sarovar. It is a pre-Ranjit Singh structure built by Sikh warrior and Ramgarhia misl chief Jassa Singh Ramgarhia in late 18th-century, after the 1762 destruction and desecration of the Sikh holy temple and site by the Afghan Muslim forces led by Ahmed Shah Abdali. The Bunga watchtowers-related infrastructure was constructed to station sentinels to watch for any surprise attack, house soldiers to help fortify the area, and to protect the holy complex from desecration.
Punjab is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the north and northeast, Haryana to the south and southeast, and Rajasthan to the southwest; by the Indian union territories of Chandigarh to the east and Jammu and Kashmir to the north. It shares an international border with Punjab, a province of Pakistan to the west. The state covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres, which is 1.53% of India's total geographical area, making it the 19th-largest Indian state by area out of 28 Indian states. With over 27 million inhabitants, Punjab is the 16th-largest Indian state by population, comprising 23 districts. Punjabi, written in the Gurmukhi script, is the most widely spoken and the official language of the state. The main ethnic groups are the Punjabis, with Sikhs (58%) as the dominant religious group with a Hindu (38%) minority. The state capital is Chandigarh, a union territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. Three tributaries of the Indus, viz., Sutlej, Beas, and Ravi, flow through Punjab.
The Golden Temple is a gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. It is the preeminent spiritual site of Sikhism. It is one of the holiest sites in Sikhism, alongside the Gurdwara Darbar Sahib Kartarpur in Kartarpur, and Gurdwara Janam Asthan in Nankana Sahib.
Taragarh Talawa is a village which now officially called Taragarh located at two kilometers from Jandiala Guru, Amritsar district, Punjab, India on the Grand Trunk Road, located at 31° 33' 41N 75° 1'36E at an altitude of 229 m (754 ft).
The state of Punjab is renowned for its cuisine, culture and history. Punjab has a vast public transportation and communication network.
Ram Bagh is a garden built during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in Amritsar, Punjab, India. Ram Bagh palace also known as Ram Bagh Mahal, is a palace situated in the centre of this garden, which was used as the summer residence of Ranjit Singh. It was completed in 1831 and is named after the fourth guru of the Sikhs, Guru Ram Das, who founded the city of Amritsar. The whole Ram Bagh complex including the palace and other monuments is both a state protected monument and a monument of national importance. The complex is also at the centre of a long drawn legal battle, which has adversely affected its conservation and restoration.
Chandpur Rurki is a village in Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar district of Punjab State, India. It is located 5.1 kilometres (3.2 mi) away postal head office Saroa, 27.4 kilometres (17.0 mi) from Banga, 31 kilometres (19 mi) from district headquarter Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar and 95.6 kilometres (59.4 mi) from state capital Chandigarh. The village is administrated by Sarpanch an elected representative of the village.
Sardar Bahadur Sir Arur Singh Shergill was Sikh magistrate and civil judge who served as the manager of Darbar Sahib and the 10th Jathedar of the Akal Takht, as a sarbarah appointed by the British Raj from 1907 to 1920.
Amritsar is a city situated in the state of northern Punjab, the northwestern region of India. It is 25 kilometres away from the Pakistan border. This important Punjab city is the main centre of commerce, culture, and transportation. It is the centre of Sikhism and the principal place of worship for Sikhs. Amritsar is attractive destination for tourists, especially those part of Golden Triangle. Major destinations are:
Amritsar, the principal place of Sikh worship, was not established at Ram-Raoni, but, in fact, Ram-Raoni was established near the Sikh place of worship at Amritsar (called Ambarsar by illiterate people) which had been founded by Guru Ramdas in 1574, one hundred and seventy-four years before the Ram-Raoni came into existence.
Amritsar (q.v.), the city that includes the Harimandar Sahib Temple complex, was not established at Ram-Raoni (q.v.) as stated by Polier which is nearby. Amritsar, pronounced Ambarsar by unlettered rural dialects of Punjab, was founded by Guru Ramdas (q.v.) in 1574, 174 years before the Ram-Raoni came into existence. The town had earlier been called Ramdaspur, Chakk Ramdas, or simply Chakk Guru (q.v.), and was marked as such in eighteenth century maps of the area.
around 17,000 Sikhs were burned alive or killed