Amritsar

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Amritsar
DARBAR SAHIB.jpg
The Harmandir Sahib of Amritsar
Nicknames: 
India Punjab location map.svg
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Amritsar
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Amritsar
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Amritsar
Coordinates: 31°38′N74°52′E / 31.64°N 74.86°E / 31.64; 74.86 Coordinates: 31°38′N74°52′E / 31.64°N 74.86°E / 31.64; 74.86
Country Flag of India.svg India
State Punjab
District Amritsar
Founded by Guru Ram Das
Government
  TypeMunicipality
  BodyMunicipal Corporation Amritsar
  Commissioner of PoliceSh. S. Srivastava
  Deputy commissionerKamaldeep Singh sangha
Area
   Metropolis 170 km2 (70 sq mi)
Population
(2011)
   Metropolis 1,132,761
  Density6,700/km2 (17,000/sq mi)
   Metro
[1]
1,183,705
Demonym(s) Amritsari (Ambarsariya)
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
143-001
Telephone code91 183 XXX XXXX
Vehicle registration PB01(Commercial), PB-02, PB-89
Website www.amritsarcorp.com

Amritsar ( Loudspeaker.svg pronunciation  ; Punjabi pronunciation:  [əmːɾɪtsəɾ] ), historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in northwestern India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district and is located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.

India Country in South Asia

India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Amritsar district District in Punjab, India

Amritsar district is one of 22 districts located in the Majha region of the state of Punjab in North India. The city of Amritsar is the headquarters of this district.

Contents

According to the 2011 census, the population of Amritsar was 1,132,761. It is one of ten Municipal Corporations in the state and Karamjit Singh Rintu is the current mayor of the city. [2] The city is situated 217 km (135 mi) northwest of state capital Chandigarh and 455 km (283 miles) northwest of New Delhi, the national capital. It is near Pakistan, with the Wagah Border being only 28 km (17.4 mi) away.

Chandigarh Union Territory in North India

Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana. The city is unique as it is not a part of either of the two states but is governed directly by the Union Government, which administers all such territories in the country.

New Delhi Capital City / District in Delhi, India

New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of the Government of India.

Pakistan federal parliamentary constitutional republic in South Asia

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

Amritsar has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India. [3] Amritsar is home to the Harmandir Sahib, popularly known as "the Golden Temple," one of Sikhism's most spiritually significant and most-visited gurudwaras.

Golden Temple the most sacred site in Sikhism

The Harmandir Sahib also known as Darbar Sahib, is a Golden Gurdwara Sahib of sikhs located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. It is the holiest Gurdwara and the most important pilgrimage site of Sikhism.. It is usually called the Golden Temple in English.

Sikhism, or SikhiSikkhī, pronounced [ˈsɪkːʰiː], from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", "seeker," or "learner") is a religion that originated in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent around the end of the 15th century, and has variously been defined as monotheistic, monistic and panentheistic. It derived from the prevalent Bhakti traditions in North India. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the world's fifth largest organized religion, as well as being the world's ninth-largest overall religion. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them living in Punjab, according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica.

History

The Bhagwan Valmiki Tirath Sthal situated at Amritsar is believed to be the Ashram site of Maharishi Valmiki, the writer of Ramayana. [4] [5] As per the Ramayana, Sita gave birth to Lava and Kusha, sons of lord Rama at Ramtirth ashram. Large number of people visit Ramtirth Temple at annual fair. Nearby cities to Amritsar, Lahore and Kasur were said to be founded by Lava and Kusha, respectively. During Ashvamedha Yagna by Lord Rama, Lava and Kush captured the ritual horse and tied Lord Hanuman to a tree near to today's Durgiana Temple. During Navratra festivities it is considered to be auspicious by Hindu population of the city to visit that temple. [6] [ better source needed ]

Bhagwan Valmiki Tirath Sthal building in India

Bhagwan Valmiki Tirath Sthal or Bhagwan Valmiki Mandir is temple panorama complex and an important historical monument of Valmikis located at Bhagwan Valmiki Tirath road of Amritsar city. Since 1 December 2016, it has an 8 foot tall 800 kg gold plated idol of Lord Valmiki in main section.

Ashram Hindu spiritual hermitage or a monastery

Traditionally, an ashram-Hindi is a spiritual hermitage or a monastery in Indian religions.

Valmiki Legendary Indian poet, author of the Ramayana

Valmiki is celebrated as the harbinger-poet in Sanskrit literature. The epic Ramayana, dated variously from 5th century BCE to first century BCE, is attributed to him, based on the attribution in the text itself. He is revered as Ādi Kavi, the first poet, author of Ramayana, the first epic poem.

Founding of Amritsar City

Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh guru is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition. [7] [8] Two versions of stories exist regarding the land where Ram Das settled. In one based on a Gazetteer record, the land was purchased with Sikh donations, for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. [9]

Guru Ram Das The fourth Guru of Sikhism

Guru Ram Das was the fourth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism. He was born on 24 September 1534 in a poor Hindu family based in Lahore, part of what is now Pakistan. His birth name was Jetha, he was orphaned at age 7, and thereafter grew up with his maternal grandmother in a village.

Tung, Sikkim Village in Sikkim, India

Tung is a village in the Chungthang subdivision of North Sikkim district in the north Indian state of Sikkim. The Ministry of Home Affairs has given it a geographical code of 260863.

According to the Sikh historical records, the site was chosen by Guru Amar Das and called Guru Da Chakk, after he had asked Ram Das to find land to start a new town with a man made pool as its central point. [10] [11] After his coronation in 1574, and the hostile opposition he faced from the sons of Amar Das, [12] Ram Das founded the town named after him as "Ramdaspur". He started by completing the pool, and building his new official Guru centre and home next to it. He invited merchants and artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him. The town expanded during the time of Arjan financed by donations and constructed by voluntary work. The town grew to become the city of Amritsar, and the pool area grew into a temple complex after his son built the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, and installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604. [8]

Guru Amar Das The third Guru of Sikhism

Guru Amar Das was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Sikh Guru on 26 March 1552 at age 73.

<i>Gurdwara</i> place of worship for Sikhs

A gurdwara is a place of assembly and worship for Sikhs. People from all faiths, and those who do not profess any faith, are welcomed in Sikh gurdwaras. Each gurdwara has a Darbar Sahib where the current and everlasting guru of the Sikhs, the scripture Guru Granth Sahib, is placed on a takhat in a prominent central position. The raagis recite, sing and explain, the verses from the Guru Granth Sahib, in the presence of the congregation.

The construction activity between 1574 and 1604 is described in Mahima Prakash Vartak, a semi-historical Sikh hagiography text likely composed in 1741, and the earliest known document dealing with the lives of all the ten Gurus. [13]

Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib near the Golden Temple. Ranjit Singh at Harmandir Sahib - August Schoefft - Vienna 1850 - Princess Bamba Collection - Lahore Fort.jpg
Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib near the Golden Temple.

Jallianwala Bagh massacre

The Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919, months after the massacre Jallianwallah.jpg
The Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919, months after the massacre
Bullet marks on the walls of the park premises BulletMarks.JPG
Bullet marks on the walls of the park premises

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, involving the killings of hundreds of Indian civilians on the orders of a senior British military officer, Reginald Edward Harry Dyer, took place on 13 April 1919 in the heart of Amritsar, the holiest city of the Sikhs, on a day sacred to them as the birth anniversary of the Khalsa (Vaisakhi day).

In the Punjab, during World War I (1914–18), there was considerable unrest particularly among the Sikhs, first on account of the demolition of a boundary wall of Gurdwara Rakab Ganj at New Delhi and later because of the activities and trials of the Ghadarites, almost all of whom were Sikhs. In India as a whole, too, there had been a spurt in political activity mainly owing to the emergence of two leaders: Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948) who after a period of struggle against the British in South Africa, had returned to India in January 1915, and Annie Besant (1847–1933), head of the Theosophical Society of India, who on 11 April 1916 established the Home Rule League with autonomy for India as its goal. In December 1916, the Indian National Congress, at its annual session held at Lucknow, passed a resolution asking the king to issue a proclamation announcing that it is the "aim and intention of British policy to confer self-government on India at an early date". [14]

On 10 April 1919, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, two popular proponents of the Satyagraha movement led by Gandhi, were called to the deputy commissioner's residence, arrested and sent off by car to Dharamsetla, a hill town, now in Himachal Pradesh. This led to a general strike in Amritsar. Excited groups of citizens soon merged into a crowd of about 50,000 marching on to protest to the deputy commissioner against the arrest of the two leaders. The crowd, however, was stopped and fired upon near the railway foot-bridge. According to the official version, the number of those killed was 12 and of those wounded between 20 and 30. Evidence before an inquiry of the Indian National Congress put the number of the dead between 20 and 30.

Three days later, on 13 April, the traditional festival of Baisakhi, thousands of Sikhs, Muslims and Hindus gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh. An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 16:30, Dyer arrived with a group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Baluchi soldiers. Without warning the crowd to disperse, Dyer blocked the main exits and ordered his troops to begin shooting toward the densest sections of the crowd. Firing continued for approximately ten minutes. A British inquiry into the massacre placed the death toll at 379. The Indian National Congress determined that approximately 1,000 people were killed.

Operation Blue Star

Operation Blue Star (1 – 6 June 1984) was an Indian military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India [15] to curb and remove Sikh militants from the Golden Temple in Amritsar. The operation was carried out by Indian army troops with tanks and armoured vehicles. [16] Militarily successful, the operation aroused immense controversy, and the government's justification for the timing and style of the attack are hotly debated. [17] Operation Blue Star was included in the Top 10 Political Disgraces by India Today magazine. [18]

Official reports put the number of deaths among the Indian army at 83, with 493 civilians and Sikh militants killed. [19] [20] In addition, the CBI is considered responsible for seizing historical artefacts and manuscripts in the Sikh Reference Library before burning it down. [21] [22] Four months after the operation, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards in what is viewed as an act of vengeance. Following her assassination, more than 3,000 Sikhs were killed in anti-Sikh pogroms. [23]

Geography and climate

Amritsar is located at 31°38′N74°52′E / 31.63°N 74.87°E / 31.63; 74.87 [24] with an average elevation of 234 metres (768 ft).

Amritsar has a semiarid climate, typical of Northwestern India and experiences four seasons primarily: winter season (December to March) with temperature ranges from 0 °C (32 °F) to about 15 °C (59 °F), summer season (April to June) where temperatures can reach 42 °C (108 °F), monsoon season (July to September) and post-monsoon season (October to November). Annual rainfall is about 681 millimetres (26.8 in). [25] The lowest recorded temperature is −3.6 °C (25.5 °F), was recorded on 9 December 1996 and the highest temperature, 48.1 °C (118.6 °F), was recorded on 22 May 2013. [26] [27]

Climate data for Amritsar
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)29.0
(84.2)
31.1
(88.0)
35.7
(96.3)
41.9
(107.4)
48.1
(118.6)
46.2
(115.2)
42.0
(107.6)
37.2
(99.0)
36.5
(97.7)
34.6
(94.3)
29.3
(84.7)
23.2
(73.8)
48.1
(118.6)
Average high °C (°F)19.3
(66.7)
22.2
(72.0)
27.4
(81.3)
34.0
(93.2)
38.7
(101.7)
40.1
(104.2)
35.4
(95.7)
34.3
(93.7)
34.5
(94.1)
32.4
(90.3)
26.9
(80.4)
21.3
(70.3)
30.5
(86.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)11.6
(52.9)
13.9
(57.0)
18.7
(65.7)
25.1
(77.2)
29.9
(85.8)
32.1
(89.8)
30.2
(86.4)
29.7
(85.5)
28.3
(82.9)
23.8
(74.8)
17.9
(64.2)
12.9
(55.2)
22.8
(73.0)
Average low °C (°F)3.9
(39.0)
6.5
(43.7)
11.3
(52.3)
16.6
(61.9)
21.1
(70.0)
25.1
(77.2)
25.7
(78.3)
25.3
(77.5)
23.0
(73.4)
16.3
(61.3)
9.0
(48.2)
4.6
(40.3)
15.7
(60.3)
Record low °C (°F)−3.5
(25.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
2.6
(36.7)
5.7
(42.3)
7.7
(45.9)
13.8
(56.8)
14.0
(57.2)
15.0
(59.0)
10.5
(50.9)
4.6
(40.3)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.7
(27.1)
−3.5
(25.7)
Average rainfall mm (inches)24
(0.9)
33
(1.3)
48
(1.9)
29
(1.1)
25
(1.0)
62
(2.4)
231
(9.1)
187
(7.4)
79
(3.1)
18
(0.7)
6
(0.2)
18
(0.7)
760
(29.8)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)2.42.02.61.51.33.18.28.13.61.20.61.235.8
Average relative humidity (%)74706447384872776967737665
Mean monthly sunshine hours 181.7192.7219.4265.0294.7269.0215.5227.7240.8253.2220.1182.22,762
Source: [26] [28]

Administrative towns

Demographics

As of the 2011 census, Amritsar municipality had a population of 1,132,761 [29] and the urban agglomeration had a population of 1,183,705. [1] The municipality had a sex ratio of 879 females per 1,000 males and 9.7% of the population were under six years old. [29] Effective literacy was 85.27%; male literacy was 88.09% and female literacy was 82.09%. [29] The scheduled caste population is 28.8% [30]

Religion

Darshani Deori 27 September 2018.jpg
Golden Temple, Amristar.jpg
Top: Causeway to the Harminder Sahib with people, behind the pool is Ath Sath Tirath; Bottom: Entrance view of the Harminder Sahib, the holiest shrine in Sikhism.
Lakshmi Narayan Mandir popularly known as Durgiana temple is a popular place of worship among city's residents. Durgiana Temple, Amritsar.jpg
Lakshmi Narayan Mandir popularly known as Durgiana temple is a popular place of worship among city's residents.

According to 2011 Census of India, Hinduism and Sikhism were the main religions of the Amritsar city at 49.4% and 48% of the population, respectively. Sikhs form a majority of close to 70% in the Amritsar District on a whole. [31]

Amritsar is the holiest city in Sikhism and millions of people visit it each year for pilgrimage.

In Amritsar city, Christianity was followed by 1.23% and Islam by 0.51%. Around 0.74% of the population of the city stated 'No Particular Religion' or another religion. [32]

Tourism

Amritsar is attractive destination for tourists, [33] [34] especially those part of Golden Triangle. [35] Major destinations are:

Transport

Air

Amritsar hosts Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport. The airport is connected to other parts of India and other countries with direct international flights to cities.

Rail

Amritsar railway station is the main terminus station. The Samjhauta Express runs from Delhi through Amritsar to Lahore in Pakistan. [50]

Road

Amritsar Inter State Bus Stand ISBT Amritsar.jpg
Amritsar Inter State Bus Stand

Amritsar is located on the historic Grand Trunk Road (G.T Road), also known as NH 1 now renumbered as National Highway 3. Additionally, NH 54 (Old NH15), NH 354 and NH 503A connect Amritsar to other parts of state and rest of India.

Rs 450,000,000 is being spent to expand the Amritsar-Jalandhar stretch of G.T. Road to four lanes. In 2010, elevated road with four lanes connected to the National highway for better access to the Golden Temple has been started. [51]

Amritsar BRTS

City has Bus rapid transit service, the Amritsar Metrobus which was launched on 28 January 2019. [52]

Educational institutions

Khalsa College KhalsaCollegeAmritsar-2.jpg
Khalsa College

Notable People

See also

Related Research Articles

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The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Colonel Reginald Dyer fired rifles into a crowd of Punjabis, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab. The Rowlatt Act, 1919 had been implemented, but the civilians were not informed. The civilians had assembled for a festival known as Baisakhi. Baisakhi marks the Sikh new year and commemorates the formation of Khalsa panth of warriors under Guru Gobind Singh in 1699. It is additionally a spring harvest festival for the Sikhs. It is also stated that it marks peaceful protest to condemn the arrest and deportation of two national leaders, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew. Raja Ram has argued, however, that the Proclamation was ineffective, the crowd formed in deliberate defiance and the event signals a beginning of Indian nationalism.

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Taragarh Talawa Village in Punjab, India

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Amritsar is a city situated in the state of northern Punjab, the northwestern region of India. It is 25 kilometres away from the Pakistan border. This important Punjab city is the main centre of commerce, culture, and transportation. It is the centre of Sikhism and the principal place of worship for Sikhs. Amritsar is attractive destination for tourists, especially those part of Golden Triangle. Major destinations are:

References

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