Amur Bridge Project

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The Amur Bridge Project (also known as the Tongjiang rail bridge or Tongjiang-Nizhneleninskoye railway bridge) is an international Sino-Russian railroad bridge under construction. The bridge will link Nizhneleninskoye (in Russian: Нижнеленинское) in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast with Tongjiang (in Chinese: 同江) in Heilongjiang Province. The cross-border railroad bridge will be 2.2 km long, but its corresponding track infrastructure will be 19.9 km long and is projected to cost $355 million. [1] The bridge is expected to transport more than 3 million metric tons of cargo and 1.5 million passengers per year. [2] Along with this railroad bridge, China and Russia agreed to construct a 2-lane highway bridge over the Amur River to link the "twin" trading cities of Blagoveshchensk and Heihe. Ceremonial ground-breaking for this bridge was held on 24 December 2016, and it is expected to open in October 2019. The highway bridge will run east-west over the Amur, below the confluence of the Zeya River. The structure of the bridge was completed in early 2019.

Nizhneleninskoye is a rural locality in Leninsky District of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. Located on the Amur River, Nizhneleninskoye is the location for the Amur Bridge Project which will cross over the river to China. Nizhneleninskoye will be joined by a railway bridge to Tongjiang in Heilongjiang Province.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Jewish Autonomous Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

The Jewish Autonomous Oblast is a federal subject of Russia in the Russian Far East, bordering Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast in Russia and Heilongjiang province in China. Its administrative center is the town of Birobidzhan.

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Projected uses

A major use of the bridge will be to transport iron ore from the Kimkan open-pit mine in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast that is owned by IRC Limited, which is partly owned by Petropavlovsk plc. [3] [4] Petropavlovsk plc will participate in financing the bridge's construction. [3]

IRC Limited Hong Kong-based business

IRC Limited is a Hong Kong-based business that is focused on exploring for, developing, and operating industrial commodity projects, particularly in the mining sector. Its operations are centred in the Far East of Russia and in China's Heilongjiang Province.

Petropavlovsk plc is a London-based gold mining company with operations in Russia. The company is listed on the London Stock Exchange.

History

The bridge was first proposed in 2007 by Valery Solomonovich Gurevich, the vice-chairman of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. [5] Gurevich said that the proposal to construct a bridge across the river was first suggested by the Russian side, in view of growing cargo transportation demands.

Valery Solomonovich Gurevich, a Russian politician, is the vice-governor of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.

In 2013, the transport ministries of Russia and China signed a general construction agreement. [6] During President Putin's visit to China in May 2014, another agreement about the construction of the bridge was signed by Russian and Chinese officials. [7] In September 2014, Russia and China founded a joint company which will control the process of building the bridge. [8]

In November 2014, the local Russian media reported that a significant amount of the construction work had been carried out on the Chinese part of the bridge, but hardly anything had been done on the Russian part. [9]

By July 2016, the Chinese portion of the bridge was finished but work had not started on the much shorter Russian portion. [10]

In December 2016, work began on the Russian portion of the bridge. [1] Completion of structural link between the two sides of the bridge was completed in March 2019. [11] [12]

Design

The bridge was designed by Russia's Giprostroymost institute, satisfying both Russian and Chinese standards. The main structure over the Amur River runs north-south and will consist of twenty (20) 110-meter steel through-truss spans. The bridge will have both a standard gauge (1435 mm) track and a Russian gauge (1520 mm) track. However, the two tracks will be offset by only 800 mm, so that only one track can be used at any given time. [13]

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Amur River river in Russia and China

The Amur River or Heilong Jiang is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. The largest fish species in the Amur is the kaluga, attaining a length as great as 5.6 metres (18 ft). The river basin is home to a variety of large predatory fish such as northern snakehead, Amur pike, taimen, Amur catfish, predatory carp and yellowcheek, as well as the northernmost populations of the Amur softshell turtle and Indian lotus.

Amur Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

Amur Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, located on the banks of the Amur and Zeya Rivers in the Russian Far East. The administrative center of the oblast, the city of Blagoveshchensk, is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian Far East, founded in 1856. It is a traditional center of trade and gold mining. The territory is accessed by two railways: the Trans-Siberian Railway and the Baikal–Amur Mainline. As of the 2010 Census, the oblast's population was 830,103.

Vikhorevka Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Vikhorevka is a town in Bratsky District of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Vikhorevka River, 916 kilometers (569 mi) northwest of Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast, and 46 kilometers (29 mi) southwest of Bratsk. Population: 22,520 (2010 Census); 24,763 (2002 Census); 23,872 (1989 Census).

Tongjiang, Heilongjiang County-level city in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Tongjiang is a city of 160,000 in eastern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, located at the confluence and on the right banks of the Songhua and Amur Rivers, the latter which marks the border with Russia. Administratively it is a county-level city of Jiamusi.

Crimean Bridge Bridge connecting Russia with Crimea

The Crimean Bridge, or colloquially the Kerch Strait Bridge, is a pair of parallel bridges constructed by the Russian Federation to span the Strait of Kerch between the Taman Peninsula of Krasnodar Krai and the Kerch Peninsula of Crimea. The bridge complex provides for both road and rail traffic. With a length of 18.1 km (11.2 mi), it is considered to be the longest bridge in Russia and Europe.

Novo-Admiralteysky Bridge bridge in Russia

The Novo-Admiralteysky Bridge is the planned bridge over the Bolshaya Neva River in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The bridge left-hand side leans against the New-Admiralty island. In this place the quay of the Moyka River will be prolonged. The right side of the bridge leans against Vasilyevsky Island. It is quay of Lieutenant Schmidt between 16-17th lines and 18-19th lines of Vasilyevsky Island.

Loren Bridge bridge in Russia

The Loren Bridge is a unique bridge that crosses the Loren River, and is located in Chukotsky District, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia.

The President Bridge is a truss bridge that crosses over the Volga river in Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia, connecting the city of Ulyanovsk with the east side of the Ulyanovsk Oblast. It is the second longest bridge in Russia, and one of the longest bridges in Europe, with a length of 5.825 kilometres (3.619 mi), and 12.98 kilometres (8.07 mi) including the connecting highway.

Selemdzhinsky District District in Amur Oblast, Russia

Selemdzhinsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty in Amur Oblast, Russia. The area of the district is 46,672 square kilometers (18,020 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Ekimchan. Population: 11,639 (2010 Census); 11,808 ; 20,632 (1989 Census). The population of Ekimchan accounts for 10.4% of the district's total population.

Birobidzhansky District District in Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia

Birobidzhansky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the five in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia. It is located in the center of the autonomous oblast. The area of the district is 4,442.56 square kilometers (1,715.28 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Birobidzhan. Population: 11,907 ; 13,018 (2002 Census); 15,437 (1989 Census).

Leninsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the five in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia. It is located in the south and center of the autonomous oblast. The area of the district is 6,068 square kilometers (2,343 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Leninskoye. Population: 20,684 ; 22,844 (2002 Census); 28,464 (1989 Census). The population of Leninskoye accounts for 29.5% of the district's total population.

Obluchensky District District in Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia

Obluchensky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the five in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia. It is located in the north, east, and center of the autonomous oblast. The area of the district is 13,300 square kilometers (5,100 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Obluchye. Population: 29,035 ; 36,515 (2002 Census); 43,062 (1989 Census). The population of Obluchye accounts for 32.3% of the district's total population.

Smidovichsky District District in Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia

Smidovichsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the five in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia. It is located in the east of the autonomous oblast and borders Khabarovsk Krai in the north and east, China in the south, and Birobidzhansky District in the west. The area of the district is 5,900 square kilometers (2,300 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Smidovich. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 28,165, with the population of Smidovich accounting for 18.2% of that number.

Temernitsky Bridge is a bridge in Rostov-on-Don over the river Don. It was built in 2007–2010 on the project of engineer Aleksandr Efremushkin. In 2011 the bridge was named Temernitsky after Temernik River, as the bridge's overpass extends along with this river.

Rail Bridge over the Iset River, Kamensk-Uralsky building of Kamensk-Uralsky, Russia

The Rail Bridge over the Iset River - is an experimental bridge over the Iset River is a unique engineering structure made according to the advanced technology of the late 1930s in Kamensk-Uralsky, Sverdlovsk oblast.

Northern Latitudinal Railway

The Northern Latitudinal Railway (NLR), is a projected railway line in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, 707 kilometers long, along the Obskaya - Salekhard - Nadym - Novy Urengoy - Korotchaevo route, which should link the western and eastern parts of the autonomous region, the Northern Railway with Sverdlovsk Oblast. The project is being implemented jointly by the government of Russia, the governments of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District, PJSC Gazprom, JSC Russian Railways, and Development Corporation JSC. The construction coordinator of the railway is Federal Agency for Railway Transport(Roszheldor). Construction of the Northern latitudinal railway is planned to be carried out from 2018 to 2022. The projected volume of traffic will be 24 million tons. Initially, the highway was supposed to be laid by 2015, but due to the lack of a budget solution, the project implementation dates were repeatedly postponed. In February 2017, the construction was announced to be completed in 2023, the project cost was estimated at 239 billion rubles.

References

  1. 1 2 "Russia, China launch construction of bridge across Amur river". Russia Today. December 25, 2016.
  2. "Work Starts On First China-Russia Highway Bridge". Radio Free Europe. December 25, 2016.
  3. 1 2 ANDREW E. KRAMER (June 9, 2010), "China's Hunger Fuels Exports in Remote Russia", The New York Times
  4. "UPDATE 2-Shares of Petropavlovsk's IRC slump in Hong Kong debut". Reuters. Oct 21, 2010.
  5. "China-Russia Trade to Top US$40b". China Daily. 2007-06-18. Retrieved 2008-08-14.
  6. "Строительство первого железнодорожного моста соединяющего Китай и Россию начнется в 2009 году" (Construction of the first railway bridge connecting Russia and China will start in 2009) China.org.cn, 2008-11-27. ‹See Tfd› (in Russian)
  7. Мост через Амур между РФ и КНР начнут строить в ближайшие месяцы (Construction of the bridge across the Amur between the RF and the PRC will start within a few months), 2014-05-20
  8. "Russia and China establish company to build a bridge across Amur River" (Press release). TASS. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-02.
  9. Далеко в отрыв ушли от коллег из ЕАО китайские строители ж/д моста Нижнеленинское-Тунцзян (The Chinese builders of the Nizhneleninskoye-Tongjiang railway bridge are far ahead of their colleagues from the Jewish A.O.), 2014-11-05
  10. Andrew Higgins (July 16, 2016). "An Unfinished Bridge, and Partnership, Between Russia and China". The New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  11. "Russia Completes Construction of First-Ever Rail Bridge to China", www.themoscowtimes.com, 21 Mar 2019
  12. Россия и Китай соединили железнодорожный мост через Амур, www.rbc.ru (in Russian), 21 Mar 2019
  13. Construction of 2·2 km Amur bridge begins, 14 Mar 2014

See also

Coordinates: 47°57′N132°40′E / 47.95°N 132.66°E / 47.95; 132.66