|Federal district||Far Eastern|
|Economic region||Far Eastern|
|Established||October 20, 1932|
|• Body||Legislative Assembly|
|• Governor||Vasily Orlov|
|• Total||363,700 km2 (140,400 sq mi)|
|• Estimate||798,424 (−3.8%)|
|• Density||2.3/km2 (5.9/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 (MSK+6 )|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-AMU|
Amur Oblast (Russian:Аму́рская о́бласть, tr. Amurskaya oblast,IPA: [ɐˈmurskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ] ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located on the banks of the Amur and Zeya Rivers in the Russian Far East. The administrative center of the oblast, the city of Blagoveshchensk, is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian Far East, founded in 1856. It is a traditional center of trade and gold mining. The territory is accessed by two railways: the Trans-Siberian Railway and the Baikal–Amur Mainline. As of the 2010 Census, the oblast's population was 830,103.
Amur Krai (Аму́рский край) or Priamurye (Приаму́рье) were unofficial names for the Russian territories by the Amur River used in the late Russian Empire that approximately correspond to modern Amur Oblast.
Amur Oblast is located in the southeast of Russia, between Stanovoy Range in the north and the Amur River in the south, and borders with the Sakha Republic in the north, Khabarovsk Krai and the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the east, the Heilongjiang of China in the south, and with Zabaykalsky Krai in the west. The Stanovoy Range forms the dividing line between the Sakha Republic and Amur Oblast and spreads across the oblast's entire northern border. The Amur–Zeya and Zeya–Bureya Plains cover about 40% of the oblast's territory, but the rest is hilly. Several mountain ranges rise to the south of Stanovoy Range, including the Selemdzha Range parallel to it, as well as the Ezop, Jam-Alin and the Turan ranges stretching along the oblast's southeastern border with Khabarovsk Krai.
Many rivers flow through the oblast, especially in the north, accounting for 75% of the hydropower resources in the Russian Far East. Most of the oblast is in the Amur's drainage basin, although the rivers in the northwest drain into the Lena and the rivers in the northeast drain into the Uda. The longest rivers include the Amur, Bureya, Gilyuy, Nyukzha, Olyokma, Selemdzha, and Zeya. The Zeya begins in the mountains in the northeast, and its middle reaches are dammed to create the huge Zeya Reservoir, which sprawls over 2,400 square kilometers (930 sq mi).
Climate is temperate continental, with cold, dry winters and hot, rainy summers. Average January temperatures vary from −24 °C (−11 °F) in the south to −33 °C (−27 °F) in the north. Average July temperatures are +21 °C (70 °F) in the south and +18 °C (64 °F) in the north. Annual precipitation is about 850 millimeters (33 in).
Dwarf Siberian pine and alpine tundra grow at higher elevations and larch forests with small stands of flat-leaved birch and pine forests grow alongside the river plains. These larch and fir-spruce forests form the watershed of the Selemdzha River. The Bureya and Arkhara Rivers, southeast of the Selemdza, have the richest remaining forests in the oblast with Korean pine, Schisandra chinensis, Mongolian Oak, and other Manchurian flora. The Zeya–Bureya Plain, located between the Zeya, Amur, and Bureya Rivers, has the highest biodiversity in Amur Oblast. Much of this plain has been burned for agriculture, but large patches still remain. Japanese Daurian and Far Eastern western cranes nest here, as well as a host of other rare birds.
Amur Oblast has considerable reserves of many types of mineral resources; proven reserves are estimated to be worth US$400 billion. Among the most important are gold (the largest reserves in Russia), silver, titanium, molybdenum, tungsten, copper, and tin. Black coal and lignite reserves are estimated to be seventy billion tons. Probable iron deposits are estimated to be 3.8 billion tons. The Garin deposit is fully explored and known to contain 389 million tons of iron ore. Estimated reserves of the deposit are 1,293 million tons. The deposit's ore contains a low concentration of detrimental impurities; the ore contains 69.9% iron. Amur Oblast is also a promising source of titanium, with the Bolshoy Seyim deposit being the most important.
According to the Bei Shi (Dynastic History of Northern Dynasties) and the Sui Shu (Chronicles of the Sui Dynasty), both Chinese records, this area belonged originally to the territory one of the five semi-nomadic Shiwei, the Bo Shiwei tribes (Chinese :钵室韋). Their settlements were located on the north of the Yilehuli Mountains in the upper reaches of the Nen River, south of the Stanovoy Range, west of the Bureya and the Malyi Khingan ranges and reaching the Okhotsk Sea on the northeast. They brought tributary presents to the Tang court and disappeared at the dawn of the tenth century with the foundation of the Liao empire.
Later, in the 13th century, the middle-Amur and the Zeya River basin area became the homeland of the Daurs and (further south) the Duchers. The ancestors of the Daurs are thought to be closely related to the Khitans and the Mongols, while the Duchers may have been a branch of the Jurchen people, later known as the Manchus.
The area was conquered by the Manchus in 1639–1640, after defeating the Evenk Federation led by Bombogor. It was returned to the Qing Dynasty in the Treaty of Nerchinsk and annexed by Russia in 1858 by the Treaty of Aigun between Russia and Qing Dynasty.
The region received its first influx of Russian settlers in the mid-seventeenth century. They were looking for a more temperate climate as an escape from the north. After the Opium War, when the Chinese Empire was exposed to the outside world, Russian explorers once again moved to the region (mostly Cossacks and peasant farmers). The last influx of people arrived upon the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railroad.
In April 1920, the Far Eastern Republic, with its capital in Chita, was formed from Amur, Transbaikal, Kamchatka, Sakhalin, and Primorye regions as a democratic "buffer" state in order to avoid war with Japan. It existed until November 1922, when it joined the RSFSR. In January 1926, the territory of Amur Region was split between the East Siberian Krai and the Far Eastern Krai. The East Siberian Oblast was divided into Irkutsk Oblast and Chita Oblast in 1937 and the part of Amur within it became part of Chita Oblast. The Far Eastern Krai was divided into Khabarovsk Krai and Primorye Krai in 1938. The territory of Amur Oblast that was in Far Eastern Krai was included in Khabarovsk Krai.
In 1948, Amur Oblast was finally separated from Khabarovsk Krai and Chita Oblast to become an independent region of the RSFSR. Rapid economic growth based on gold production began at that time, and living standards improved with the arrival of young specialists. As the Far Eastern District expanded, the demand for services such as electric power and housing also increased, which stimulated a new round of construction projects. New cities were built, along with the Zeya Hydroelectric Power Plant (Zeiskaya GES), which still supplies electricity to most of the Far Eastern District.On 21 May 1998 Amur alongside Ivanovo, Kostroma, Voronezh Oblast, and the Mari El Republic signed a power-sharing agreement with the federal government, granting it autonomy. This agreement would be abolished on 18 March 2002.
The largest urban localities of the oblast are Blagoveshchensk, Belogorsk, Svobodny, Tynda, and Raychikhinsk.
Population: 830,103 (2010 Census); 902,844 (2002 Census); 1,057,781 (1989 Census).
According to the 2010 Census,ethnic Russians, at 775,590, made up 94.3% of the population. Other prominent ethnic groups include Ukrainians at 16,636 (2%), Belarusians at 4,162 (0.5%), and Tatars at 3,406 (0.4%). The rest of the residents identified with over 120 different ethnic groups, with each ethnic group making up less than 0.5% of the population. Additionally, 7,879 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
Largest cities or towns in Amur Oblast
2010 Russian Census
|1||Blagoveshchensk||Blagoveshchensky District||214,390|| |
|6||Raychikhinsk||Town of oblast significance of Raychikhinsk||20,534|
|9||Progress||Town of oblast significance of Progress||11,156|
The economically active population amounts to 463,100 people (52.6% of total resident population.) Unemployment in 2006 was 5.5%.
Total fertility rate:
2009 – 1.67 | 2010 – 1.69 | 2011 – 1.70 | 2012 – 1.83 | 2013 – 1.84 | 2014 – 1.85 | 2015 – 1.84 | 2016 – 1.83(e)
According to a 2012 survey25.1% of the population of Amur Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% is an Orthodox believer without belonging to any church or adheres to other (non-Russian) Orthodox churches, and 1% is an adherent of Islam. In addition, 41% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 24% is atheist, and 2.9% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
Gross regional product per capita in 2007 was 131,039.60 rubles, while the national average was 198,817 rubles.
The industrial section contributes 18.3% to the total GRP.The most important industrial sector in 2007 was manufacturing, constituting 25.7% of the industrial output. The sector is dominated by food products and beverages, which constitute 13% of industrial output. Machine building includes shipbuilding machinery, lifting and transport vehicles, mining equipment, agricultural machinery, metal assemblies and goods, electrical appliances and electrical machines and tools. The largest engineering companies in the oblast include OAO Svobodny Railroad Car Repair Plant, OAO Blagoveshchensk October Revolution Ship Building Plant and OAO Bureya-Kran.
Mining and quarrying amounted to 19.9% of industrial output in 2007. Amur Oblast ranks sixth in Russia for gold mining, and has the largest gold reserves in the country. The largest gold mine in the region is Pioneer, part of Petropavlovsk PLC who also own the Albyn, Malomir and Pokrovskiy mines in the region. There is a large site of uranium mining and processing facilities in Oktyabrsky, near the Russia–China border. billion tons. In addition, fuel extraction amounted to 2.9% of industrial output.There are plans to develop other mineral deposits as well, such as titanium, iron, copper, nickel, apatite, etc. Total coal production amounts to 3,398 tons. As of 2007, four coal deposits are being operated by the company OOO Amur Coal, and two more have been explored. In total, the oblast is estimated to have over 90 deposits of lignite and black coal, with overall reserves of 70
Amur Oblast enjoys an energy surplus: its energy consumption in 2007 was 6.9 TWh, while production was 9.3 TWh. Electricity output in 2007 was 9.9 TWh. The most important electricity producer is the Zeyskaya Hydroelectric Power Station with an installed capacity of 1,330 MW and a yearly output of 4.91 TWh. The station is owned by RusHydro. The company also owns the 2,010 MW Bureyskaya Hydroelectric Power Station, opened in 2009. Its annual output is 7.1 TWh.
The planned Erkovetskaya TPP project will be the largest thermal power plant in the world.[ citation needed ]
The Amur Region is the primary producer of soybean in Russia. By 1940, 65 thousand hectares of land in Amur had been cultivated with soybeans, and by 1972 soybean made up 592 thousand hectares of land in Amur, compared to 650 thousand hectares of soybean crops in the whole of the USSR. During the Soviet period, this made up a significant proportion of the economy of Far Eastern Russia.By 2019, the Amur Region's share of Russian soybean production had declined to 28 percent due to increased cultivation of soybean in other regions, though it still remains Russia's largest soybean producer. The region in 2019 produced approximately 1 million tonnes of soybean, many of which are exported to neighboring China. While in the past the harvested soybean was shipped west, in recent years due to increased Chinese demands multiple soybean oil plants have opened in the region. In 2019, Chinese companies owned or leased some 100 thousand hectares out of the 1.3 million hectares of farmland.
The oblast's main foreign exports are raw timber (1,172,900 cubic meters going to China, North Korea, Japan, Kazakhstan and Ukraine), metal goods (68,300 tons to China and Kazakhstan), and machinery, equipment and transport (12,300 tons to China, Japan, South Korea, Kazakhstan and Ukraine.) Main foreign imports are food and beverages from China, Kazakshtan, Uzbekistan and Philippines; textiles and footwear from China; and machinery and equipment from Ukraine and Japan.
In July 2010, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin announced that the area would be the site of a new Vostochny Cosmodrome ("Eastern Spaceport"), to reduce Russian dependence on the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. [ citation needed ]The first rocket launch from the site took place on 28 April 2016.
Khabarovsk is the largest city and the administrative center of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, located 30 kilometers (19 mi) from the China-Russia Border, at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri Rivers, about 800 kilometers (500 mi) north of Vladivostok. The city was the administrative center of the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia from 2002 until December 2018, when Vladivostok took over that role. It is the largest city in the Russian Far East, having overtaken Vladivostok in 2015. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 577,441. It was previously known as Khabarovka. As typical of the interior of the Russian Far East, Khabarovsk has an extreme climate with very strong seasonal swings resulting in strong winter cold and relatively hot and humid summers.
Khabarovsk Krai is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District. The administrative centre of the krai is the city of Khabarovsk, which is home to roughly half of the krai's population and the largest city in the Russian Far East. Khabarovsk Krai is the fourth-largest federal subject by area, and has a population of 1,343,869 as of 2010.
Sakhalin Oblast is a federal subject of Russia comprising the island of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in the Russian Far East. The oblast has an area of 87,100 square kilometers (33,600 sq mi). Its administrative center and largest city is Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. As of the 2010 Census, the oblast has a population of 497,973. Besides people from other parts of the former Soviet Union and the Korean Peninsula, the oblast is home to Nivkhs and Ainu, with the latter having lost their language in Sakhalin recently. Sakhalin is rich in natural gas and oil, and is Russia's fourth wealthiest federal subject and wealthiest oblast. It borders Khabarovsk Krai to the west and Kamchatka Krai to the north, along with Hokkaido, Japan to the south.
Komsomolsk-on-Amur is a city in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, located on the west bank of the Amur River in the Russian Far East. It is located on the Baikal-Amur Mainline, 356 kilometers (221 mi) northeast of Khabarovsk. As of 2010, it had a population of 263,906 (2010 Census); 281,035 (2002 Census); 315,325 (1989 Census).
Khasansky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-two in Primorsky Krai, Russia. It is located in the southwest of the krai, wedged between the Tumen River and the Peter the Great Gulf, and shares a border with both China and North Korea. The area of the district is 4,130.0 square kilometers (1,594.6 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Slavyanka. Population: 35,541 (2010 Census); 37,459 (2002 Census); 43,709 (1989 Census). The population of Slavyanka accounts for 39.5% of the district's total population.
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur is a town in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia located on the Amur River close to its liman in the Pacific Ocean. Population: 22,752 (2010 Census); 28,492 (2002 Census); 36,296 (1989 Census).
Sovetskaya Gavan is a town in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, and a port on the Strait of Tartary which connects the Sea of Okhotsk in the north with the Sea of Japan in the south. Population: 27,712 (2010 Census); 30,480 (2002 Census); 34,915 (1989 Census).
Amursk is a town in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, located on the left bank of the Amur River 45 kilometers (28 mi) south of Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Population: 42,970 (2010 Census); 47,759 (2002 Census); 58,395 (1989 Census).
Raychikhinsk is a town in Amur Oblast, Russia, located in the Zeya–Bureya basin, about 40 kilometers (25 mi) from the Amur River and the border with China, and about 165 kilometers (103 mi) east of Blagoveshchensk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 20,534 (2010 Census); 24,498 (2002 Census); 27,873 (1989 Census).
Ayano-Maysky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia. It is located in the north of the krai. The area of the district is 167,200 square kilometers (64,600 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Ayan. Population: 2,292 (2010 Census); 3,271 (2002 Census); 4,802 (1989 Census). The population of Ayan accounts for 42.2% of the district's total population.
Zabaykalsky Krai is a federal subject of Russia that was created on March 1, 2008 as a result of a merger of Chita Oblast and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug, after a referendum held on the issue on March 11, 2007. Formerly part of the Siberian Federal District, the Krai is now part of the Russian Far East as of November 2018 in accordance with a decree issued by Russian President Vladimir Putin. The administrative center of the krai is located in the city of Chita. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 1,107,107.
Novaya Chara is an urban locality in Kalarsky District of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia, located in the basin of the Chara River, in the eastern parts of Stanovoy Range, approximately 600 kilometers (370 mi) in a straight line northeast of the krai's administrative center of Chita, and 16 kilometers (9.9 mi) from the district's administrative center of Chara. Population: 4,315 (2010 Census); 4,693 (2002 Census); 8,787 (1989 Census).
Novy Urgal is an urban locality in Verkhnebureinsky District of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, located in the valley of the Bureya River, close to its confluence with the Urgal River, about 340 kilometers (210 mi) northwest of the krai's administrative center of Khabarovsk and 28 kilometers (17 mi) west of the district's administrative center of Chegdomyn. Population: 6,803 (2010 Census); 7,274 (2002 Census); 9,126 (1989 Census).
Chegdomyn is an urban locality and the administrative center of Verkhnebureinsky District of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia. Population: 13,048 (2010 Census); 15,303 (2002 Census); 20,347 (1989 Census).
Magdagachinsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty in Amur Oblast, Russia. The area of the district is 16,667 square kilometers (6,435 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Magdagachi. Population: 22,671 (2010 Census); 26,427 ; 33,682 (1989 Census). The population of Magdagachi accounts for 48.1% of the district's total population.
Zeysky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty in Amur Oblast, Russia. The area of the district is 87,486 square kilometers (33,779 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Zeya. Population: 16,847 (2010 Census); 20,827 ; 42,298 (1989 Census).
Smidovichsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the five in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia. It is located in the east of the autonomous oblast and borders Khabarovsk Krai in the north and east, China in the south, and Birobidzhansky District in the west. The area of the district is 5,900 square kilometers (2,300 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Smidovich. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 28,165, with the population of Smidovich accounting for 18.2% of that number.
Zeya is a town in Amur Oblast, Russia, located on the Zeya River 230 kilometers (140 mi) southeast of Tynda and 532 kilometers (331 mi) north of Blagoveshchensk.
Vyazemsky is a town and the administrative center of Vyazemsky District in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, located 130 kilometers (81 mi) southwest of Khabarovsk, the administrative center of the krai, close to the Ussuri River and the border with China. Population: 14,555 (2010 Census); 15,760 (2002 Census); 18,426 (1989 Census).
Bureya is an urban locality in Bureysky District of Amur Oblast, Russia. Population: 4,833 (2010 Census); 5,598 (2002 Census); 6,736 (1989 Census).
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