Anaïs Nin

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Anaïs Nin
Anais Nin.jpg
Portrait of Anaïs Nin in the 1970s by Elsa Dorfman
BornAngela Anaïs Juana Antolina Rosa Edelmira Nin y Culmell
(1903-02-21)February 21, 1903
Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
DiedJanuary 14, 1977(1977-01-14) (aged 73)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
(m. 1923)
(m. 1955;ann. 1966)
Relatives Joaquín Nin-Culmell (brother)
Anais Nin signature.svg

Angela Anaïs Juana Antolina Rosa Edelmira Nin y Culmell [lower-alpha 1] ( /ˌænˈsˈnn/ AN-eye-EESSNEEN, [1] French: [ana.isnin] ; February 21, 1903 – January 14, 1977) was a French-born American diarist, essayist, novelist, and writer of short stories and erotica. Born to Cuban parents in France, Nin was the daughter of the composer Joaquín Nin and the classically trained singer Rosa Culmell. Nin spent her early years in Spain and Cuba, about sixteen years in Paris (1924–1940), and the remaining half of her life in the United States, where she became an established author.


Nin wrote journals prolifically from age eleven until her death. Her journals, many of which were published during her lifetime, detail her private thoughts and personal relationships. Her journals also describe her marriages to Hugh Parker Guiler and Rupert Pole, in addition to her numerous affairs, including those with psychoanalyst Otto Rank and writer Henry Miller, both of whom profoundly influenced Nin and her writing.

In addition to her journals, Nin wrote several novels, critical studies, essays, short stories, and volumes of erotic literature. Much of her work, including the collections of erotica Delta of Venus and Little Birds , was published posthumously amid renewed critical interest in her life and work. Nin spent her later life in Los Angeles, California, where she died of cervical cancer in 1977. She was a finalist for the Neustadt International Prize for Literature in 1976.

Early life

Anaïs Nin was born in Neuilly, France, to Joaquín Nin, a Cuban pianist and composer, and Rosa Culmell, [2] a classically trained Cuban singer. [3] Her father's grandfather had fled France during the French Revolution, going first to Saint-Domingue, then New Orleans, and finally to Cuba, where he helped build the country's first railway. [4]

Nin was raised a Roman Catholic [5] but left the church when she was 16 years old. [6] She spent her childhood and early life in Europe. Her parents separated when she was two; her mother then moved Nin and her two brothers, Thorvald Nin and Joaquín Nin-Culmell, to Barcelona, and then to New York City, where she attended high school. Nin dropped out of high school in 1919 at age sixteen, [7] and according to her diaries, Volume One, 1931–1934, later began working as an artist's model. After being in the United States for several years, Nin had forgotten how to speak Spanish, but retained her French and became fluent in English. [8]

Anais Nin as a teenager, c. 1920 Anaisnin.jpg
Anaïs Nin as a teenager, c.1920

On March 3, 1923, in Havana, Cuba, Nin married her first husband, American Hugh Parker Guiler (1898–1985), a banker and artist from Boston, later known as "Ian Hugo", when he became an experimental filmmaker in the late 1940s. The couple moved to Paris the following year, where Guiler pursued his banking career and Nin began to pursue her interest in writing; in her diaries she also mentions having trained as a flamenco dancer in Paris in the mid-to-late 1920s with Francisco Miralles Arnau. Her first published work was a critical 1932 evaluation of D. H. Lawrence called D. H. Lawrence: An Unprofessional Study , which she wrote in sixteen days. [2]

Nin became interested in psychoanalysis and studied extensively, first with René Allendy in 1932 and then with Otto Rank. [9] Both men eventually became her lovers, as she recounts in her Journal. [10] On her second visit to Rank, Nin reflects on her desire to be reborn as a woman and artist. Rank, she observes, helped her move between what she could verbalize in her journals and what remained unarticulated. She discovered the quality and depth of her feelings in the wordless transitions between what she could and could not say. "As he talked, I thought of my difficulties with writing, my struggles to articulate feelings not easily expressed. Of my struggles to find a language for intuition, feeling, instincts which are, in themselves, elusive, subtle, and wordless." [11]

In late summer 1939, when residents from overseas were urged to leave France due to the approaching war, Nin left Paris and returned to New York City with her husband (Guiler was, according to his own wishes, edited out of the diaries published during Nin's lifetime; his role in her life is therefore difficult to evaluate). [12] During the war, Nin sent her books to Frances Steloff of the Gotham Book Mart in New York for safekeeping. [13]

In New York, Nin rejoined Otto Rank, who had previously moved there, and moved into his apartment. She actually began to act as a psychoanalyst herself, seeing patients in the room next to Rank's. [14] She quit after several months, however, stating: "I found that I wasn't good because I wasn't objective. I was haunted by my patients. I wanted to intercede." [15] It was in New York that she met the Japanese-American modernist photographer Soichi Sunami, who went on to photograph her for many of her books.

Literary career


Nin at a book reading with George Leite in Berkeley, California, 1946 George Leite and Anais Nin at daliel's bookstore in Berkeley, CA, 1946.jpg
Nin at a book reading with George Leite in Berkeley, California, 1946

Nin's most studied works are her diaries or journals, which she began writing in her adolescence. The published journals, which span six decades, provide insight into her personal life and relationships. Nin was acquainted, often intimately, with a number of prominent authors, artists, psychoanalysts, and other figures, and wrote of them often, especially Otto Rank. Moreover, as a female author describing a primarily masculine group of celebrities, Nin's journals have acquired importance as a counterbalancing perspective. She initially wrote in French and did not begin to write in English until she was seventeen. [16] Nin felt that French was the language of her heart, Spanish was the language of her ancestors, and English was the language of her intellect. The writing in her diaries is explicitly trilingual; she uses whichever language best expresses her thought. [17]

In the second volume of her unexpurgated journal, Incest, she wrote about her father candidly and graphically (207–15), detailing her incestuous adult sexual relationship with him.

Previously unpublished works were released in A Café in Space, the Anaïs Nin Literary Journal, which includes "Anaïs Nin and Joaquín Nin y Castellanos: Prelude to a Symphony Letters between a father and daughter".

So far sixteen volumes of her journals have been published. All but the last five of her adult journals are in expurgated form.

Erotic writings

Nin is hailed by many critics as one of the finest writers of female erotica. She was one of the first women known to explore fully the realm of erotic writing, and certainly the first prominent woman in the modern West known to write erotica. Before her, erotica acknowledged to be written by women was rare, with a few notable exceptions, such as the work of Kate Chopin. Nin often cited authors Djuna Barnes and D. H. Lawrence as inspirations, and she states in Volume One of her diaries that she drew inspiration from Marcel Proust, [18] André Gide, [19] Jean Cocteau, [20] Paul Valéry, [21] and Arthur Rimbaud. [22]

According to Volume One of her diaries, 1931–1934, published in 1966, Nin first came across erotica when she returned to Paris with her husband, mother and two brothers in her late teens. They rented the apartment of an American man who was away for the summer, and Nin came across a number of French paperbacks: "One by one, I read these books, which were completely new to me. I had never read erotic literature in America... They overwhelmed me. I was innocent before I read them, but by the time I had read them all, there was nothing I did not know about sexual exploits... I had my degree in erotic lore." [23]

Faced with a desperate need for money, Nin, Henry Miller and some of their friends began in the 1940s to write erotic and pornographic narratives for an anonymous "collector" for a dollar a page, somewhat as a joke. [24] (It is not clear whether Miller actually wrote these stories or merely allowed his name to be used. [25] ) Nin considered the characters in her erotica to be extreme caricatures and never intended the work to be published, but changed her mind in the early 1970s and allowed them to be published as Delta of Venus [26] [27] and Little Birds . In 2016, a previously undiscovered collection of Nin's erotica, Auletris , was published for the first time. [28]

Nin was a friend, and in some cases lover, of many literary figures, including Miller, John Steinbeck, Antonin Artaud, Edmund Wilson, Gore Vidal, James Agee, James Leo Herlihy, and Lawrence Durrell. Her passionate love affair and friendship with Miller strongly influenced her both sexually and as an author. Claims that Nin was bisexual were given added circulation by the 1990 Philip Kaufman film Henry & June about Miller and his second wife June Miller. The first unexpurgated portion of Nin's journal to be published, Henry and June , makes it clear that Nin was stirred by June to the point of saying (paraphrasing), "I have become June," though it is unclear to what extent she consummated her feelings for her sexually. To both Anaïs and Henry, June was a femme fatale  irresistible, cunning, and erotic. Nin gave June money, jewelry, clothes, often leaving herself without money.

Novels and other publications

In addition to her journals and collections of erotica, Nin wrote several novels, which were frequently associated by critics with the surrealist movement. [29] Her first book of fiction, House of Incest (1936), contains heavily veiled allusions to a brief sexual relationship Nin had with her father in 1933: while visiting her estranged father in France, the then-thirty-year-old Nin had a brief incestuous sexual relationship with him. [30] In 1944, she published a collection of short stories titled Under a Glass Bell , which were reviewed by Edmund Wilson. [15]

Nin was also the author of several works of non-fiction: Her first publication, written during her years studying psychoanalysis, was D. H. Lawrence: An Unprofessional Study (1932), an assessment of the works of D.H. Lawrence. [31] In 1968, she published The Novel of the Future , which elaborated on her approach to writing and the writing process. [32]

Personal life

According to her diaries, Vol. 1, 1931–1934, Nin shared a bohemian lifestyle with Henry Miller during her time in Paris. Her husband Guiler is not mentioned anywhere in the published edition of the 1930s parts of her diary (Vol. 1–2) although the opening of Vol. 1 makes it clear that she is married, and the introduction suggests her husband declined to be included in the published diaries. The diaries edited by her second husband, after her death, tell that her union with Miller was very passionate and physical, and that she believed that it was a pregnancy by him that she aborted in 1934.

In 1947, at the age of 44, Nin met former actor Rupert Pole in a Manhattan elevator on her way to a party. [33] [34] The two began a relationship and traveled to California together; Pole was sixteen years her junior. On March 17, 1955, while still married to Guiler, she married Pole at Quartzsite, Arizona, returning with him to live in California. [35] Guiler remained in New York City and was unaware of Nin's second marriage until after her death in 1977, though biographer Deirdre Bair alleges that Guiler knew what was happening while Nin was in California, but consciously "chose not to know". [34]

Nin referred to her simultaneous marriages as her "bicoastal trapeze". [34] According to Deidre Bair:

[Anaïs] would set up these elaborate façades in Los Angeles and in New York, but it became so complicated that she had to create something she called the lie box. She had this absolutely enormous purse and in the purse she had two sets of checkbooks. One said Anaïs Guiler for New York and another said Anaïs Pole for Los Angeles. She had prescription bottles from California doctors and New York doctors with the two different names. And she had a collection of file cards. And she said, "I tell so many lies I have to write them down and keep them in the lie box so I can keep them straight." [34]

In 1966, Nin had her marriage with Pole annulled, due to the legal issues arising from both Guiler and Pole trying to claim her as a dependent on their federal tax returns. [36] Though the marriage was annulled, Nin and Pole continued to live together as if they were married until her death in 1977. According to Barbara Kraft, prior to her death, Nin had written to Guiler asking for his forgiveness. He responded by writing how meaningful his life had been because of her. [37]

After Guiler's death in 1985, the unexpurgated versions of her journals were commissioned by Pole. [38] Six volumes have been published: Henry and June , Fire , Incest , Nearer the Moon , Mirages , and Trapeze . Pole arranged for Guiler's ashes to be scattered in the same area where Nin's ashes were scattered, Mermaid Cove in Santa Monica Bay. [39] Pole died in July 2006. [40]

Nin once worked at Lawrence R. Maxwell Books, located at 45 Christopher Street in New York City. [31] In addition to her work as a writer, Nin appeared in the Kenneth Anger film Inauguration of the Pleasure Dome (1954) as Astarte; in the Maya Deren film Ritual in Transfigured Time (1946); and in Bells of Atlantis (1952), a film directed by Guiler under the name "Ian Hugo" with a soundtrack of electronic music by Louis and Bebe Barron. [41] In her later life, Nin worked as a tutor at the International College in Los Angeles. [42]


Nin was diagnosed with cervical cancer in 1974. [43] She battled the cancer for two years as it metastasized, and underwent numerous surgical operations, radiation, and chemotherapy. [42] Nin died of the cancer at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, on January 14, 1977. [44] [45] [15]

Her body was cremated, and her ashes were scattered over Santa Monica Bay in Mermaid Cove. Her first husband, Hugh Guiler, died in 1985, and his ashes were scattered in the cove as well. [34] Rupert Pole was named Nin's literary executor, and he arranged to have new, unexpurgated editions of Nin's books and diaries published between 1985 and his death in 2006. Large portions of the diaries are still available only in expurgated form. The originals are located in the UCLA Library. [46]


The explosion of the feminist movement in the 1960s gave feminist perspectives on Nin's writings of the past twenty years, which made Nin a popular lecturer at various universities; contrarily, Nin dissociated herself from the political activism of the movement. [2] In 1973, prior to her death, Nin received an honorary doctorate from the Philadelphia College of Art. She was also elected to the United States National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1974, and in 1976 was presented with a Los Angeles Times Woman of the Year award. [47]

The Italian film La stanza delle parole (dubbed into English as The Room of Words) was released in 1989 based on the Henry and June diaries. Philip Kaufman directed the 1990 film Henry & June based on Nin's diaries published as Henry and June: From the Unexpurgated Diary of Anaïs Nin . She was portrayed in the film by actress Maria de Medeiros.

In February 2008, poet Steven Reigns organized Anaïs Nin at 105 at the Hammer Museum in Westwood, Los Angeles. [48] Reigns said: "Nin bonded and formed very deep friendships with women and men decades younger than her. Some of them are still living in Los Angeles and I thought it'd be wonderful to have them share their experiences with [Nin]." [49] Bebe Barron, an electronic music pioneer and longtime friend of Nin, made her last public appearance at this event. [50] Reigns also published an essay refuting Bern Porter's claims of a sexual relationship with Nin in the 1930s. [51]

Cuban-American writer Daína Chaviano paid homage to Anaïs Nin and Henry Miller in her novel Gata encerrada (2001), where both characters are portrayed as disembodied spirits whose previous lives they shared with Melisa, the main character—and presumably Chaviano's alter ego—, a young Cuban obsessed with Anaïs Nin. [52]

The Cuban poet and novelist Wendy Guerra, long fascinated with Nin's life and works, published a fictional diary in Nin's voice, Posar desnuda en la Habana (Posing Nude in Havana) in 2012. She explained that "[Nin's] Cuban Diary has very few pages and my delirium was always to write an apocryphal novel; literary conjecture about what might have happened". [53]

On September 27, 2013, screenwriter and author Kim Krizan published an article in The Huffington Post [54] revealing she had found a previously unpublished love letter written by Gore Vidal to Nin. This letter contradicts Gore Vidal's previous characterization of his relationship with Nin, showing that Vidal did have feelings for Nin that he later heavily disavowed in his autobiography, Palimpsest. Krizan did this research in the run up to the release of the fifth volume of Anaïs Nin's uncensored diary, Mirages, for which Krizan provided the foreword. [54]

In 2015, The Erotic Adventures of Anais Nin a documentary film directed by Sarah Aspinall, was released, in which Lucy Cohu portrayed Nin's character.

In 2019, Kim Krizan published Spy in the House of Anaïs Nin, an examination of long-buried letters, papers, and original manuscripts Krizan found while doing archival work in Nin's Los Angeles home. [55] Also that year, Routledge published the book Anaïs Nin: A Myth of Her Own by Clara Oropeza, that analyzes Nin's literature and literary theory through the perspective of mythological studies and depth psychology. [56]

In 2002 Alissa Levy Caiano produced a short film called The All-Seeing based on Nin's short story of the same name in Under a Glass Bell. [57]

In 2021, the porn film company Thousand Faces released a short film called Mathilde based on Nin's story of the same name in Delta of Venus. [58]





Short stories



See also


  1. In this Spanish name, the first or paternal surname is Ninand the second or maternal family name is Culmell.


  1. Sayre, Robert F., ed. (1994). American Lives: An Anthology of Autobiographical Writing. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 597. ISBN   978-0299142445.
  2. 1 2 3 Liukkonen, Petri. "Anaïs Nin profile". (in Finnish). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 23 January 2012.
  3. Fenner, Andrew. "The Unique Anaïs Nin" . Retrieved December 26, 2016.
  4. Nin 1966, p. 125.
  5. Stuhlmann, Gunther. A Spy In The House Of Love (Foreword). Swallow Press. p. 3.
  6. Nin & DuBow 1994, p. 126.
  7. 1 2 3 Nin & DuBow 1994, p. xxi.
  8. Nin 1966, p. 183.
  9. Oakes, Elizabeth H. (2004). American Writers. Infobase Publishing. p. 255. ISBN   978-1438108094.
  10. Anais Nin, Journal (1931–1934), Paris: Le Livre de Poche, 1966, pp. 138, 171–172, 237, 404, 505, passim.
  11. Nin 1966, p. 276.
  12. "Several persons, when faced with the question of whether they wanted to remain in the diary 'as is' ... chose to be deleted altogether from the manuscript (including her husband and some members of her family)." The Diary of Anaïs Nin, ed. by Gunther Stuhlmann. Harcourt, 1966, p. xi.
  13. Griffin, M. Collins. "Frances Steloff". Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved October 2, 2017.
  14. Nin 1967, pp. 17–25.
  15. 1 2 3 Fraser, C. Gerald (January 16, 1977). "Anais Nin, Author Whose Diaries Depicted Intellectual Life, Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
  16. Liukkonen, Petri. "Anaïs Nin". Retrieved 2022-08-20.
  17. "Nin, Anais (1903–1977) |". Retrieved 2022-08-20.
  18. Nin 1966, p. 15.
  19. Nin 1966, p. 45.
  20. Nin 1966, pp. 60, 109.
  21. Nin 1966, p. 60.
  22. Nin 1966, p. 29, 40.
  23. Nin 1966, p. 96.
  24. Gertzman, Jay A. (2011). Bookleggers and Smuthounds: The Trade in Erotica, 1920–1940 (Reprint ed.). University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 344. ISBN   978-0812205855.
  25. Noël Riley Fitch, Anaïs: The Erotic Life of Anaïs Nin (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1993) ISBN   0316284289
  26. Kowaleski-Wallace, Elizabeth (1997). Encyclopedia of Feminist Literary Theory. Taylor & Francis. p.  190. ISBN   978-0815308249.
  27. Gibson, Andrew (1999). Postmodernity, Ethics and the Novel: From Leavis to Levinas. Routledge. p.  177. ISBN   978-0415198950.
  28. Raab, Diana (November 3, 2016). "The Sexual Censorship Controversy". Psychology Today. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  29. "Anaïs Nin". Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved October 6, 2017.
  30. Charnock, Ruth (September 30, 2013). "Incest in the 1990s: Reading Anaïs Nin's 'Father Story'" (PDF). Life Writing. 11: 55–68. doi:10.1080/14484528.2013.838732. S2CID   162354162. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09.
  31. 1 2 Franklin 1996, p. 6.
  32. Franklin 1996, p. 127.
  33. Corbett, Sara (2006-12-31). "The Lover Who Always Stays". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-02-16.
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 "Anais Nin Husband, Rupert Pole, Dies in L.A." National Public Radio (NPR). July 29, 2006. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
  35. Woo, Elaine (July 26, 2006). "The Ranger Who Told All About Anais Nin's Wild Life". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  36. Woo, Elaine (2006-07-27). "Rupert Pole, executor of exotic works by Anaïs Nin". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2011-02-16.
  37. Kraft, Barbara. Anaïs Nin: The Last Days Pegasus Books, ISBN   978-0988968752, 2013, p. 200
  38. Woo, Elaine (July 26, 2006). "The Ranger Who Told All About Anais Nin's Wild Life". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  39. "Anais Nin Husband, Rupert Pole Dies in L.A." Retrieved Apr 28, 2020.
  40. Fox, Margalit (July 30, 2006). "Rupert Pole, 87, Diarist's Duplicate Spouse, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
  41. Nin & DuBow 1994, pp. xxi–xxii.
  42. 1 2 Kraft, Barbara (December 13, 2016). "Anaïs Nin: The Last Days". Cultural Weekly. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
  43. Herron 1996, p. 235.
  44. Herron, Paul (1996). Anaïs Nin: A Book of Mirrors. Sky Blue Press. p. 235. ISBN   978-0965236409.
  45. Nin, Anaïs. Rauner Library Letters (September 1975): "I suppose you know I have been fighting cancer for 9 months – just recovering very slowly."
  46. Nin, Anais. Finding Aid for the Anais Nin Papers, ca. 1910–1977, File: 2066. Online Archive of California: Charles E. Young Research Library, UCLA Library Special Collections. Retrieved Nov 26, 2020.
  47. "Times Woman of the Year – Anais Nin". Los Angeles Times . June 6, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
  48. Kosnett, Rena (February 6, 2008). "All About Anais Nin". LA Weekly. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  49. "Writer garners personal praise". The Daily Bruin. University of California, Los Angeles. February 12, 2008. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008.
  50. "The First Lady of Electronic Music Passes: Bebe Barron". Echoes. 2008-04-21. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  51. Reigns, Steven (February 2014). "Bern Porter's Wild Sexual Life with Anais Nin or Wild Imaginings?". A Cafe in Space: The Anais Nin Literary Journal. republished: Reigns, Steven. "Bern Porter's Wild Sexual Life with Anais Nin or Wild Imaginings?". Archived from the original on 2016-04-14. Retrieved May 30, 2016.
  52. Rodríguez, Antonio O. and Andricaín, Sergio. "Fusión de erotismo y magia: Gata encerrada es una novela cautivadora". Newsweek en Español, July 11, 2001
  53. Sanchez, Yoani (9 February 2015). "Cuban Author Wendy Guerra: 'I'm a Demon Who Writes What She Feels'". HuffPost Latino Voices. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
  54. 1 2 "Gore Vidal's Secret, Unpublished Love Letter To Anaïs Nin". The Huffington Post . September 27, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2013.
  55. "Spy In The House Of Anaïs Nin: An Interview With Kim Krizan". Hobart . November 1, 2019. Retrieved 2020-07-11.[ permanent dead link ]
  56. "Anaïs Nin: A Myth of Her Own". Routledge & CRC Press. Retrieved 2022-08-20.
  57. "The All Seeing" via IMDb.
  58. "Mathilde". ThousandFaces Films.
  59. 1 2 Nin & DuBow 1994, p. xxii.

Works cited

Further reading

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Hugh Parker Guiler, also known as Ian Hugo, was Anaïs Nin's husband from 1923 until her death in 1977, and a skilled engraver and filmmaker in his own right.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kim Krizan</span> American writer and actress (born 1961)

Kim Krizan is an American writer and actress best known for originating the story and characters in the Before trilogy with her writing on Before Sunrise (1995) and Before Sunset (2004), for which she was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay and a Writers Guild Award. The trilogy is based on characters she created with Richard Linklater. Krizan currently resides in Los Angeles, where she writes and teaches writing courses, most notably at UCLA. In the fall of 2021, she launched a video based writing class on Patreon.

<i>Fire: From a Journal of Love</i> 1995 book

Fire: From the Unexpurgated Diary of Anaïs Nin is a 1995 book that is based on material excerpted from the unpublished diaries of Anais Nin. It corresponds temporally to part of Anaïs Nin's published diaries, but consists mostly of material about her love life that was too sensitive or secret to publish in her lifetime or in that of others involved.

<i>Nearer the Moon</i>

Nearer the Moon: From a Journal of Love is a 1996 book based upon material excerpted from the unpublished diaries of Anaïs Nin. It corresponds temporally to part of Nin's published diaries. It consists mainly of material that was left out of the published version because it would have hurt people involved or their relationships with Anaïs Nin had it been published at the time.

<i>The Early Diary of Anaïs Nin</i>

The Early Diary of Anaïs Nin, in four volumes, is the portion of Anaïs Nin's lifelong personal journals and notebooks from the period before it had to be split because it became so personal that only portions could be published while any of the people involved were still living. The first volume appeared in 1978 and the fourth in 1985.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Helba Huara</span>

Helba Huara (1900–1986) was a modern dancer from Peru. Her exotic appearance and unique dance style, which incorporated European and Native American influences, created a sensation in the late 1920s. Moving from Peru to the United States she became a star on Broadway in the 1927 production of A Night in Spain. Later she moved to Paris, and became involved in the artistic and intellectual café society. She was renowned for her original and innovative costumes and dance style, also working as a photographer's model.

<i>Mirages: The Unexpurgated Diary of Anaïs Nin, 1939-1947</i>

Mirages: The Unexpurgated Diary of Anaïs Nin, 1939–1947 is a volume of diary entries by Anaïs Nin from her life between 1939 and 1947, first published in 2013 by Swallow Press. It was edited by Paul Herron, and features an introduction by Kim Krizan.