|31st Associate Justice|
of the Philippine Supreme Court
July 20, 1933 –December 19, 1941
|Appointed by||Franklin D. Roosevelt|
|Preceded by||Ignacio Villamor|
|Succeeded by||None (reorganized after Japanese organization)|
|Member of the Philippine Assembly from La Union's Second District|
|Preceded by||Francisco Zandueta|
|Succeeded by||Florencio Baltazar|
|Born||November 20, 1878|
Aringay, La Union, Captaincy General of the Philippines
|Died||February 10, 1945 66) (aged|
Manila, Commonwealth of the Philippines
Anacleto Díaz (November 20, 1878 – February 10, 1945) was a Filipino jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court.
A jurist is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence. Such a person can work as an academic, legal writer or law lecturer. In the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and in many other Commonwealth countries, the word jurist sometimes refers to a barrister, whereas in the United States of America and Canada it often refers to a judge.
An Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines is one of 15 members of the Philippine Supreme Court, the highest court in the Philippines. The Chief Justice presides over the High Court, but carries only 1 of the 15 votes in the court. Traditionally, the Chief Justice is deemed primus inter pares among the Justices.
The Supreme Court of the Philippines is the highest court in the Philippines. It is presided over by a Chief Justice and is composed of fifteen (15) Justices, including the Chief Justice. Pursuant to the Constitution, the Supreme Court has "administrative supervision over all courts and the personnel thereof".
Díaz earned his law degree from the Escuela de Derecho de Manila. He was elected as a representative from La Union to the Philippine Assembly in 1910, and served in that capacity until 1912. That year, he was named a provincial fiscal for Ilocos Sur. In 1917, he was appointed city fiscal of Manila. He was later appointed as a trial court judge.
La Union is a province in the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in the island of Luzon. Its capital is the city of San Fernando, which also serves as the regional center of the whole Ilocos Region.
The Philippine Assembly was the lower house of the Philippines from 1907 to 1916. Along with an upper house, it formed the bicameral Philippine Legislature during part of the American Colonial Period.
Ilocos Sur is a province in the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. Vigan City, located on the mouth of the Mestizo River is the provincial capital. Ilocos Sur is bordered by Ilocos Norte and Abra to the north, Mountain Province to the east, La Union and Benguet to the south and the South China Sea to the west.
In 1927, while serving as a judge, Díaz was appointed to head a commission tasked with revising the penal code of the Philippines. By 1930, his committee had finished drafting the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines, which remains as the basic penal law in the Philippines.
The Revised Penal Code contains the general penal laws of the Philippines. First enacted in 1930, it remains in effect today, despite several amendments thereto. It does not comprise a comprehensive compendium of all Philippine penal laws. The Revised Penal Code itself was enacted as Act No. 3815, and some Philippine criminal laws have been enacted outside of the Revised Penal Code as separate Republic Acts.
Díaz was appointed to the Supreme Court by the American President Franklin D. Roosevelt on July 20, 1933. Among his more notable opinions was in People v. Cu Unjieng, 61 Phil. 236 (1935), which was one of the more widely talked-about criminal cases of its day.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U.S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century. His third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has also been subject to much criticism, he is generally rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln.
Díaz's service in the Court was interrupted by the outbreak of the Second World War. The ensuing Japanese invasion of the Philippines in December 1941 effectively prevented the Supreme Court organized under the Commonwealth government. When the Japanese reestablished the Court in 1942, none of the incumbent members of the old Court were appointed to the new tribunal headed by José Yulo.
The Commonwealth of the Philippines was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country. It replaced the Insular Government, a United States territorial government, and was established by the Tydings–McDuffie Act. The Commonwealth was designed as a transitional administration in preparation for the country's full achievement of independence.
José Yulo Yulo was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation and was Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1939 until World War II started in 1941. Yulo served in all of the branches of government: Legislative, as House Speaker and Representative; Executive, as Secretary of Justice and member of the Cabinet; and the Judiciary as the Chief Magistrate. Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
Díaz was one of two Supreme Court Justices who were executed by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Battle of Manila in 1945. On February 10, the then-paralyzed Díaz and two of his sons were among 300 men herded by the Japanese army and lined up along the corner of Taft Avenue and Padre Faura in Ermita, Manila. Japanese soldiers then opened machine gun fire, killing Díaz and his sons as well as scores of others.Two days later, Diaz's colleague on the Court, Antonio Villa-Real, was murdered by Japanese forces in nearby Pasay.
The Imperial Japanese Army was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, and the Inspector General of Military Training.
The Battle of Manila was a major battle of the Philippine campaign of 1944-45, during the Second World War. It was fought by American forces from both the U.S. mainland and the Philippines against Japanese troops in Manila, the capital city of the Philippines. The month-long battle, which resulted in the death of over 100,000 civilians and the complete devastation of the city, was the scene of the worst urban fighting in the Pacific theater. Japanese forces committed mass murder against Filipino civilians during the battle. Along with massive loss of life, the battle also destroyed architectural and cultural heritage dating back to the city's foundation. The battle ended the almost three years of Japanese military occupation in in U.S. colony of the Commonwealth of the Philippines (1942–1945). The city's capture was marked as General Douglas MacArthur's key to victory in the campaign of reconquest. It is the last of the many battles fought within Manila's history.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire rifle cartridges in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine for the purpose of suppressive fire. Not all fully automatic firearms are machine guns. Submachine guns, rifles, assault rifles, battle rifles, shotguns, pistols or cannons may be capable of fully automatic fire, but are not designed for sustained fire. As a class of military rapid-fire guns, machine guns are fully automatic weapons designed to be used as support weapons and generally used when attached to a mount- or fired from the ground on a bipod or tripod. Many machine guns also use belt feeding and open bolt operation, features not normally found on rifles.
The area where Díaz was executed would later become part of the Supreme Court compound when the Court relocated to Padre Faura after the war.
Ermita is a district in Manila, Philippines. It is a significant center of finance, education, culture and commerce. Ermita serves as the civic center of the city, bearing the seat of city government and a large portion of the area's employment, business, and entertainment activities.
José P. Laurel, was a Filipino politician and judge. He was the president of the Second Philippine Republic, a Japanese puppet state when occupied during World War II, from 1943 to 1945. Since the administration of President Diosdado Macapagal (1961–1965), Laurel has been officially recognized by later administrations as former president of the Philippines.
Vicente Abad Santos was a Filipino Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines.
José Abad Santos was the fifth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines. He briefly served as the Acting President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and Acting Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines during World War II, on behalf of President Quezon after the government went in exile to the United States. After about two months, he was executed by the Japanese forces for refusing to cooperate during their occupation of the country.
Salvador Roman Hidalgo Laurel, also known as Doy Laurel, was a Filipino lawyer and politician who served as Vice-President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992 under President Corazon Aquino and briefly served as Prime Minister from 25 February to 25 March 1986, when the position was abolished. He was a major leader of the United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO), the political party that helped topple the dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos with the 1986 People Power Revolution.
The Philippine Department of Justice is under the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for upholding the rule of law in the Philippines. It is the government's principal law agency, serving as its legal counsel and prosecution arm. It has its headquarters at the DOJ Building in Padre Faura Street, Ermita, Manila.
Conrado M. Vasquez was the first Ombudsman of the Philippines and an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines.
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Enrique Medina Fernando was the 13th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines. A noted constitutionalist and law professor, he served in the Supreme Court for 18 years, including 6 years as Chief Justice.
Ramón Avanceña was a Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines. He served from 1925 to 1941, when he resigned at the beginning of the Japanese occupation of the Philippines during World War II. He was from Villa de Arevalo, Iloilo City
People of the Philippines v. Hernandez, 99 Phil. Rep 515 (1956), was a case decided by the Philippine Supreme Court which held that the crime of rebellion under the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines is charged as a single offense, and that it cannot be made into a complex crime. While it was decided on an almost divided opinion, it nevertheless became a stable doctrine in Philippine jurisprudence.
Florentino V. Floro, Jr. is a former Filipino judge who achieved notoriety after being suspended from the Philippine judiciary in 2006 due to mental illness. Floro made several statements that he was psychic and claimed to frequently communicate with invisible duendes, a type of dwarf common in Latin American mythology.
Ruben T. Reyes is a Filipino jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines from 2007 to 2009.
Jose Benedicto Luna Reyes was a noted Filipino jurist who served as Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court from 1954 until 1972. Widely known by the initials "JBL", his reputation for erudition and fearlessness was such that the popular rumor took hold that President Ferdinand Marcos awaited Reyes's retirement from the Court in August 1972 before imposing martial law a few weeks later.
Gregorio Perfecto was a Filipino journalist, politician and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines from 1945 to 1949. A controversial figure who was described as an “apostle of liberal causes,” Perfecto was notable for his libertarian views, his colorful writing style, and the frequency of his dissenting opinions while on the Supreme Court.
Serafin R. Cuevas was a Filipino lawyer and an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines appointed during the government of Ferdinand Marcos.
Isagani A. Cruz was a Filipino judge who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines from 1986 to 1994. He retired from the Supreme Court on October 11, 1994, due to the court's mandatory retirement age of 70 years.
Padre Faura Street is an east-west street in downtown Manila, Philippines. It carries traffic one-way westbound from San Marcelino Street to Roxas Boulevard. Starting at its eastern terminus at Paco Park in Paco district, the street heads west for a short stretch towards the intersection with Taft Avenue where the Manila Science High School is located. Past the intersection, the street traverses the district of Ermita and touches upon a number of important government institutions such as the Supreme Court and Department of Justice, as well as the Philippine General Hospital. Also located along this stretch of Padre Faura are the UP Manila College of Arts and Sciences, Robinsons Place Manila, and a number of hotels and condominiums. The street ends at the intersection with Roxas Boulevard, just across from the United States Embassy.
| Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines |
none (reorganized upon Japanese occupation)