Anadyr (town)

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Anadyr

Анадырь
Anadyr' kollazh.jpg
Centre: Trinity Cathedral.
Flag of Anadyr (Chukotka).svg
Flag
Coat of Arms of Anadyr (Chukotka).png
Coat of arms
Location of Anadyr
Anadyr (town)
Russia edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Anadyr
Location of Anadyr
Russia Chukotka Autonomous Okrug location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Anadyr
Anadyr (Chukotka Autonomous Okrug)
Coordinates: 64°44′N177°31′E / 64.733°N 177.517°E / 64.733; 177.517 Coordinates: 64°44′N177°31′E / 64.733°N 177.517°E / 64.733; 177.517
Country Russia
Federal subject Chukotka Autonomous Okrug [1]
Founded1889 [2]
Town status since1965 [2]
Government
  BodyCouncil of Deputies [3]
  Head [3] Andrey Shchegolkov [4]
Area
[5]
  Total20 km2 (8 sq mi)
Elevation
35 m (115 ft)
Population
  Total13,045
  Estimate 
(2018) [7]
15,604 (+19.6%)
  Density650/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
  Subordinated to Town of okrug significance of Anadyr [1]
   Capital ofChukotka Autonomous Okrug [1] , Anadyrsky District [1]
  Urban okrugAnadyr Urban Okrug [8]
   Capital ofAnadyr Urban Okrug [8] , Anadyrsky Municipal District [9]
Time zone UTC+12 (MSK+9   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [10] )
Postal code(s) [11]
689000, 689700
Dialing code(s) +7 42722
OKTMO ID77701000001
Website web.archive.org/web/20140203061459/http://www.adm.anadyr.ru/

Anadyr (Russian:Ана́дырь, tr. Anadyr,IPA:  [ɐˈnadɨrʲ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Chukchi: Кагыргын, Kagyrgyn, [kɑɣərˈɣən] ) is a port town and the administrative center of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located at the mouth of the Anadyr River at the tip of a peninsula that protrudes into Anadyrsky Liman. Anadyr is the easternmost town in Russia; more easterly settlements, such as Provideniya and Uelen, do not have town status. It was previously known as Novo–Mariinsk (until 1923). [2]

Contents

History

Early history

Although the town itself has only been in existence for just over a century, the origins of the name Anadyr are much older. The name initially derives from the Yukaghir word "any-an" meaning "river". When Semyon Dezhnev met Yukaghir people in the area, the indigenous name was corrupted to form "Onandyr", later Anadyrsk, the name of the ostrog (fort) upstream of the present-day settlement, from which the current name is derived. [12] The ostrog was the only Russian settlement east of the Kolyma River on the Chukotka Peninsula for most of the 18th century, [13] though this original settlement was situated further up the Anadyr River, nearer to Markovo than the site of the current town. [13]

Pyotr Baranov (brother of Alexander Andreyevich Baranov) established a trading post near the present town site in the early 19th century. The Chukchi settled around it and formed the village of Vyon in 1830. [12]

The present settlement was founded in 1889 as Novo–Mariinsk [2] by L. F. Grinevetsky, who sailed into the Anadyrsky Liman on July 9, 1889. [12] The town's first building was completed twelve days later and as it was the name-day of Tsaritsa Maria Feodorovna the town was named Mariinsk. Since this was not the first time that a town had been named Mariinsk in Russia, the name was swiftly changed to Novo–Mariinsk. [12]

Early 20th century

The Kamchatka Revkom sent the first Bolsheviks—Mikhail Mandrikov and Avgust Berzin—to Anadyr to set up an underground organization to undermine and eventually overthrow the resident White Army forces stationed in the town. [14] These two, along with a small group of other Russian immigrants and a handful of Chuvans, established the First Revolutionary Committee of Chukotka. [14] Their presence initially went undetected, although it did arouse suspicion. However, just before they were about to be discovered by the resident White Army troops, they launched an attack against them on the night of December 16, 1919. [14] They intended to free the local indigenous people from their debts to the Russian incomers and dismantle of the capitalist infrastructure that had been established in the town. [14] The attempts at seizing the property of the merchant class in Anadyr was successful, but they were unable to seize control of the armory and ammunition supplies within the town. [14] The merchants used this opportunity to reassert themselves, and by January 30, 1920, they surrounded the Revkom offices and attacked. One of the leaders, Vasily Titov, was killed and a number of others were wounded. Mikhail Mandrikov himself surrendered. [14] Although the survivors were initially imprisoned, the merchants decided to eliminate them permanently. Under the pretense of transferring them to another site, they led them out of the town and executed them out on the tundra. [14] The merchants' and White Army's success had been aided by the fact that a number of the Revkom members had been out the town visiting the village of Markovo. When these people returned, they were ambushed and all survivors eventually killed. [15]

View of the Anadyr port Anadyrskii morport.png
View of the Anadyr port

The merchants set about reestablishing the status quo, all the while pretending to the Kamchatka Revkom that they themselves were socialists when inquiries came as to the whereabouts of their colleagues, going as far as to set up a fake Anadyr branch of the Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks. [14] Unfortunately for the merchants in Anadyr, members of the first Revkom had already managed to establish branches in Markovo and Ust-Belaya, who were not convinced by the claims coming from Anadyr and, whilst establishing the Second Revolutionary Committee of Chukotka in Markovo [16] pressed the Kamchatka Revkom for assistance. [14] The Kamchatka Revkom responded by sending a party to investigate. [14] A number of those involved in the overthrow of the First Revolutionary Committee either ceased their political activity in the hope of blending into the background, or fled Chukotka for Alaska. [17] However, the merchants fared worse eighteen months later when the Bolsheviks returned and began to reorganize urban life. [12] Struggles continued for some time in the Russian Far East, and it took until early 1923 before communications were sent from Kamchatka by Red Army commanders indicating that all White Army forces in Chukotka had been eliminated. [18]

Monuments to those members of the First Revolutionary Committee were erected in Anadyr on 5 July 1921. [19] It was only in 1969 that an elderly man said he remembered where the bodies had been buried, having seen them being interred in a cemetery in Tavayvaam. [14] Following this tip, the remains were recovered and they were paraded solemnly through Anadyr to the monuments, where they were buried with full honors. [20]

In 1923, Novo–Mariinsk was renamed Anadyr. [2]

WWII and the Cold War

During World War II, an airfield was built here for the Alaska-Siberian (ALSIB) air route used to ferry American Lend-Lease aircraft to the Eastern Front. [21]

During the 1960s, Anadyr was home to an R-12 Dvina (SS-4 Sandal) medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) complex, which targeted American military installations in Alaska. [22] The base was located 23 km (14 miles) northeast of Anadyr and was the USSR's only remote missile site. [22]

Anadyr was granted town status in 1965, [2] around which time it had a population of 5,600. [23]

The Hope Sled Dog Race was run between Anadyr and Nome, Alaska for more than a decade.[ citation needed ].

Modern history

It is claimed that the town of Anadyr annexed the neighboring "ethnic village" of Tavayvaam in May 1994, and that this was done by then governor Alexander Nazarov with a view to saving money from the autonomous okrug budget. If the national village had indeed been absorbed into the town of Anadyr then there would have been no obligation for the autonomous okrug to allocate specific funds for the indigenous population there. [24]

Anadyr Child Creativity Palace, with the Lenin statue in front of the building Anadyr child creativity palace.jpg
Anadyr Child Creativity Palace, with the Lenin statue in front of the building

In 2011, Paul Steinhardt led a group of scientists that landed in Anadyr en route to an expedition into the Koryak Mountains to search for naturally occurring quasicrystals. [25] Three quasicrystals have been found to date from the material gathered on that expedition, including icosahedrite, decagonite, a yet unnamed third natural quasicrystal, which (unlike icosahedrite and decagonite) is unlike anything ever previously synthesized in a laboratory. Steinhardt's team has established that the natural quasicrystals were embedded in meteorite that had hit Earth about 15,000 years ago.

Geography

View of Anadyr from helicopter AnadyrskyLiman.JPG
View of Anadyr from helicopter

The town of Anadyr is situated at the tip of a large cape, to the north of which is the mouth of the Anadyr River and to the east the estuarine part of that river, the Anadyrsky Liman, which empties into the Gulf of Anadyr. [26] The town itself is situated on a gentle slope rising up from the sea, on the other side of the Anadyr River are mountains, but to the west, beyond the town are large expanses of flat tundra. [26]

It is on a similar parallel as Fairbanks, Alaska; Skellefteå, Sweden; and Oulu, Finland. Apart from those cities, population at such northerly parallels are normally sparse.

Administrative and municipal status

Anadyr is the administrative center of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Anadyrsky District, [1] even though it is not a part of it. [27] As an administrative division, it is, together with the selo Tavayvaam, incorporated separately as the town of okrug significance of Anadyr—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. [1] As a municipal division, the town of okrug significance of Anadyr is incorporated as Anadyr Urban Okrug. [8]

Demographics

1926 [28] 1939 [29] 1959 [30] 1970 [31] 1979 [32] 1989 [33] 2002 [34] 2010 [6]
2243,3445,8597,70312,24117,09411,03813,045

Transportation

Aerial view of Ugolny Airport Anadyr.jpg
Aerial view of Ugolny Airport

Anadyr is an important sea port on the Bering Sea and is connected to almost all major Russian Far Eastern seaports. Anadyr's Ugolny Airport serves major and minor cities in the Russian Far East with connections to Khabarovsk, Vladivostok, and Moscow, while Bering Air provides charter flights to Nome, Alaska in the United States. The airport is on the other side of the Anadyrsky Liman, and from January to May, transportation from the airport to Anadyr is by ice road. [12] In the summer there is a ferry which transports passengers across the Anadyr River to the airport, [35] but during spring and autumn when the river ice is melting and full of drifting ice floes, the only means of transportation to the airport is via helicopter. [35]

Although there is a network of roads between Anadyr and Tavayvaam, the town is not connected to any other settlement via road. [36] Construction of the Anadyr Highway was started in 2012, to link the town to Magadan, a distance of 1,800 kilometres (1,100 mi). [37]

Climate

Anadyr experiences a dry-summer subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification: Dsc) according to the Köppen climate classification. Winters are long and very cold; summers are cool and short. January is the coldest month with an average temperature of −22.6 °C (−8.7 °F). July is the warmest month with an average temperature of 11.6 °C (52.9 °F). Temperatures above 25 °C (77 °F) are rare. The lowest temperature ever recorded was −46.8 °C (−52.2 °F) recorded on January 3, 1913. The highest temperature recorded was 30 °C (86 °F) on July 7, 1956. The weather changes easily with heavy storms often being brought in from the Anadyrsky Liman and the Bering Sea. This coupled with strong southerly winds in the autumn often brings flooding to the area. May is the driest month while January is the wettest.

Climate data for Anadyr
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)5.8
(42.4)
2.7
(36.9)
3.0
(37.4)
7.1
(44.8)
19.3
(66.7)
26.5
(79.7)
30.0
(86.0)
26.6
(79.9)
19.8
(67.6)
15.6
(60.1)
4.6
(40.3)
4.3
(39.7)
30.0
(86.0)
Average high °C (°F)−18.9
(−2.0)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−15.5
(4.1)
−9.0
(15.8)
1.6
(34.9)
10.7
(51.3)
15.6
(60.1)
13.6
(56.5)
7.7
(45.9)
−2.0
(28.4)
−10.1
(13.8)
−15.7
(3.7)
−3.4
(25.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)−22.6
(−8.7)
−22.0
(−7.6)
−19.3
(−2.7)
−12.8
(9.0)
−1.6
(29.1)
6.3
(43.3)
11.6
(52.9)
10.1
(50.2)
4.7
(40.5)
−4.6
(23.7)
−13.3
(8.1)
−19.3
(−2.7)
−6.9
(19.6)
Average low °C (°F)−26.2
(−15.2)
−25.5
(−13.9)
−22.8
(−9.0)
−16.4
(2.5)
−4.3
(24.3)
3.2
(37.8)
8.6
(47.5)
7.3
(45.1)
2.0
(35.6)
−7.1
(19.2)
−16.4
(2.5)
−22.8
(−9.0)
−10.0
(14.0)
Record low °C (°F)−46.8
(−52.2)
−44.7
(−48.5)
−42.1
(−43.8)
−39.6
(−39.3)
−28.2
(−18.8)
−7.6
(18.3)
−1.2
(29.8)
−4.3
(24.3)
−11.8
(10.8)
−28.2
(−18.8)
−38.8
(−37.8)
−45.2
(−49.4)
−46.8
(−52.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)45
(1.8)
40
(1.6)
33
(1.3)
23
(0.9)
13
(0.5)
18
(0.7)
34
(1.3)
43
(1.7)
31
(1.2)
26
(1.0)
34
(1.3)
42
(1.7)
382
(15.0)
Average rainy days0.20.20.2191517191762188
Average snowy days181815171620.10.35191918147
Average relative humidity (%)82818182847879818084848282
Mean monthly sunshine hours 2910119724924527925718613810547151,848
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net [38]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990) [39]

Politics

Results of Russian legislative elections

Parties \ Year200320072011
Communist Party 4.61%3.73%4.39%
Patriots of Russia
(including former Party of Peace and Unity)
0.57%0.53%0.60%
A Just Russia
(including former Rodina or Motherland-National Patriotic Union
Russian Party of Life
People's Party of the Russian Federation
and Russian Ecological Party "The Greens")
9.98%3.85%5.01%
Yabloko
(including former Union of People for Education and Research, "Партия СЛОН")
3.30%1.08%1.66%
Right Cause
(including former Citizens' Force
Democratic Party of Russia
and Union of Rightist Forces)
3.03%1.54%0.70%
United Russia
(including former Agrarian Party of Russia)
55.55%76.37%72.44%
Liberal Democratic Party 11.67%12.19%12.97%
Other minor parties9.93%xx%xx%

Notable people

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Anadyr is twinned with:

Related Research Articles

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Bilibino is a town and the administrative center of Bilibinsky District in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia. It is located 625 kilometers (388 mi) northwest of Anadyr, the administrative center of the autonomous okrug. With a population of 5,506 as of the 2010 Census, and an estimated population as of 1 January 2015 of 5,592, it is the second largest town in the autonomous okrug after Anadyr.

Ust-Belaya Selo in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia

Ust-Belaya is a rural locality in Anadyrsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located at the confluence of the Anadyr and the Belaya Rivers. Population: 856 (2010 Census); Municipally, the settlement is subordinated to Anadyrsky Municipal District and incorporated as Ust-Belaya Rural Settlement.

Shakhtyorsky, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Place in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia

Shakhtyorsky, is an urban-type settlement in Anadyrsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia. As of 2008, it is in the process of being abolished due to it no longer being considered economically viable to continue mining in the area. Population: 328 ; 2,968 (1989 Census). As a result of the cessation of mining activities, the population of the settlement has continued to decline. By 2005, an environmental impact report prepared for the Kupol Gold Project indicated that the population of Shakhtyorsky had fallen to just 93 people.

Ugolnye Kopi Urban-type settlement in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia

Ugolnye Kopi is an urban locality in Anadyrsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located east of Anadyr, the administrative center of the autonomous okrug, on the opposite side of the Anadyr River. It served as the administrative center of Anadyrsky District until June 2011. Population: 3,368 (2010 Census); 3,863 (2002 Census); 12,357 (1989 Census), with an estimated population as of 1 January 2015 of 3,666.

Anadyrsky District District in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia

Anadyrsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the six in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia. It is located in the central and southern parts of the autonomous okrug and borders with Chaunsky District in the northwest, Iultinsky District in the north and northeast, the Gulf of Anadyr in the east, Koryak Okrug in the south, and with Bilibinsky District in the west and northwest. It also completely surrounds the territory of the town of okrug significance of Anadyr. The area of the district is 287,900 square kilometers (111,200 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Anadyr. Population: 6,935 (2010 Census); 8,007 (2002 Census); 40,475 (1989 Census).

Beringovsky District

Beringovsky District was an administrative district (raion) of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia, which existed in 1957–2011. As a municipal division, it was, together with Anadyrsky Administrative District, incorporated as Anadyrsky Municipal District. It was located on the southeastern shores of the autonomous okrug and bordered with Anadyrsky District in the west and the Bering Sea in the east. Its administrative center was the urban locality of Beringovsky. Population: 2,501 (2010 Census); 3,162 (2002 Census); 8,968 (1989 Census). The area of the district was 37,900 square kilometers (14,600 sq mi).

Beringovsky (inhabited locality) Urban-type settlement in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia

Beringovsky is an urban locality in Anadyrsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia, and a port on the Bering Sea. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,401.

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Shmidtovsky District

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Markovo, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Selo in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia

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Tavayvaam Selo in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia

Tavayvaam is a rural locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of okrug significance of Anadyr in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia. Within the framework of municipal divisions, it is a part of Anadyr Urban Okrug. Its population of 472 is predominantly indigenous Chukchi and Yupik people.

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Meynypilgyno Selo in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia

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Chuvanskoye Selo in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia

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Lamutskoye Selo in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia

Lamutskoye is a rural locality in Anadyrsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located northwest of Markovo and 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) northeast of Chuvanskoye on the middle reaches of the Anadyr River. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 173.

Otrozhny, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Place in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia

Otrozhny is an urban locality in Anadyrsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located about 200 kilometers (120 mi) west of Anadyr. It is a former gold mining settlement.

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Law #33-OZ
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 20. ISBN   5-7107-7399-9.
  3. 1 2 Charter of Anadyr, Article 24
  4. Official website of Anadyr Urban Okrug. Mayor's Autobiography Archived February 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  5. Russian Federal State Statistics Service. "Регионы России. Основные социально-экономические показатели городов. 2012". Дальневосточный федеральный округ. Города Чукотского автономного округа.
  6. 1 2 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  7. http://habstat.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/habstat/resources/62f1a600408e9886a05deb4d45abe5e4/Численность+населения+Чукотского+автономного+округа+по+муниципальным+образованиям+на+1+января+2018+года.doc; archive date: 31 August 2019; archive URL: https://web.archive.org/web/20190831171236/http://habstat.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/habstat/resources/62f1a600408e9886a05deb4d45abe5e4/%D0%A7%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D1%8C+%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8F+%D0%A7%D1%83%D0%BA%D0%BE%D1%82%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE+%D0%B0%D0%B2%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE+%D0%BE%D0%BA%D1%80%D1%83%D0%B3%D0%B0+%D0%BF%D0%BE+%D0%BC%D1%83%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%86%D0%B8%D0%BF%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%BC+%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8F%D0%BC+%D0%BD%D0%B0+1+%D1%8F%D0%BD%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%8F+2018+%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B0.doc.
  8. 1 2 3 Law #40-OZ
  9. Law #148-OZ
  10. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  11. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Petit Futé, Chukotka, pp. 77ff
  13. 1 2 Armstrong, p. 53
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Gray, pp. 88–90
  15. Zhikarev, pp. 60–61
  16. Zhikarev, p. 63
  17. Dikov, p. 148
  18. Dikov, p. 156
  19. Dikov, p.151-152
  20. Krusdanov, p. 111
  21. Lebedev, Igor Aviation Lend-Lease to Russia Nova Publishers (1997) pp.44–49
  22. 1 2 Evaluations of Soviet Surface-to-Surface Missile Deployment, November 1965, Guided Missile and Astronautics Intelligence Committee, Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, DC.
  23. Armstrong, p. 187
  24. Gray, p. 135
  25. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22329860.300-quasicrystal-quest-the-unreal-rock-that-nature-made.html#.VQoRbdFOVUY
  26. 1 2 Gray, p. 122
  27. Directive #517-rp
  28. Список населённых мест Дальневосточного края. По материалам Всесоюзной переписи населения 17 декабря 1926 года и Приполярной переписи 1926—27 года. — Хабаровск; Благовещенск, 1929.
  29. РГАЭ, ф. 1562, оп. 336, д. 1470, л. 20.
  30. Перепись населения СССР 1959 года Archived July 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  31. Перепись населения СССР 1970 года Archived March 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  32. Перепись населения СССР 1979 года Archived March 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  33. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  34. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  35. 1 2 Gray, p. 126
  36. Gray, p. 118
  37. Project to build road from Kolyma to Anadyr drawn up
  38. "Weather and Climate- The Climate of Anadyr" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved May 13, 2015.
  39. "Anadyr Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved May 13, 2015.
  40. (PDF). August 12, 2011 https://web.archive.org/web/20110812094031/http://bethel.govoffice.com/vertical/Sites/%7B86032ACB-92B0-4505-919A-3F45B84FECD9%7D/uploads/%7BEFEDEA86-3466-4370-A7D0-E88B43BA40CF%7D.PDF. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 12, 2011. Retrieved April 18, 2018.Missing or empty |title= (help)

Sources