Anapa

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Anapa
Анапа
Other transcription(s)
   Adyghe Быгъуркъал
Anapa. Beach.JPG
A beach in Anapa
Flag of Anapa.svg
Coat of Arms of Anapa (Krasnodar krai).svg
Location of Anapa
Anapa
Outline Map of Krasnodarski Krai (with Crimea disputed).svg
Red pog.svg
Anapa
Location of Anapa
European Russia laea location map (Crimea disputed).svg
Red pog.svg
Anapa
Anapa (European Russia)
Map of the Black Sea with bathymetry and surrounding relief.svg
Red pog.svg
Anapa
Anapa (Black Sea)
Coordinates: 44°53′40″N37°19′0″E / 44.89444°N 37.31667°E / 44.89444; 37.31667
Country Russia
Federal subject Krasnodar Krai [1]
Founded14th century [2]
Town status since1846 [3]
Government
  MayorVasily Shvets
Elevation
20 m (70 ft)
Population
  Total58,990
  Estimate 
(2018) [5]
75,865 (+28.6%)
  Rank 280th in 2010
  Subordinated to Town of Anapa [6]
   Capital ofTown of Anapa, [1] Anapsky District [1]
  Urban okrugAnapa Urban Okrug [7]
   Capital ofAnapa Urban Okrug [6]
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [8] )
Postal code(s) [9]
353440—353458
Dialing code(s) +7 86133
OKTMO ID03703000001
Website www.anapa-official.ru

Anapa (Russian : Ана́па, Ukrainian : Ана́па, Adyghe : Быгъуркъал) is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the northern coast of the Black Sea near the Sea of Azov. Population: 81,863(2021 Census); [10] 58,990(2010 Census); [4] 53,493(2002 Census); [11] 54,796(1989 Census). [12]

Contents

History

The archaeological site of Gorgippia Gorgippia.JPG
The archaeological site of Gorgippia

The area around Anapa was settled in antiquity. It was originally a major seaport (Sinda) and then the capital of Sindica. The colony of Gorgippia (Greek : Γοργιππία) was built on the site of Sinda in the 6th century BCE by Pontic Greeks, who named it after a king of the Cimmerian Bosporus. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE, Gorgippia flourished as part of the Bosporan Kingdom, as did its guild of shipowners, which controlled maritime trade in the eastern part of the Black Sea. A fine statue of Neokles (a local potentate, son of Herodoros) was unearthed by Russian archaeologists and is now on exhibit at the Russian Museum. Gorgippia was inhabited until the 3rd century CE, when it was overrun by neighbouring native tribes. These tribes, of Circassian or Adyghe origin (specifically of the Natkhuay tribe[ citation needed ]), gave Anapa its modern name.

Later the Black Sea littoral was overrun by successive waves of Asiatic nomads, including the Sarmatians, Ostrogoths, Huns, Avars, Gokturks, Khazars, Tatars and Circassians who are native to the Northwestern Caucasus. The settlement was renamed Mapa by the Genoese at the turn of the 14th century. Genoese domination lasted until the arrival of an Ottoman fleet in 1475. The Turks later built a fort against the Russian Cossacks. The fortress was repeatedly attacked by the Russian Empire and was all but destroyed during its last siege in 1829. The town was passed to Russia after the Treaty of Adrianople (1829). See Russian conquest of the Caucasus § Black Sea Coast. It was included in Black Sea Okrug of Kuban Oblast and was granted town status in 1846. [3]

It was occupied by Ottomans between 1853 and 1856 during the Crimean War. It became part of Black Sea Governorate in 1896. Elizabeth Pilenko, later named as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the mayor during the Russian Revolution. It became part of Kuban-Black Sea Oblast in 1920. During World War II, it was occupied and totally demolished by Nazi Germany with the help of Romanian troops between August 30, 1942 and September 22, 1943.

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Anapa serves as the administrative center of Anapsky District, even though it is not a part of it. [1] As an administrative division, it is, together with three rural localities, incorporated separately as the Town of Anapa —an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. [1] As a municipal division, the territories of the Town of Anapa and of Anapsky District are incorporated as Anapa Urban Okrug. [6] [7]

Commemorative coin of the Bank of Russia with a face of Anapa of 10 rubles (2014) RR5714-0039R.jpg
Commemorative coin of the Bank of Russia with a face of Anapa of 10 rubles (2014)

Tourism

The town boasts a number of sanatoria and hotels. Anapa is served by the Anapa Airport. Anapa seldom attracts tourists from outside Russia due to its modest infrastructure and its inconvenient accessibility from Europe via Moscow or Krasnodar.

Transportation

Transportation facilities include an international passenger port for small-tonnage ships, [13] the Anapa Airport, a railway station, a bus station, and a network of highways. [14] [15]

Climate

Anapa has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with mediterranean (Csa) influences at the lower elevations. [16] Compared to cities further south along the coast like Novorossiysk and Sochi, Anapa receives considerably less rainfall but has somewhat colder winters.

Climate data for Anapa (1991–2020, extremes 1959–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)17.9
(64.2)
21.0
(69.8)
24.5
(76.1)
29.2
(84.6)
31.1
(88.0)
36.3
(97.3)
38.0
(100.4)
38.5
(101.3)
32.9
(91.2)
35.6
(96.1)
27.1
(80.8)
22.3
(72.1)
38.2
(100.8)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)6.2
(43.2)
6.7
(44.1)
9.8
(49.6)
15.0
(59.0)
20.1
(68.2)
25.2
(77.4)
28.7
(83.7)
29.2
(84.6)
23.9
(75.0)
18.1
(64.6)
12.1
(53.8)
8.1
(46.6)
16.9
(62.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.9
(37.2)
3.2
(37.8)
6.4
(43.5)
11.0
(51.8)
16.2
(61.2)
21.3
(70.3)
24.4
(75.9)
24.5
(76.1)
19.5
(67.1)
14.0
(57.2)
8.3
(46.9)
4.8
(40.6)
13.0
(55.5)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)0.2
(32.4)
0.4
(32.7)
3.6
(38.5)
7.9
(46.2)
13.1
(55.6)
17.9
(64.2)
20.3
(68.5)
20.1
(68.2)
15.2
(59.4)
10.4
(50.7)
5.2
(41.4)
2.0
(35.6)
9.7
(49.4)
Record low °C (°F)−23.9
(−11.0)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−13.2
(8.2)
−5.1
(22.8)
0.7
(33.3)
7.6
(45.7)
11.1
(52.0)
8.5
(47.3)
2.0
(35.6)
−6.3
(20.7)
−12.2
(10.0)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−23.9
(−11.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)60
(2.4)
47
(1.9)
51
(2.0)
38
(1.5)
40
(1.6)
41
(1.6)
34
(1.3)
34
(1.3)
55
(2.2)
53
(2.1)
50
(2.0)
62
(2.4)
565
(22.3)
Average rainy days13121313119769101314130
Average snowy days6640.2000000.22523
Average relative humidity (%)81787777777871697275798176
Mean monthly sunshine hours 72.997.1148.8191.0272.3310.1339.9319.1251.7191.5102.958.62,355.9
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net [17]
Source 2: Weatherbase (sunshine hours) [18]
Average Sea Temperature (1977-2006). [19]
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Average temperature6.8 °C6.1 °C7.4 °C10.6 °C15.1 °C20.0 °C23.1 °C24.1 °C21.1 °C16.6 °C11.9 °C8.7 °C

Culture

The Town Theater of Anapa is located on Krymskaya Street. It was opened after the reconstruction of the Town Cultural Center. [20] There are twenty nine public libraries including four for children. In 2010 the libraries of Anapa received more than 8,000 books, and magazines and newspapers were ordered costing more than 1,000,000 roubles, in addition, nine hundred CDs were purchased. [21]

The only remaining gates of an Ottoman fort Russkie vorota i ostatki sten kreposti (1).jpg
The only remaining gates of an Ottoman fort
Anonymous ruler of the city of Gorgippia (Anapa) in the Bosporan Kingdom, c. 180 AD, during the period of Roman Crimea. Or alternatively the Roman Emperor at that time, Marcus Aurelius. Gorgippia ruler Neocl.jpg
Anonymous ruler of the city of Gorgippia (Anapa) in the Bosporan Kingdom, c. 180 AD, during the period of Roman Crimea. Or alternatively the Roman Emperor at that time, Marcus Aurelius.

There is museum of Local History (Краеведческий музей) on Protapova Street. [22]

Architecture and sights

List of mayors

Activities carried out in the town

Twin towns and sister cities

Anapa is twinned with:

Related Research Articles

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References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03
  2. Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 20. ISBN   5-7107-7399-9.
  3. 1 2 "General Information" (in Russian). Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  4. 1 2 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  6. 1 2 3 Charter of Anapa Urban Okrug
  7. 1 2 Law #676-KZ
  8. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  9. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  10. Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Всероссийская перепись населения 2020 года. Том 1 [2020 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1](XLS) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  11. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  12. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  13. "Port of Anapa". SeaRates. Retrieved April 2, 2023.
  14. Вокзал Анапа: жд вокзал Анапа, авто вокзал в Анапе, морской вокзал. Anapa.yuginform.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on June 24, 2008. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
  15. Davydovich, Anna; Karamova, Aida; Fesenko, Olesya; Anisimova, Nina (2020). "Transport and logistics infrastructure of the Krasnodar Krai: Problems and solutions". E3S Web of Conferences. 164: 07007. doi: 10.1051/e3sconf/202016407007 . S2CID   218950016.
  16. "Using the Köppen classification to quantify climate variation and change". Environmental Development, volume 6, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
  17. "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  18. "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Anapa, Russia". Weatherbase. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
  19. Anapa Water temperature 1977-2006 (in Russian), Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  20. Городской театр [Town theatre]. gorodanapa.com (in Russian). Archived from the original on July 27, 2020. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
  21. Сологуб, В. "Некриминальное чтиво". Анапа. Anapa, Russia.
  22. Анапский краеведческий музей, Анапа. ЮГА.ру (in Russian). ООО "ЮГА.ру". Archived from the original on March 21, 2012. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
  23. "Анапский археологический музей — филиал Краснодарского государственного историко-археологического музея-заповедника имени Е.Д. Фелицына". Museum.ru. Archived from the original on January 3, 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
  24. Остатки турецкой крепости Анапа и памятник А.д. безкровному [Remnants of the Turkish fortress of Anapa and the monument to Bezkrovny]. Anapafuture.ru (in Russian). Retrieved March 10, 2011.
  25. Храм Святого Онуфрия Великого. Anapahome.ru (in Russian). Retrieved March 10, 2011.
  26. Анапский Маяк. Turspeak.ru (in Russian).
  27. Заказник "Большой Утриш". Справка. Eco.rian.ru (in Russian). December 26, 2008.
  28. Мать Мария, бывшая в 1917 г. главой Анапы, причислена к лику святых [Mother Maria who was a mayor of Anapa in 1917 is canonised.]. Юга.Ру (in Russian). Krasnodar, Russia: ООО "ЮГА.ру". February 13, 2004. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  29. Ольга Лихина; Наталья Орлова (September 11, 1993). Канарские острова стали лучшим курортом в мире, не считая Анапы [Canary islands became a best resort in a world, to say nothing about Anapa.]. Коммерсантъ (in Russian). Russia. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  30. Павлючик, Леонид (September 21, 2000). "От шока — к шику" [From shock to chic]. Труд (in Russian). Russia. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  31. Анапа официально открыла курортный сезон [Anapa officially opened the holiday season]. RATA-news (in Russian). Russia. June 23, 2004. Archived from the original on February 26, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  32. Краснодарский край. Мэрию Анапы ждут реформы, в том числе кадровые. [Krasnodar Krai. Reforms, Including Staffing, Planned in Town Hall of Anapa]. Regions.ru (in Russian). Russia. December 16, 2004. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
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