This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations . (July 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Anastasio Bustamante y Oseguera
|4th President of Mexico|
1 January 1830 –13 August 1832
|Preceded by||Pedro Vélez|
|Succeeded by||Melchor Múzquiz|
19 April 1837 –20 March 1839
|Preceded by||José Justo Corro|
|Succeeded by||Antonio López de Santa Anna|
19 July 1839 –22 September 1841
|Preceded by||Nicolás Bravo|
|Succeeded by||Francisco Javier Echeverría|
|2nd Vice President of Mexico|
11 June 1829 –23 December 1832
|President|| Vicente Guerrero |
José María Bocanegra
|Preceded by||Nicolás Bravo|
|Succeeded by||Valentín Gómez Farías|
Anastasio Bustamante y Oseguera
27 July 1780
Jiquilpan, New Spain
|Died||6 February 1853 72) (aged|
San Miguel de Allende, Mexico
Anastasio Bustamante y Oseguera (Spanish pronunciation: [anasˈtasjo βustaˈmante] ; 27 July 1780 – 6 February 1853) was president of Mexico three times, from 1830 to 1832, from 1837 to 1839 and from 1839 to 1841. A Conservative, he first came to power by leading a coup against President Vicente Guerrero. Bustamante was deposed twice and exiled to Europe both times.
The President of Mexico, officially known as the President of the United Mexican States, is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces. The current President is Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who took office on December 1, 2018.
Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña was one of the leading revolutionary generals of the Mexican War of Independence. He fought against Spain for independence in the early 19th century, and later served as President of Mexico, coming to power in a coup. He was of Afro-Mestizo descent, championed the cause of Mexico's common people, and abolished slavery during his brief term as president. His execution in 1831 by the conservative government that ousted him in 1829 was a shock to the nation.
His father, José María, worked hauling snow from the volcanoes of Colima to Guadalajara but was able to provide his son with a good education. At 15, the younger Bustamante entered the Seminary of Guadalajara. When he finished, he went to Mexico City to study medicine. He passed his medical examinations and then went to San Luis Potosí as director of San Juan de Dios Hospital.
Colima, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Colima, is one of the 32 states that make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It shares its name with its capital and main city, Colima.
Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara. The city is in the central region of Jalisco in the Western-Pacific area of Mexico. With a population of 1,460,148 inhabitants, it is Mexico's second most populous municipality. The Guadalajara metropolitan area has a reported population of 5,002,466 inhabitants, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Mexico, behind Mexico City. The municipality is the second most densely populated in Mexico, the first being Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl in the State of Mexico. It is a strong business and economic center in the Bajío region.
San Luis Potosí, officially the Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 58 municipalities and its capital city is San Luis Potosí City.
In 1808, he entered the royal army as a cavalry officer under the command of Félix María Calleja. In 1810, General Calleja mobilized the army to fight the rebels under Miguel Hidalgo, and Bustamante participated on the royalist side in all the actions of the Army of the Center. During the War of Independence, he rose to the rank of general. He supported royalist-turned-insurgent Agustín de Iturbide and the Plan of Iguala.
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain in 1808; it extended from the Cry of Dolores by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla on September 16, 1810, to the entrance of the Army of the Three Guarantees led by Agustín de Iturbide to Mexico City on September 27, 1821. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day.
Agustín de Iturbide, in full Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu, also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence for Mexico. After the secession of Mexico was secured, he was proclaimed President of the Regency in 1821. A year later, he was announced as the Constitutional Emperor of Mexico, reigning briefly from 19 May 1822 to 19 March 1823. He is credited as the original designer of the first Mexican flag.
The Plan of Iguala, also known as The Plan of the Three Guarantees or Act of Independence of North America, was a revolutionary proclamation promulgated on 24 February 1821, in the final stage of the Mexican War of Independence from Spain. The Plan stated that Mexico was to become a constitutional monarchy, whose sole official religion would be Roman Catholicism, in which the Peninsulares and Creoles of Mexico would enjoy equal political and social rights. It took its name from the city of Iguala in the modern-day state of Guerrero.
When Iturbide was declared emperor of Mexico, Bustamante continued his support, as did many other conservative elites, who saw centralized, monarchical government as the optimal government for independent Mexico.
On 19 March 1821, in support of Agustín de Iturbide, a personal friend, Bustamante proclaimed the independence of Mexico from Spain at Pantoja, Guanajuato. A few days later, he removed the remains of the 1811 insurgent leaders from the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato and had them buried in San Sebastián cemetery.
Pantoja is a village in the Mexican state of Guanajuato. It was here that Augustín de Iturbide and Anastasio Bustamante proclaimed the independence of Mexico on 19 March 1821. It is also known as Charco de Pantoja and is in the Valle de Santiago municipality. According to a recent population count it had 1777 inhabitants.
The Alhóndiga de Granaditas is an old grain storage building in Guanajuato City, Mexico. This historic building was created to replace an old grain exchange near the city's river. The name Alhóndiga translates roughly from both Arabic and Spanish as grain market or warehouse. It is equivalent to the regional grain exchange. Its construction lasted from 1798 to 1809, by orders of Juan Antonio de Riaño y Bárcena, a Spaniard who was the quartermaster of the city during the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla helped build it. The building received World Heritage listing as part of the Historic Town of Guanajuato in 1988.
Iturbide named him commander of the cavalry, second in command of the Army of the Center, and a member of the governing junta. The Regency named him field marshal and captain general of the Provincias Internas de Oriente y Occidente, from 28 September 1821. He fought and defeated a Spanish expeditionary force at Xichú.
The Provincias Internas, also known as the Comandancia y Capitanía General de las Provincias Internas, was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire created in 1776 to provide more autonomy for the frontier provinces of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, present-day northern Mexico and the Southwestern United States. The goal of its creation was to establish a unified government in political, military and fiscal affairs. Nevertheless, the Commandancy General experienced significant changes in its administration because of experimentation to find the best government for the frontier region as well as bureaucratic in-fighting. Its creation was part of the Bourbon Reforms and was part of an effort to invigorate economic and population growth in the region to stave off encroachment on the region by foreign powers. During its existence, the Commandancy General encompassed the Provinces of Sonora y Sinaloa, Nueva Vizcaya, Las Californias, Nuevo México, Nuevo Santander, Nuevo Reyno de León, Coahuila and Texas.
Xichú is a Mexican city located in the Northeast region of the state of Guanajuato. The municipality is entirely within the Sierra Gorda range and has an area of 912.20 square kilometres. It is bordered to the north by the state of San Luis Potosí, to the east by Atarjea, to the south by the state of Querétaro and Santa Catarina and to the west by Victoria. The municipality had a population of 11,323 inhabitants according to the 2005 census.
At the fall of the Empire in 1823, he joined the ranks of the federalists for which he was arrested and confined at Acapulco, but President Guadalupe Victoria again put him in command of the Provincias Internas.
In December 1828, under the Plan de Perote, Congress named him vice-president of the Republic under President Vicente Guerrero. He took possession of this office on 1 April 1829 but soon was at odds with Guerrero. On 4 December 1829, in accord with the Plan de Jalapa, he rose against Guerrero, driving him from the capital. On 1 January 1830, he assumed the presidency on an interim basis. Congress declared Guerrero "incapable of governing."
In office, Bustamante removed employees not having the confidence of "public opinion." He instituted a secret police force and took steps to suppress the press. He exiled some of his competitors and expelled US Minister Joel Poinsett. He was involved in the kidnapping and execution of his predecessor, Guerrero. He supported industry and the clergy.
Those and other policies stimulated opposition, especially in the states of Jalisco, Zacatecas, and Texas. In 1832, a revolt broke out in Veracruz. The rebels asked Antonio López de Santa Anna to take command. When their immediate demands were met (the resignation of some of Bustamante's ministers), they also demanded the president's ouster. They intended to replace him with Manuel Gómez Pedraza, whose 1828 election had been annulled.
Bustamante turned over the presidency to Melchor Múzquiz on 14 August 1832 and left the capital to fight the rebels. He defeated them on 14 August at Gallinero, Dolores Hidalgo, Guanajuato, and then returned to fight Santa Anna, who was nearing Puebla. After two more battles, the three candidates, Bustamante, Santa Anna and Gómez Pedraza, signed the Agreements of Zavaleta (21–23 December), by which Gómez Pedraza was to assume the presidency and hold new elections. Bustamante was to go into exile, which he did in 1833.
While in exile in France he inspected military and medical facilities. He returned to Mexico in December 1836, as he had been called back by President José Justo Corro to fight in the War of Texas Independence. However, once he was back in the country, Congress declared him president (17 April 1837).
With the treasury exhausted and the army depleted by a series of revolts, Bustamante was limited in his military response to crises. France issued an ultimatum on 21 March 1838, and on 16 April, it began blockading Mexico's Gulf ports. The French declared war on 27 November 1838 (the Pastry War), bombarded San Juan de Ulúa, and occupied Veracruz (5 December).
Around the same time, Guatemalan general Miguel Gutiérrez invaded Chiapas. Bustamante temporarily left the presidency from 20 March to 18 July 1839 to campaign against rebel General José Urrea in Tamaulipas. Santa Anna and Nicolás Bravo served as president during his absence.
He became president again on 9 July 1839 and served until 22 September 1841. During this term, the first Spanish diplomatic representative to Mexico, Ángel Calderón de la Barca y Belgrano, arrived. The boundary between Yucatán and Belize was established. Treaties were signed with Belgium and Bavaria, and relations with the United States were re-established.
On 15 July 1840, General Urrea escaped from prison and led a force against Bustamante in the National Palace. Bustamante resisted, but the next day, he was forced to flee, accompanied by 28 dragoons. During the siege, artillery destroyed the southeast corner of the Palace. He did not relinquish the presidency, however.
Around then, a revolt broke out in Yucatán.
In August 1841, Santa Anna and Paredes, the military commanders of Veracruz and Jalisco, launched a new rebellion against Bustamante. He turned the government over to Francisco Javier Echeverría on 2 September 1841. Echeverría lasted only until 10 October, when Santa Anna returned to the presidency.
Bustamante again went into exile in Europe, spending time in France and Italy. His aide-de-camp José María Calderón y Tapia and his nephew Andrés Oseguera, accompanied Bustamante in Europe. He traveled widely and sought medical treatment, taking the waters at Contrexéville, France. He returned to Mexico in 1845 to offer his services in the crisis with the United States. He was the President of the Chamber of Deputies in 1846.Later that year, he was named general of an expedition to defend the Californias from the United States, but he was unable to reach California for lack of resources. In 1848, he suppressed rebellions in Guanajuato and Aguascalientes.
He lived the rest of his life in San Miguel de Allende, where he died in 1853 at the age of 72. His heart was placed in the Mexico City Cathedral's chapel of San Felipe de Jesús, alongside the ashes of Emperor Iturbide.
Guadalupe Victoria, born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix, was a Mexican general and political leader who fought for independence against the Spanish Empire in the Mexican War of Independence. He was a deputy in the Mexican Chamber of Deputies for Durango and a member of the Supreme Executive Power following the downfall of the First Mexican Empire. After the adoption of the Constitution of 1824, Victoria was elected as the first President of the United Mexican States.
Juan Nepomuceno Álvarez Hurtado de Luna, generally known as Juan Álvarez, was a general, long-time caudillo in southern Mexico, and interim president of Mexico for two months in 1855, following the liberals ouster of Antonio López de Santa Anna. Álvarez had risen to power in the Tierra Caliente, in southern Mexico with the support of indigenous peasants whose lands he protected. He fought along with heroes of the insurgency, José María Morelos and Vicente Guerrero in the War of Independence, and went on to fight in all the major wars of his day, from the "Pastry War", to the Mexican–American War, and the War of the Reform to the war against the French Intervention. A liberal reformer, a republican and a federalist, he was the leader of a revolution in support of the Plan de Ayutla in 1854, which led to the deposition of Santa Anna from power and the beginning of the political era in Mexico's history known as the Liberal Reform. "Álvarez was most important as a champion of the incorporation of Mexico's peasant masses into the polity of [Mexico] ... advocating universal male suffrage and municipal autonomy."
José Joaquín Antonio de Herrera, a moderate Mexican politician, served as president of Mexico three times, and as a general in the Mexican Army during the Mexican–American War of 1846-1848.
Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga was a Conservative Mexican general and president. He took power via a coup d'état in 1846. He was the president at the start of the Mexican–American War.
Juan Nepomuceno Almonte was a 19th-century Mexican official, soldier and diplomat. He was a veteran of the Battle of the Alamo during the Texas Revolution. Almonte was also a leader of Mexico's Conservatives in the 1860s and served as regent after the Second Mexican Empire was established by Napoleon III of France.
Lucas Ignacio Alamán y Escalada was a Mexican scientist, conservative politician, historian, and writer. He has been called the "arch-reactionary of the epoch...who sought to create a strong central government based on a close alliance of the army, the Church and the landed classes." Alamán was "undoubtedly the major political and intellectual figure of independent Mexico until his death in 1853...the guiding force of several administrations and an active promoter of economic development."
José Pedro Antonio Vélez de Zúñiga was a Mexican politician and lawyer. He was also head of the Governing Board of Mexico in 1829.
In Mexican history, a plan was a declaration of principles announced in conjunction with a rebellion, usually armed, against the central government of the country. Mexican plans were often more formal than the pronunciamientos that were their equivalent elsewhere in Spanish America and Spain. Some were as detailed as the United States Declaration of Independence, though some plans merely announced that the current government was null and void and that the signer of the plan was the new president.
Melchor de Eca y Múzquiz was a Mexican soldier and politician. From August to December 1832, he was president of Mexico.
Miguel Francisco Barragán Andrade was a Mexican general and centralist politician. He served as Minister of War in the government of Antonio López de Santa Anna in 1833 and 1834, then as president of Mexico from 28 January 1835 to 27 February 1836.
Francisco Javier Echeverría was a Mexican businessman, conservative and centralist politician. He served as president of Mexico in late 1841 for a few weeks.
Manuel Gómez Pedraza y Rodríguez was a Mexican general and president of his country from 1832 to 1833.
Gabriel Valencia (1799–1848) was a Mexican soldier in the early years of the Republic. From December 30, 1845 to January 2, 1846 he served as interim president of Mexico. He was the President of the Chamber of Deputies in 1843.
Isidro Barradas Valdés was a Spanish general sent to Mexico in 1829, eight years after Mexican independence in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to reconquer the country for the Spanish Crown.
José Luis de Quintanar Soto y Ruiz was a Royalist military officer in colonial New Spain, and a politician after the 1821 independence of Mexico.
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón, often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and then for Mexican independence. He greatly influenced early Mexican politics and government, and was an adept soldier and cunning politician, who dominated Mexican history in the first half of the nineteenth century to such an extent that historians often refer to it as the "Age of Santa Anna." He was called "the Man of Destiny", who "loomed over his time like a melodramatic colossus, the uncrowned monarch." Santa Anna first opposed the movement for Mexican independence from Spain, but then fought in support of it. Though not the first caudillo of modern Mexico, he "represents the stereotypical caudillo in Mexican history," and among the earliest. Conservative historian, intellectual, and politician Lucas Alamán wrote that "The history of Mexico since 1822 might accurately be called the history of Santa Anna's revolutions.... His name plays the major role in all the political events of the country and its destiny has become intertwined with his."
The First Mexican Republic, known also as the First Federal Republic, was a federated republic and nation-state officially designated the United Mexican States. "Independence transformed Mexico from Spain's largest and most prosperous colony to a sovereign nation suffering economic decline and political strife." The First Mexican Republic lasted from 1824 to 1835, when conservatives under Antonio López de Santa Anna transformed it into a centralized state, the Centralist Republic of Mexico.
José Manuel Rafael Simeón de Mier y Terán, commonly called Manuel de Mier y Terán or General Teran, was a Mexican general involved in the Mexican and Texan revolutions.
The 1832 Plan of Veracruz was a statement made on January 2 of that year by Mexican military commander Ciriaco Vazquez. His goal was to remove ministers from the cabinet of Anastasio Bustamante, acting president of the United Mexican States, and remove Bustamante from office. Antonio López de Santa Anna, the plan's instigator and spokesman for the protesters, led an armed uprising five days later. Although the plan and uprising were initially opposed by most of the garrisons and state legislatures, the political and military forces gradually joined the fight against Bustamante's conservative regime.
| President of Mexico |
José Justo Corro
| President of Mexico |
Antonio López de Santa Anna
| President of Mexico |
Francisco Javier Echeverría
| Vice President of Mexico |
Valentín Gómez Farías