Anatole Mallet

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Jules T. Anatole Mallet (23 May 1837 – 10 October 1919) was a Swiss mechanical engineer, who was the inventor of the first successful compound system for a railway steam locomotive, patented in 1874. [1]

The Swiss are the citizens of Switzerland or people of Swiss ancestry.

Compound steam engine type of steam engine where steam is expanded in two or more stages

A compound steam engine unit is a type of steam engine where steam is expanded in two or more stages. A typical arrangement for a compound engine is that the steam is first expanded in a high-pressure (HP) cylinder, then having given up heat and losing pressure, it exhausts directly into one or more larger-volume low-pressure (LP) cylinders. Multiple-expansion engines employ additional cylinders, of progressively lower pressure, to extract further energy from the steam.

Steam locomotive railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine

A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine. These locomotives are fueled by burning combustible material – usually coal, wood, or oil – to produce steam in a boiler. The steam moves reciprocating pistons which are mechanically connected to the locomotive's main wheels (drivers). Both fuel and water supplies are carried with the locomotive, either on the locomotive itself or in wagons (tenders) pulled behind.

He is known for having invented three important forms of compound locomotive.

A compound locomotive is a steam locomotive which is powered by a compound engine, a type of steam engine where steam is expanded in two or more stages. The locomotive was only one application of compounding. Two and three stages were used in ships, for example.

Early Mallet 2-cylinder compound locomotive working the Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz (B.A.B.) Railway Biarr-Bay-lok.jpg
Early Mallet 2-cylinder compound locomotive working the Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz (B.A.B.) Railway

In 1876 he introduced a series of small two-cylinder compound 0-4-2T tank locomotives for the Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz Railway in France. [2]

Tank locomotive steam locomotive which carries its fuel and water onboard

A tank locomotive or tank engine is a steam locomotive that carries its water in one or more on-board water tanks, instead of a more traditional tender. A tank engine may also have a bunker to hold fuel. There are several different types of tank locomotive, distinguished by the position and style of the water tanks and fuel bunkers. The most common type has tanks mounted either side of the boiler. This type originated about 1840 and quickly became popular for industrial tasks, and later for shunting and shorter distance main line duties. Tank locomotives have advantages and disadvantages compared to traditional tender locomotives.

Bayonne Subprefecture and commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Bayonne is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. It is located at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers in the northern part of the cultural region of the Basque Country, as well as the southern part of Gascony where the Aquitaine basin joins the beginning of the Pre-Pyrenees.

Anglet Commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Anglet is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France.

SCB Ed 2x2/2  (de
), a typical narrow-gauge compound Mallet tank. Note the larger diameter of the low-pressure front cylinders. 7695Ed2x22SBBCFFFFSi.jpg
SCB Ed 2x2/2  (de ), a typical narrow-gauge compound Mallet tank. Note the larger diameter of the low-pressure front cylinders.
One of the last US large compound Mallets Virginian Railway Class USE -737.jpg
One of the last US large compound Mallets

He subsequently designed an articulated compound system with a rigid chassis at the rear carrying two high-pressure cylinders, and two low-pressure ones mounted on a swivelling front truck. This was patented in 1884 [1] with full rights granted in 1885. [3] This was first used for a series of 600 mm (1 ft 11 58 in) narrow gauge locomotives specially built by the Decauville Company in 1888 for the Paris Exposition of 1889. [3] This arrangement became known as the Mallet locomotive. The final developments of these in the USA were some of the largest steam locomotives ever built.

Articulated locomotive

The term "articulated locomotive" usually means a steam locomotive with one or more engine units which can move independent of the main frame. This is done to allow a longer locomotive to negotiate tighter curves. Articulated locomotives are generally used either on lines with extreme curvature—logging, industrial, or mountain railways, for example—or to allow very large locomotives to run on railways with regular track curvature. Articulation is also applied to some electric locomotives, such as the Italian FS Class E656.

Decauville French automobile and light railway manufacturer

Decauville was a manufacturing company which was founded by Paul Decauville (1846–1922), a French pioneer in industrial railways. Decauville's major innovation was the use of ready-made sections of light, narrow gauge track fastened to steel sleepers; this track was portable and could be disassembled and transported very easily. The first Decauville railway used 400 mm gauge; Decauville later refined his invention and switched to 500 mm and 600 mm gauge.

Exposition Universelle (1889) Worlds Fair held in Paris, France

The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 6 May to 31 October 1889.

Mallet tandem compound, Russian locomotives class P  (ru
) Parovoz Pp.jpg
Mallet tandem compound, Russian locomotives class П  (ru )

A third compound locomotive, less well-known, was a tandem compound developed in 1890 for SACM as a collaboration with Alfred de Glehn and the Russian A. Borodine. [4] The high and low pressure cylinders were mounted on a common axis, with the high pressure ahead. Unlike the US tandem compounds, the high and low pressure cylinders were cross-connected between sides, which also required them to be receiver compounds with an intermediate reservoir as a pair of curved pipes passing through the smokebox. Large numbers of these, mostly a 2-8-0 derivative, were built for Russian and Hungarian railways making them the most-produced type of tandem compound locomotive. Z. Kordina's design for Hungarian State Railways was a similar 4-4-0, although outside-framed and with the low-pressure cylinders ahead of the high pressure. [4]

The Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques (SACM) [Alsatian corporation of mechanical engineering] is an engineering company with its headquarters in Mulhouse, Alsace which produced railway locomotives, textile and printing machinery, diesel engines, boilers, lifting equipment, firearms and mining equipment. SACM also produced the first atomic reactor at Marcoule.

Alfred de Glehn engineer

Alfred George de Glehn was a notable English-born French designer of steam locomotives and an engineer with the Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques (SACM). His steam engines of the 1890s combined elegance, high speed, and efficiency. De Glehn's express locomotives were first used on the Nord Railway and on the boat trains from Calais to Paris, where they impressed passengers with their speed.

Hungarian State Railways national railway operator in Hungary

Hungarian State Railways is the Hungarian national railway company, with divisions "MÁV START Zrt.", "MÁV-Gépészet Zrt." (maintenance) and "MÁV-Trakció Zrt.". The "MÁV Cargo Zrt" was sold to Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB) in 2007. The head office is in Budapest.

He was awarded the Elliott Cresson Medal of The Franklin Institute in 1908.

Elliott Cresson Medal award

The Elliott Cresson Medal, also known as the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal, was the highest award given by the Franklin Institute. The award was established by Elliott Cresson, life member of the Franklin Institute, with $1,000 granted in 1848. The endowed award was to be "for some discovery in the Arts and Sciences, or for the invention or improvement of some useful machine, or for some new process or combination of materials in manufactures, or for ingenuity skill or perfection in workmanship." The medal was first awarded in 1875, 21 years after Cresson's death.

See also

Related Research Articles

Mallet locomotive articulated steam locomotive

The Mallet locomotive is a type of articulated steam railway locomotive, invented by the Swiss engineer Anatole Mallet (1837–1919).

Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotive wheel arrangements, a 2-10-10-2 is a locomotive with two leading wheels, two sets of ten driving wheels, and a pair of trailing wheels.

0-6-6-0 articulated locomotive wheel arrangement

Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, a 0-6-6-0 wheel arrangement refers to a locomotive with two engine units mounted under a rigid locomotive frame, with the front engine unit pivoting and each engine unit with six coupled driving wheels without any leading or trailing wheels. The wheel arrangement was mostly used to describe Mallet locomotive types.

A Meyer locomotive is a type of articulated locomotive. The design was never as popular as the Garratt or Mallet locomotives. It can be best regarded as 19th Century competition for the early compound Mallet and also the Fairlie articulated designs.

2-6-6-0 articulated locomotive wheel arrangement

Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives by wheel arrangement, 2-6-6-0 is a locomotive with one pair of unpowered leading wheels, followed by two sets of three pairs of powered driving wheels and no trailing wheels. The wheel arrangement was principally used on Mallet-type articulated locomotives. Some tank locomotive examples were also built, for which various suffixes to indicate the type of tank would be added to the wheel arrangement, for example 2-6-6-0T for an engine with side-tanks.

Midland Railway 1000 Class is a class of 4-4-0 steam locomotive designed for passenger work.

The NER Class 3CC was a 4-4-0 steam locomotive designed by Wilson Worsdell for the North Eastern Railway and built in 1893. Only one was built and it was a compound expansion version of the simple expansion NER Class M1. The 3CC was originally classified M but was re-classified 3CC in 1914, at the same time as the M1 was re-classified M.

Vauclain compound compound locomotive whereby high- and low-pressure cylinders are mounted one above the other and drive a common crosshead

The Vauclain compound was a type of compound steam locomotive that was briefly popular around 1900. Developed at the Baldwin Locomotive Works, it featured two pistons moving in parallel, driving a common crosshead and controlled by a common valve gear using a single, complex piston valve.

GCR Classes 8D and 8E were two pairs of three-cylinder compound steam locomotives of the 4-4-2 wheel arrangement built in 1905 and 1906 for the Great Central Railway.

South African Class Experimental 1 4-6-2 class of 1 South African 4-6-2 locomotive

The South African Railways Class Experimental 1 4-6-2 of 1907 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in the Cape of Good Hope.

South African Class Experimental 2 2-8-0 class of 1 South African 2-8-0 locomotive

The South African Railways Class Experimental 2 2-8-0 of 1902 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in the Cape of Good Hope.

South African Class Experimental 3 2-8-0 class of 1 South African 2-8-0 locomotive

The South African Railways Class Experimental 3 2-8-0 of 1903 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in the Cape of Good Hope.

South African Class MA 2-6-6-0 class of 1 South African Mallet locomotive

The South African Railways Class MA 2-6-6-0 of 1909 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in the Natal Colony.

The South African Railways Class MC 2-6-6-0 of 1912 was a steam locomotive.

South African Class MD 2-6-6-2 class of 1 South African Mallet locomotive

The South African Railways Class MD 2-6-6-2 of 1910 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in Transvaal.

The South African Railways Class ME 2-6-6-2 of 1912 was a steam locomotive.

South African Class MF 2-6-6-2 class of 14 South African Mallet locomotives

The South African Railways Class MF 2-6-6-2 of 1911 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in Transvaal.

South African Class MH 2-6-6-2 class of 5 South African Mallet locomotives

The South African Railways Class MH 2-6-6-2 of 1915 was a steam locomotive.

References

  1. 1 2 Ransome-Wallis, P. (1959). Illustrated Encyclopedia of World Railway Locomotives (2001 republication ed.). Dover Publications, Inc. pp. 500–501. ISBN   0-486-41247-4.
  2. Van Riemsdijk, Compound Locomotives, pp. 10–11.
  3. 1 2 Durrant, A. E. (1974). The Mallet Locomotive. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN   0-7153-5904-5.
  4. 1 2 Van Riemsdijk, Compound Locomotives, pp. 37–38.