Ancient Greek cuisine

Last updated

Ancient Greek cuisine was characterized by its frugality for most, reflecting agricultural hardship, but a great diversity of ingredients was known, and wealthy Greeks were known to celebrate with elaborate meals and feasts. [1] :95(129c) The cuisine was founded on the "Mediterranean triad" of cereals, olives, and grapes, [2] which had many uses and great commercial value, but other ingredients were as important, if not more so, to the average diet: most notably legumes. Research suggests that the agricultural system of Ancient Greece could not have succeeded without the cultivation of legumes. [3]


Modern knowledge of ancient Greek cuisine and eating habits is derived from textual, archeological, and artistic evidence.


Terracotta model representing a lion's paw tripod table, 2nd-1st century BC, from Myrina, Louvre Terracotta table Louvre Ly1607.jpg
Terracotta model representing a lion's paw tripod table, 2nd–1st century BC, from Myrina, Louvre

At home

The Greeks had three to four meals a day. Breakfast (ἀκρατισμόςakratismós) consisted of barley bread dipped in wine (ἄκρατοςákratos), sometimes complemented by figs or olives. [4] They also ate pancakes called τηγανίτης (tēganítēs), ταγηνίτης(tagēnítēs) [5] or ταγηνίας (tagēnías), [6] all words deriving from τάγηνον (tágēnon), "frying pan". [7] The earliest attested references on tagenias are in the works of the 5th century BC poets Cratinus [8] and Magnes. [9]

Tagenites were made with wheat flour, olive oil, honey and curdled milk, and were served for breakfast. [10] [11] [12] Another kind of pancake was σταιτίτης (staititēs), from σταίτινος (staitinos), "of flour or dough of spelt", [13] derived from σταῖς (stais), "flour of spelt". [14] Athenaeus in his Deipnosophistae mentions staititas topped with honey, sesame and cheese. [15] [16] [17]

A quick lunch (ἄριστονariston [18] ) was taken around noon or early afternoon. [19] Dinner (δεῖπνονdeipnon), the most important meal of the day, was generally taken at nightfall. [19] An additional light meal (ἑσπέρισμαhesperisma) was sometimes taken in the late afternoon. [19] Ἀριστόδειπνον / aristodeipnon, literally "lunch-dinner", was served in the late afternoon instead of dinner. [20]

Men and women took their meals separately. [21] When the house was too small, the men ate first, the women afterwards. [22] Slaves waited at dinners. Aristotle notes that "the poor, having no slaves, would ask their wives or children to serve food." Respect for the father who was the breadwinner was obvious. [23]

The ancient Greek custom of placing terra cotta miniatures of their furniture in children's graves gives us a good idea of its style and design. The Greeks normally ate while seated on chairs; benches were used for banquets. [24] The tables, high for normal meals and low for banquets, were initially rectangular in shape. By the 4th century BC, the usual table was round, often with animal-shaped legs (for example lion's paws). Loaves of flat bread could be used as plates, but terra cotta bowls were more common. [25]

Dishes became more refined over time, and by the Roman period plates were sometimes made out of precious metals or glass. Cutlery was not often used at the table: use of the fork was unknown; people ate with their fingers. [26] Knives were used to cut the meat. [25] Spoons were used for soups and broths. [25] Pieces of bread (ἀπομαγδαλίαapomagdalia) could be used to spoon the food [26] or as napkins to wipe the fingers. [27]

Social dining

Banqueter playing the kottabos, a playful subversion of the libation, ca. 510 BC, Louvre Cottabos player Louvre CA1585.jpg
Banqueter playing the kottabos, a playful subversion of the libation, ca. 510 BC, Louvre

As with modern dinner parties, the host could simply invite friends or family; but two other forms of social dining were well documented in ancient Greece: the entertainment of the all-male symposium, and the obligatory, regimental syssitia.


The symposium (συμπόσιονsymposion), traditionally translated as "banquet", but more literally "gathering of drinkers", [28] was one of the preferred pastimes for Greek men. It consisted of two parts: the first dedicated to food, generally rather simple, and a second part dedicated to drinking. [28] However, wine was consumed with the food, and the beverages were accompanied by snacks (τραγήματαtragēmata) such as chestnuts, beans, toasted wheat, or honey cakes, all intended to absorb alcohol and extend the drinking spree. [29]

The second part was inaugurated with a libation, most often in honor of Dionysus, [30] followed by conversation or table games, such as kottabos. The guests would recline on couches (κλίναιklinai); low tables held the food or game boards. Dancers, acrobats, and musicians would entertain the wealthy banqueters. A "king of the banquet" was drawn by lots; he had the task of directing the slaves as to how strong to mix the wine. [30]

With the exception of courtesans, the banquet was strictly reserved for men. It was an essential element of Greek social life. Great feasts could only be afforded by the rich; in most Greek homes, religious feasts or family events were the occasion of more modest banquets. The banquet became the setting of a specific genre of literature, giving birth to Plato's Symposium , Xenophon's work of the same name, the Table Talk of Plutarch's Moralia, and the Deipnosophists (Banquet of the Learned) of Athenaeus.


The syssitia (τὰ συσσίτιαta syssitia) were mandatory meals shared by social or religious groups for men and youths, especially in Crete and Sparta. They were referred to variously as hetairia , pheiditia, or andreia (literally, "belonging to men"). They served as both a kind of aristocratic club and as a military mess. Like the symposium, the syssitia was the exclusive domain of men — although some references have been found to substantiate all-female syssitia. Unlike the symposium, these meals were hallmarked by simplicity and temperance.

Ingredients and dishes


Breads and cakes

Woman kneading bread, c. 500-475 BC, National Archaeological Museum of Athens NAMA Figurine petrissante 1.jpg
Woman kneading bread, c. 500–475 BC, National Archaeological Museum of Athens

Cereals formed the staple diet. The two main grains were wheat (σῖτοςsitos) and barley (κριθήkrithe). [32] Pliny the Elder wrote that commercial bakeries arrived in Rome during the Macedonian Wars around 170 BC. Plato favored home production over commercial production and in Gorgias , described Thearion the baker as an Athenian novelty who sells goods that could be made at home. [33]

In ancient Greece, bread was served with accompaniments known as opson ὄψον, sometimes rendered in English as "relish". [34] This was a generic term which referred to anything which accompanied this staple food, whether meat or fish, fruit or vegetable.

Cakes may have been consumed for religious reasons as well as secular. Philoxenus of Cythera describes in detail some cakes that were eaten as part of an elaborate dinner using the traditional dithyrambic style used for sacred Dionysian hymns: "mixed with safflower, toasted, wheat-oat-white-chickpea-little thistle-little-sesame-honey-mouthful of everything, with a honey rim". Athenaeus says the charisios was eaten at the "all-night festival", but John Wilkins notes that the distinction between the sacred and secular can be blurred in antiquity. [33]


Wheat grains were softened by soaking, then either reduced into gruel, or ground into flour (ἀλείαταaleiata) and kneaded and formed into loaves (ἄρτοςartos) or flatbreads, either plain or mixed with cheese or honey. [35] Leavening was known; the Greeks later used an alkali (νίτρονnitron) and wine yeast as leavening agents. [36] Dough loaves were baked at home in a clay oven (ἰπνόςipnos) set on legs. [37]

Bread wheat, difficult to grow in Mediterranean climates, and the white bread made from it, were associated with the upper classes in the ancient Mediterranean, while the poor ate coarse brown breads made from emmer wheat and barley. [38]

A simpler baking method involved placing lighted coals on the floor and covering the heap with a dome-shaped lid (πνιγεύςpnigeus); when it was hot enough, the coals were swept aside, and dough loaves were placed on the warm floor. The lid was then put back in place, and the coals were gathered on the side of the cover. [39] (This method is still traditionally used in Serbia and elsewhere in the Balkans, where it is called crepulja or sač ). The stone oven did not appear until the Roman period. Solon, an Athenian lawmaker of the 6th century BC, prescribed that leavened bread be reserved for feast days. [40] By the end of the 5th century BC, leavened bread was sold at the market, though it was expensive. [41]


Barley was easier to produce but more difficult to make bread from. It provided a nourishing but very heavy bread. [42] Because of this it was often roasted before milling, producing a coarse flour (ἄλφιταalphita) which was used to make μᾶζαmaza, the basic Greek dish. Many recipes for maza are known; it could be served cooked or raw, as a broth, or made into dumplings or flatbreads. [35] Like wheat breads, it could also be augmented with cheese or honey.

In Peace , Aristophanes employs the expression ἐσθίειν κριθὰς μόνας, literally "to eat only barley", with a meaning equivalent to the English "diet of bread and water". [43]


Millet was growing wild in Greece as early as 3000 BCE, and bulk storage containers for millet have been found from the Late Bronze Age in Macedonia and northern Greece. [44] Hesiod describes that "the beards grow round the millet, which men sow in summer." [45] [46] And millet is listed along with wheat in the 3rd century BCE by Theophrastus in his "Enquiry into Plants" [47]


Black bread was easier and cheaper to make from emmer (sometimes called "emmer wheat") than from wheat and was associated with the lower classes [3]


Legumes were essential to the Greek diet, and were harvested in the Mediterranean region from prehistoric times: the earliest and most common being lentils - which have been found in archeological sites in Greece dating to the Upper Paleolithic period. As one of the first domesticated crops to be introduced to Greece, lentils are commonly found at archaeological sites in the region from the Upper Paleolithic. [48] Lentils and chickpeas are the most frequently mentioned legumes in classical literature. [49] :375

Fruit and vegetables

In ancient Greece, fruit and vegetables were a significant part of the diet, as the ancient Greeks consumed much less meat than in the typical diet of modern societies. [58] Legumes would have been important crops, as their ability to replenish exhausted soil was known at least by the time of Xenophon. [59]

Hesiod (7th-8th century BCE) describes many crops eaten by the ancient greeks, among these are artichokes [60] and peas [57] .

Vegetables were eaten as soups, boiled or mashed (ἔτνοςetnos), seasoned with olive oil, vinegar, herbs or γάρον gáron , a fish sauce similar to Vietnamese nước mắm . In the comedies of Aristophanes, Heracles was portrayed as a glutton with a fondness for mashed beans. [61] Poor families ate oak acorns (βάλανοιbalanoi). [62] Raw or preserved olives were a common appetizer. [63]

In the cities, fresh vegetables were expensive, and therefore, the poorer city dwellers had to make do with dried vegetables. Lentil soup (φακῆphakē) was the workman's typical dish. [64] Cheese, garlic, and onions were the soldier's traditional fare. [65] In Aristophanes' Peace , the smell of onions typically represents soldiers; the chorus, celebrating the end of war, sings Oh! joy, joy! No more helmet, no more cheese nor onions! [66] Bitter vetch (ὄροβοςorobos) was considered a famine food. [67]

Fruits, fresh or dried, and nuts, were eaten as dessert. Important fruits were figs, raisins, and pomegranates. In Athenaeus' Deipnosophistae, he describes a dessert made of figs and broad beans. [68] Dried figs were also eaten as an appetizer or when drinking wine. In the latter case, they were often accompanied by grilled chestnuts, chick peas, and beechnuts.



Sacrifice; principal source of meat for city dwellers -- here a boar; tondo of an Attic kylix by the Epidromos Painter, c. 510-500 BC, Louvre. Sacrifice boar Louvre G112.jpg
Sacrifice; principal source of meat for city dwellers — here a boar; tondo of an Attic kylix by the Epidromos Painter, c. 510–500 BC, Louvre.

In the 8th century BC Hesiod describes the ideal country feast in Works and Days :

Meat is much less prominent in texts of the 5th century BC onwards than in the earliest poetry[ citation needed ], but this may be a matter of genre rather than real evidence of changes in farming and food customs. Fresh meat was most commonly eaten at sacrifices, though sausage was much more common, consumed by people across the economic spectrum. [70] In addition to the flesh of animals, the ancient Greeks often ate inner organs, many of which were considered delicacies such as paunches and tripe

Hippolochus (3rd Century BCE) describes a wedding banquet in Macedonia with "chickens and ducks, and ringdoves, too, and a goose, and an abundance of suchlike viands piled high... following which came a second platter of silver, on which again lay a huge loaf, and geese, hares, young goats, and curiously moulded cakes besides, pigeons, turtle-doves, partridges, and other fowl in plenty..." and "a roast pig — a big one, too — which lay on its back upon it; the belly, seen from above, disclosed that it was full of many bounties. For, roasted inside it, were thrushes, ducks, and warblers in unlimited number, pease purée poured over eggs, oysters, and scallops" [1] :95(129c)

Spartans primarily ate a soup made from pigs' legs and blood, known as melas zōmos (μέλας ζωμός), which means "black soup". According to Plutarch, it was "so much valued that the elderly men fed only upon that, leaving what flesh there was to the younger". [72] It was famous amongst the Greeks. "Naturally Spartans are the bravest men in the world," joked a Sybarite, "anyone in his senses would rather die ten thousand times than take his share of such a sorry diet". [73] It was made with pork, salt, vinegar and blood. [25] The dish was served with maza, figs and cheese sometimes supplemented with game and fish. [74] The 2nd–3rd century author Aelian claims that Spartan cooks were prohibited from cooking anything other than meat. [75]

The consumption of fish and meat varied in accordance with the wealth and location of the household; in the country, hunting (primarily trapping) allowed for consumption of birds and hares. Peasants also had farmyards to provide them with chickens and geese. Slightly wealthier landowners could raise goats, pigs, or sheep. In the city, meat was expensive except for pork. In Aristophanes' day a piglet cost three drachmas, [76] which was three days' wages for a public servant. Sausages were common both for the poor and the rich. [77] Archaeological excavations at Kavousi Kastro, Lerna, and Kastanas have shown that dogs were sometimes consumed in Bronze Age Greece, in addition to the more commonly-consumed pigs, cattle, sheep, and goats. [78]


Herodotus describes a "large fish... of the sort called Antacaei, without any prickly bones, and good for pickling," probably beluga [79] found in Greek colonies along the Dnieper River. [80] Other ancient writers mention skipjack tuna (pelamys); tuna (tonnoi, thynnoi); swordfish (xifiai); sea raven (korakinoi); black carp (melanes kyprinoi), porpoise (phykaina), mackerel (scomber). [79]

In the Greek islands and on the coast, fresh fish and seafood (squid, octopus, and shellfish) were common. They were eaten locally but more often transported inland. Sardines and anchovies were regular fare for the citizens of Athens. They were sometimes sold fresh, but more frequently salted. A stele of the late 3rd century BC from the small Boeotian city of Akraiphia, on Lake Copais, provides us with a list of fish prices. The cheapest was skaren (probably parrotfish) whereas Atlantic bluefin tuna was three times as expensive. [81] Common salt water fish were yellowfin tuna, red mullet, ray, swordfish or sturgeon, a delicacy which was eaten salted. Lake Copais itself was famous in all Greece for its eels, celebrated by the hero of The Acharnians . Other fresh water fish were pike-fish, carp and the less appreciated catfish. In classical Athens, eels [82] , conger-eels, and sea-perch (ὈρΦὸς) were considered to be great delicacies, while sprats were cheap and readily available. [83]


Ancient Greeks consumed a much wider variety of birds than is typical today. Pheasants were present as early as 2000 BCE. Domestic chickens were brought to Greece from Asia Minor as early as 600 BCE, and domesticated geese are described in The Odyssey (800 BCE). Quail, moorhen, capon, mallards, pheasants, larks, pigeons and doves were all domesticated in classical times, and were even for sale in markets. Additionally, thrush, blackbirds, chaffinch, lark, starling, jay, jackdaw, sparrow, siskin, blackcap, Rock partridge, grebe, plover, coot, wagtail, francolin, and even cranes were hunted, or trapped, and eaten, and sometimes available in markets. [84] :63

Eggs and dairy products


Greeks bred quails and hens, partly for their eggs. Some authors also praise pheasant eggs and Egyptian Goose eggs, [85] which were presumably rather rare. Eggs were cooked soft- or hard-boiled as hors d'œuvre or dessert. Whites, yolks and whole eggs were also used as ingredients in the preparation of dishes. [86]


Hesiod describes "milk cake, and milk of goats drained dry" in his Works and Days. Country dwellers drank milk (γάλαgala), but it was seldom used in cooking.[ citation needed ]


Butter (βούτυρονbouturon) was known but seldom used: Greeks saw it as a culinary trait of the Thracians of the northern Aegean coast, whom the Middle Comic poet Anaxandrides dubbed "butter eaters". [87]

Cheese and Yogurt

Cheesemaking was widespread by the 8th Century BCE, as the technical vocabulary associated with it is included in The Odyssey. [84] :66

Greeks enjoyed other dairy products. Πυριατήpyriatē and Oxygala (οξύγαλα) were curdled milk products, similar to cottage cheese [88] or perhaps to yogurt. [89] Most of all, goat's and ewe's cheese (τυρόςtyros) was a staple food. Fresh cheeses (sometimes wrapped in Drakontion leaves to retain freshness) and hard cheeses were sold in different shops; the former cost about two thirds of the latter's price. [90]

Cheese was eaten alone or with honey or vegetables. It was also used as an ingredient in the preparation of many dishes, including fish dishes (see recipe below by Mithaecus). [91] However, the addition of cheese seems to have been a controversial matter; Archestratus warns his readers that Syracusan cooks spoil good fish by adding cheese.

Spices and Seasonings

The first spice mentioned in Ancient Greek writings is cassia: [92] Sappho (6th-7th Century BCE) mentions it in her poem on the marriage of Hector and Andromache [93] :#44,ln 30 The ancient Greeks made a distinction between Ceylon cinnamon and cassia. [94]

Ancient Greeks used at least two forms of pepper in cooking and medicine: [95] one of Aristotle's students, Theophrastus, in describing the plants that appeared in Greece as a result of Alexander's conquest of India and Asia Minor, [96] listed both black pepper and long pepper, stating "one is round like bitter vetch...: the other is elongated and black and has seeds like those of a poppy : and this kind is much stronger than the other. Both however are heating...". [97]

Theophrastus lists several plants in his book as "pot herbs" including dill, coriander, anise, cumin, fennel, [98] :81 rue, [98] :27 celery and celery seed. [98] :125


Homer describes the preparation of a wine and cheese drink: taking "Pramnian wine she grated goat's milk cheese into it with a bronze grater [and] threw in a handful of white barley meal." [99] (Book 11 of the [Iliad])

One fragment survives of the first known cookbook in any culture, it was written by Mithaecus (5th Century BCE) and is quoted in the "Deipnosophistae" of Athenaeus. It is a recipe for a fish called "tainia" (meaning "ribbon" in Ancient Greek - probably the species Cepola macrophthalma), [100]

"Tainia": gut, discard the head, rinse, slice; add cheese and [olive] oil. [101]

Archestratus (4th Century BCE), the self-titled "inventor of made dishes," [102] describes a recipe for paunch and tripe, cooked in "cumin juice, and vinegar and sharp, strong-smelling silphium". [71]


Attic Rhyton, c. 460-450 BC, National Archaeological Museum of Athens. NAMA Rhyton Anavyssos.jpg
Attic Rhyton, c. 460–450 BC, National Archaeological Museum of Athens.

The most widespread drink was water. Fetching water was a daily task for women. Though wells were common, spring water was preferred: it was recognized as nutritious because it caused plants and trees to grow, [103] and also as a desirable beverage. [104] Pindar called spring water "as agreeable as honey". [105]

The Greeks would describe water as robust, [106] heavy [107] or light, [108] dry, [109] acidic, [110] pungent, [111] wine-like, [112] etc. One of the comic poet Antiphanes's characters claimed that he could recognize Attic water by taste alone. [113] Athenaeus states that a number of philosophers had a reputation for drinking nothing but water, a habit combined with a vegetarian diet (cf.  below). [114] Milk, usually goats' milk, was not widely consumed, being considered barbaric.

The usual drinking vessel was the skyphos, made out of wood, terra cotta, or metal. Critias [115] also mentions the kothon, a Spartan goblet which had the military advantage of hiding the colour of the water from view and trapping mud in its edge. The ancient Greeks also used a vessel called a kylix (a shallow footed bowl), and for banquets the kantharos (a deep cup with handles) or the rhyton , a drinking horn often moulded into the form of a human or animal head.


A banqueter reaches into a krater with an oenochoe to replenish his kylix with wine, c. 490-480 BC, Louvre Banquet Louvre Kylix G133 by Cage Painter.jpg
A banqueter reaches into a krater with an oenochoe to replenish his kylix with wine, c. 490–480 BC, Louvre

The Greeks are thought to have made red as well as rosé and white wines. Like today, these varied in quality from common table wine to valuable vintages. It was generally considered that the best wines came from Thásos, Lesbos and Chios. [116]

Cretan wine came to prominence later. A secondary wine made from water and pomace (the residue from squeezed grapes), mixed with lees, was made by country people for their own use. The Greeks sometimes sweetened their wine with honey and made medicinal wines by adding thyme, pennyroyal and other herbs. By the first century, if not before, they were familiar with wine flavoured with pine resin (modern retsina ). [117] Aelian also mentions a wine mixed with perfume. [118] Cooked wine was known, [119] as well as a sweet wine from Thásos, similar to port wine.

Wine was generally cut with water. The drinking of akraton or "unmixed wine", though known to be practised by northern barbarians, was thought likely to lead to madness and death. [120] Wine was mixed in a krater , from which the slaves would fill the drinker's kylix with an oinochoe (jugs). Wine was also thought to have medicinal powers. Aelian mentions that the wine from Heraia in Arcadia rendered men foolish but women fertile; conversely, Achaean wine was thought to induce abortion. [121]

Outside of these therapeutic uses, Greek society did not approve of women drinking wine. According to Aelian, a Massalian law prohibited this and restricted women to drinking water. [122] Sparta was the only city where women routinely drank wine.

Wine reserved for local use was kept in skins. That destined for sale was poured into πίθοι pithoi , (large terra cotta jugs). From there they were decanted into amphoras sealed with pitch for retail sale. [123] Vintage wines carried stamps from the producers or city magistrates who guaranteed their origin. This is one of the first instances of indicating the geographical or qualitative provenance of a product.


Hecamede preparing kykeon for Nestor, kylix by the Brygos Painter, ca. 490 BC, Louvre Briseis Phoinix Louvre G152.jpg
Hecamede preparing kykeon for Nestor, kylix by the Brygos Painter, ca. 490 BC, Louvre

The Greeks also drank kykeon (κυκεών, from κυκάωkykaō, "to shake, to mix"), which was both a beverage and a meal. It was a barley gruel, to which water and herbs were added. In the Iliad, the beverage also contained grated goat cheese. [124] In the Odyssey, Circe adds honey and a magic potion to it. [125] In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter , the goddess refuses red wine but accepts a kykeon made of water, flour, and pennyroyal. [126]

Used as a ritual beverage in the Eleusinian Mysteries, kykeon was also a popular beverage, especially in the countryside: Theophrastus, in his Characters, describes a boorish peasant as having drunk much kykeon and inconveniencing the Assembly with his bad breath. [127] It also had a reputation as a good digestive, and as such, in Peace, Hermes recommends it to the main character who has eaten too much dried fruit. [128]

Cultural beliefs about the role of food

Food played an important part in the Greek mode of thought. Classicist John Wilkins notes that "in the Odyssey for example, good men are distinguished from bad and Greeks from foreigners partly in terms of how and what they ate. Herodotus identified people partly in terms of food and eating". [129]

Up to the 3rd century BC, the frugality imposed by the physical and climatic conditions of the country was held as virtuous. The Greeks did not ignore the pleasures of eating, but valued simplicity. The rural writer Hesiod, as cited above, spoke of his "flesh of a heifer fed in the woods, that has never calved, and of firstling kids" as being the perfect closing to a day. Nonetheless, Chrysippus is quoted as saying that the best meal was a free one. [130]

Culinary and gastronomical research was rejected as a sign of oriental flabbiness: the inhabitants of the Persian Empire were considered decadent due to their luxurious taste, which manifested itself in their cuisine. [131] The Greek authors took pleasure in describing the table of the Achaemenid Great King and his court: Herodotus, [132] Clearchus of Soli, [133] Strabo [134] and Ctesias [135] were unanimous in their descriptions.

Fresh fish, one of the favourite dishes of the Greeks, platter with red figures, c. 350-325 BC, Louvre Fish plate Louvre K588.jpg
Fresh fish, one of the favourite dishes of the Greeks, platter with red figures, c. 350–325 BC, Louvre

In contrast, Greeks as a whole stressed the austerity of their own diet. Plutarch tells how the king of Pontus, eager to try the Spartan "black gruel", bought a Laconian cook; 'but had no sooner tasted it than he found it extremely bad, which the cook observing, told him, "Sir, to make this broth relish, you should have bathed yourself first in the river Eurotas"'. [136] According to Polyaenus, [137] on discovering the dining hall of the Persian royal palace, Alexander the Great mocked their taste and blamed it for their defeat. Pausanias, on discovering the dining habits of the Persian commander Mardonius, equally ridiculed the Persians, "who having so much, came to rob the Greeks of their miserable living". [138]

In consequence of this cult of frugality, and the diminished regard for cuisine it inspired, the kitchen long remained the domain of women, free or enslaved. In the classical period, however, culinary specialists began to enter the written record. Both Aelian [139] and Athenaeus mention the thousand cooks who accompanied Smindyride of Sybaris on his voyage to Athens at the time of Cleisthenes, if only disapprovingly. Plato in Gorgias , mentions "Thearion the cook, Mithaecus the author of a treatise on Sicilian cooking, and Sarambos the wine merchant; three eminent connoisseurs of cake, kitchen and wine." [140] Some chefs also wrote treatises on cuisine.

Over time, more and more Greeks presented themselves as gourmets. From the Hellenistic to the Roman period, the Greeks — at least the rich — no longer appeared to be any more austere than others. The cultivated guests of the feast hosted by Athenaeus in the 2nd or 3rd century devoted a large part of their conversation to wine and gastronomy. They discussed the merits of various wines, vegetables, and meats, mentioning renowned dishes (stuffed cuttlefish, red tuna belly, prawns, lettuce watered with mead) and great cooks such as Soterides, chef to king Nicomedes I of Bithynia (who reigned from the 279 to 250 BC). When his master was inland, he pined for anchovies; Soterides simulated them from carefully carved turnips, oiled, salted and sprinkled with poppy seeds. [141] Suidas (an encyclopaedia from the Byzantine period) mistakenly attributes this exploit to the celebrated Roman gourmet Apicius (1st century BC) — [142] which may be taken as evidence that the Greeks had reached the same level as the Romans.

Specific diets


Triptolemus received wheat sheaves from Demeter and blessings from Persephone, 5th century BC relief, National Archaeological Museum of Athens NAMA Triade eleusinienne.jpg
Triptolemus received wheat sheaves from Demeter and blessings from Persephone, 5th century BC relief, National Archaeological Museum of Athens

Orphicism and Pythagoreanism, two common ancient Greek religions, suggested a different way of life, based on a concept of purity and thus purification (κάθαρσιςkatharsis) — a form of asceticism in the original sense: ἄσκησιςaskēsis initially signifies a ritual, then a specific way of life. Vegetarianism was a central element of Orphicism and of several variants of Pythagoreanism.

Empedocles (5th century BC) justified vegetarianism by a belief in the transmigration of souls: who could guarantee that an animal about to be slaughtered did not house the soul of a human being? However, it can be observed that Empedocles also included plants in this transmigration, thus the same logic should have applied to eating them. [143] Vegetarianism was also a consequence of a dislike for killing: "For Orpheus taught us rights and to refrain from killing". [144]

The information from Pythagoras (6th century BC) is more difficult to define. The Comedic authors such as Aristophanes and Alexis described Pythagoreans as strictly vegetarian, with some of them living on bread and water alone. Other traditions contented themselves with prohibiting the consumption of certain vegetables, such as the broad bean, [145] or of sacred animals such as the white cock or selected animal parts.

It follows that vegetarianism and the idea of ascetic purity were closely associated, and often accompanied by sexual abstinence. In On the eating of flesh, Plutarch (1st–2nd century) elaborated on the barbarism of blood-spilling; inverting the usual terms of debate, he asked the meat-eater to justify his choice. [146]

The Neoplatonic Porphyrius (3rd century) associates in On Abstinence vegetarianism with the Cretan mystery cults, and gives a census of past vegetarians, starting with the semi-mythical Epimenides. For him, the origin of vegetarianism was Demeter's gift of wheat to Triptolemus so that he could teach agriculture to humanity. His three commandments were: "Honour your parents", "Honour the gods with fruit", and "Spare the animals". [147]

Athlete diets

Aelian claims that the first athlete to submit to a formal diet was Ikkos of Tarentum, a victor in the Olympic pentathlon (perhaps in 444 BC). [148] However, Olympic wrestling champion (62nd through 66th Olympiads) Milo of Croton was already said to eat twenty pounds of meat and twenty pounds of bread and to drink eight quarts of wine each day. [149] Before his time, athletes were said to practice ξηροφαγίαxērophagía (from ξηρόςxēros, "dry"), a diet based on dry foods such as dried figs, fresh cheese and bread. [150] Pythagoras (either the philosopher or a gymnastics master of the same name) was the first to direct athletes to eat meat. [151]

Trainers later enforced some standard diet rules: to be an Olympic victor, "you have to eat according to regulations, keep away from desserts (…); you must not drink cold water nor can you have a drink of wine whenever you want". [152] It seems this diet was primarily based on meat, for Galen (ca. 180 AD) accused athletes of his day of "always gorging themselves on flesh and blood". [153] Pausanias also refers to a "meat diet". [154]

See also


  1. 1 2 Athenaeus (1928). The Deipnosophistae. v.4. Loeb Classical Library.*.html
  2. The expression originates in Sir Colin Renfrew's The Emergence of Civilisation: The Cyclades and the Aegean in The Third Millennium BC, 1972, p.280.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6
  4. Flacelière, p.205.
  5. ταγηνίτης, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  6. ταγηνίας, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  7. τάγηνον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  8. Cratinus, 125, Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta
  9. Magnes, 1
  10. Eugenia Salza Prina Ricotti, Meals and recipes from ancient Greece, J. Paul Getty Museum, 2007, p.111
  11. Andrew Dalby, Siren feasts: a history of food and gastronomy in Greece, Routledge, 1996, p.91
  12. Gene A. Spiller, The Mediterranean diets in health and disease, AVI/Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991, p.34
  13. σταίτινος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  14. σταῖς, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  15. Atheneaus, The Deipnosophists, 646b, on Perseus
  16. Andrew Dalby, Food in the ancient world from A to Z, Routledge, 2003, p.71
  17. Athenaeus and S. Douglas Olson, The Learned Banqueters, Volume VII: Books 13.594b-14, Loeb Classical Library, 2011, pp.277–278
  18. At the time of Homer and the early tragedies, the term signified the first meal of the day, which was not necessarily frugal: in Iliad 24:124, Achilles's companions slaughter a sheep for breakfast.
  19. 1 2 3 Flacelière, p.206.
  20. Alexis fgt.214 Kock = Athenaeus 47e.
  21. Dalby, p.5.
  22. Dalby, p.15.
  23. Politics 1323a4.
  24. Dalby, pp.13–14.
  25. 1 2 3 4 Flacelière, p.209.
  26. 1 2 Sparkes, p.132.
  27. Aristophanes Knights 413–16; Pollux 6.93.
  28. 1 2 Flacelière, p.212.
  29. Flacelière, p.213.
  30. 1 2 Flacelière, p.215.
  31. Homer (26 February 1898). "The Iliad of Homer: Rendered Into English Prose for the Use of Those who Cannot Read the Original". Longman's, Green via Google Books.
  32. Dalby, pp.90–91.
  33. 1 2 Wilkins, John M. (2006). Food in the Ancient World. Blackwell. p. 128.
  34. Dalby, p.22.
  35. 1 2 Migeotte, p.62.
  36. Galen, On the properties of Food 1.10; Dalby p.91: "Much bread was unleavened, but raised bread was well known; baking powder, nitron and wine yeast were both later used as raising agents".
  37. Sparkes, p.127.
  38. Flint-Hamilton, p.371
  39. Sparkes, p.128.
  40. Flacelière, p.207.
  41. Aristophanes, Frogs 858 and Wasps 238.
  42. Dalby, p.91.
  43. Peace 449.
  44. Nesbitt, Mark; Summers, Geoffrey (January 1988). "Some Recent Discoveries of Millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) at Excavations in Turkey and Iran". Anatolian Studies. 38 (38): 85–97. doi:10.2307/3642844. JSTOR   3642844 . Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  45. Hesiod (September 2013). Hesiod, the Poems and Fragments, Done Into English Prose. Theclassics Us. pp. fragments S396–423. ISBN   978-1-230-26344-1.
  46. "The Poems and Fragments - Online Library of Liberty".
  47. Theophrastus; Hort, Arthur (26 February 2019). Enquiry into plants and minor works on odours and weather signs, with an English translation by Sir Arthur Hort, bart. London W. Heinemann via Internet Archive.
  48. Flint-Hamilton 1999 , p. 375
  49. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Flint-Hamilton, Kimberly B. (1999). "Legumes in Ancient Greece and Rome: Food, Medicine, or Poison?". Hesperia. 68 (3): 371–385. doi:10.2307/148493. JSTOR   148493.
  50. Homer; Butler (Transl.), Samuel (1898). The Iliad of Homer: Rendered Into English Prose for the Use of Those who Cannot Read the Original. London: Longman's, Green. pp. 217 (line 589).
  51. Theophrastus; Hort, Arthur (26 February 2019). Enquiry into plants and minor works on odours and weather signs, with an English translation by Sir Arthur Hort, bart. London W. Heinemann via Internet Archive.
  52. Theophrastus; Hort, Arthur (26 February 2019). Enquiry into plants and minor works on odours and weather signs, with an English translation by Sir Arthur Hort, bart. London W. Heinemann via Internet Archive.
  53. Theophrastus; Hort, Arthur (26 February 2019). Enquiry into plants and minor works on odours and weather signs, with an English translation by Sir Arthur Hort, bart. London W. Heinemann via Internet Archive.
  54. Theophrastus; Hort, Arthur (26 February 2019). Enquiry into plants and minor works on odours and weather signs, with an English translation by Sir Arthur Hort, bart. London W. Heinemann via Internet Archive.
  55. Theophrastus; Hort, Arthur (26 February 2019). Enquiry into plants and minor works on odours and weather signs, with an English translation by Sir Arthur Hort, bart. London W. Heinemann via Internet Archive.
  56. Clifford A. Wright (3 April 2012). Mediterranean Vegetables: A Cook's Compendium of all the Vegetables from The World's Healthiest Cuisine, with More than 200 Re. Harvard Common Press. pp. 414–. ISBN   978-1-55832-591-3.
  57. 1 2 "The Poems and Fragments - Online Library of Liberty".
  58. Flint-Hamilton 1999 , p. 374
  59. Flint-Hamilton 1999 , p. 373
  60. "The Poems and Fragments - Online Library of Liberty".
  61. The Frogs 62–63.
  62. Dalby, p.89.
  63. Dalby, p.23.
  64. Dalby, p.90; Flint-Hamilton, p.375.
  65. Flacelière, p.208.
  66. Peace 1127–1129. Peace . trans. Eugene O'Neill, Jr. 1938. accessed 23 May 2006.
  67. Demosthenes, Against Androtion 15.
  68. Flint-Hamilton 1999 , p. 379
  69. Hesiod. Works and Days 588–93, trans. Hugh G. Evelyn-White 1914. accessed 23 May 2006
  70. Sparkes 1962 , p. 123
  71. 1 2 "Athenaeus: Deipnosophists - Book 3".
  72. Life of Lycurgus 12:12.
  73. Apud Athenaeus 138d, trans. quoted by Dalby, p.126.
  74. Life of Lycurgus 12:3 and Dicaearchus fgt.72 Wehrli.
  75. Various History 14:7.
  76. Peace 374.
  77. Sparkes, p.123.
  78. Snyder & Klippel 2003 , p. 230
  79. 1 2 "Great Online Encyclopaedia of Constantinople".
  80. "The Internet Classics Archive - The History of Herodotus by Herodotus".
  81. Dalby, p.67.
  82. "Athenaeus: Deipnosophists - Book 4".
  83. Davidson 1993 , p. 54
  84. 1 2 Dalby, Andrew (1995). Siren feasts: a history of food and gastronomy in Greece. Routledge. ISBN   978-0415156578.
  85. Athenaeus, Epitome 58b.
  86. Dalby, p.65.
  87. Athenaeus 151b.
  88. Owen Powell, trans., Galen: On the properties of food, ISBN   0521812429, 689–696, p. 128-129 ; translator's notes p. 181-182
  89. Dalby, p. 66
  90. Dalby, p.66.
  91. Athenaeus 325f.
  92. Gilboa, Ayelet; Namdar, Dvory (2015). "Beginnings of South Asian Spice Trade with the Mediterranean". Radiocarbon. 57 (2): 275. doi:10.2458/azu_rc.57.18562.
  93. "Sappho - SB".
  94. Theophrastus; Hort, Arthur (26 February 2019). Enquiry into plants and minor works on odours and weather signs, with an English translation by Sir Arthur Hort, bart. London W. Heinemann via Internet Archive.
  95. Kumar, Suresh; Kamboj, Jitpal; Suman; Sharma, Sunil (June 2011). "Overview for Various Aspects of the Health Benefits of Piper Longum Linn. Fruit". Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies. 4 (2): 134–140. doi:10.1016/S2005-2901(11)60020-4. PMID   21704957.
  96. Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat (25 March 2009). A History of Food. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 443–. ISBN   978-1-4443-0514-2.
  97. Theophrastus; Hort, Arthur (26 February 2019). Enquiry into plants and minor works on odours and weather signs, with an English translation by Sir Arthur Hort, bart. London W. Heinemann via Internet Archive.
  98. 1 2 3 Theophrastus (1916). Enquiry into plants and minor works on odours and weather signs, with an English translation by Sir Arthur Hort, bart. 1. London W. Heinemann.
  99. Homer; Butler (Transl.), Samuel (1898). The Iliad of Homer: Rendered Into English Prose for the Use of Those who Cannot Read the Original. London: Longman's, Green. pp. 182 (Bk 11, line 630).
  100. Dalby (1996), pp. 109-110.
  101. Athenaeus. "Deipnosophistae", 325f; Bilabel (1920). English translation from Dalby (2003), p. 79.
  102. Athenaeus (of Naucratis.); Yonge, C.D. (1854). The Deipnosophists; Or, Banquet of the Learned. v.3. London: H.G. Bohn. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  103. Athenaeus 40f–41a commenting on Odyssey 17.208.
  104. Athenaeus 41a commenting on Iliad 2.753.
  105. Pindar, fgt.198 B4.
  106. Σωματώδηςsōmatōdēs, Athenaeus 42a.
  107. Βαρυσταθμότεροςbarystathmoteros, Athenaeus 42c.
  108. Κοῦφοςkouphos, Athenaeus 42c.
  109. Κατάξηροςkataxēros, Athenaeus 43a.
  110. Ὀξύςoxys, Theopompus fgt.229 M. I316 = Athenaeus 43b.
  111. Τραχὐτεροςtrakuteros, Athenaeus 43b.
  112. Οἰνώδηςoinōdēs, Athenaeus 42c.
  113. Antiphanes fgt.179 Kock = Athenaeus 43b–c.
  114. Athenaeus 44.
  115. Apud Plutarch, Life of Lycurgus, 9:7–8.
  116. Athenaeus 28d–e.
  117. First mention in Dioscorides, Materia Medica 5.34; Dalby, p.150.
  118. Various History 12:31.
  119. Athenaeus 31d.
  120. E.g. Menander, Samia 394.
  121. Various History, 13:6.
  122. Various History, 2:38.
  123. Dalby, p.88–9.
  124. Iliad 15:638–641.
  125. Odyssey 10:234.
  126. Homeric hymn to Demeter 208.
  127. Characters 4:2–3.
  128. Peace 712.
  129. Wilkins, "Introduction: part II" in Wilkins, Harvey and Dobson, p.3.
  130. Apud Athenaeus 8c–d.
  131. For a comparison of Persian and Greek cuisine, see Briant, pp.297–306.
  132. Herodotus 1:133.
  133. Apud Athenaeus 539b.
  134. Description of Greece 15:3,22.
  135. Ctesias fgt.96 M = Athenaeus 67a.
  136. Plutarch, Life of Lycurgus 12:13, trans. John Dryden. Accessed 26 May 2006.
  137. Stratagems, 4:3,32.
  138. Stratagems 4:82.
  139. Various History 22:24.
  140. Gorgias 518b.
  141. Euphro Comicus fgt.11 Kock = Athenaeus 7d–f.
  142. Suidas s.v. ἀφὐα.
  143. Dodds, pp.154–5.
  144. Aristophanes, Frogs 1032. Trans. Matthew Dillon, accessed 2 June 2006.
  145. Flint-Hamilton, pp.379–380.
  146. Moralia 12:68.
  147. On Abstinence 4.62.
  148. Various History (11:3).
  149. Athenaeus 412f.
  150. Athenaeus 205.
  151. Diogenes Laërtius 8:12.
  152. Epictetus, Discourses 15:2–5, trans. W.E. Sweet.
  153. Exhortation for Medicine 9, trans. S.G. Miller.
  154. Pausanias 6:7.10.

Related Research Articles

Greek cuisine culinary traditions of Greece

Greek cuisine is a Mediterranean cuisine. Greek cookery makes wide use of vegetables, olive oil, grains, fish, wine, and meat. Other important ingredients include olives, pasta, cheese, lemon juice, herbs, bread, and yogurt. The most commonly used grain is wheat; barley is also used. Common dessert ingredients include nuts, honey, fruits, and filo pastries. It has a history of thousands of years with dishes originating from Ancient Greece, continuing into the Byzantine period and surviving until today. It has been influenced by Middle Eastern, Ottoman and Italian cuisine and cuisines from the northern countries while also having exerted influence over these same areas throughout the years.

Hungarian cuisine Culinary traditions of Hungary

Hungarian or Magyar cuisine is the cuisine characteristic of the nation of Hungary and its primary ethnic group, the Magyars. Traditional Hungarian dishes are primarily based on meats, seasonal vegetables, fruits, fresh bread, dairy products and cheeses.

Ancient Roman cuisine

Ancient Roman cuisine changed greatly over the duration of the civilization's existence. Dietary habits were affected by the political changes from kingdom to republic to empire, and the empire's enormous expansion, which exposed Romans to many new provincial culinary habits and cooking methods.


Souvlaki, plural souvlakia, is a popular Greek fast food consisting of small pieces of meat and sometimes vegetables grilled on a skewer. It is usually eaten straight off the skewer while still hot. It can be served with pita bread, fried potatoes, lemon, and sauces, but the souvlaki itself is eaten on its own, with the side dishes eaten subsequently. The meat usually used in Greece and Cyprus is pork, although chicken, beef, and lamb may also be used. In other countries, souvlaki may be made with meats such as lamb, beef, chicken, and sometimes fish.

Dutch cuisine is formed from the cooking traditions and practices of the Netherlands. The country's cuisine is shaped by its location in the fertile North Sea river delta of the European Plain, giving rise to fishing, farming, and trading over sea, its former colonial empire and the spice trade.

Jewish cuisine culinary traditions of Jewish communities around the world

Jewish cuisine refers to the cooking traditions of the Jewish people worldwide. It has evolved over many centuries, shaped by Jewish dietary laws (kashrut), Jewish festival and Shabbat (Sabbath) traditions. Jewish cuisine is influenced by the economics, agriculture and culinary traditions of the many countries where Jewish communities have settled and varies widely throughout the whole world.

Mediterranean cuisine culinary traditions of the Mediterranean

Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region. The idea of a Mediterranean cuisine originates with the cookery writer Elizabeth David's book, A Book of Mediterranean Food (1950), though she wrote mainly about French cuisine. She and other writers including the Tunisian historian Mohamed Yassine Essid define the three core elements of the cuisine as the olive, wheat, and the grape, yielding olive oil, bread and pasta, and wine; other writers emphasize the diversity of the region's foods and deny that it is a useful concept. The geographical area covered broadly follows the distribution of the olive tree, as noted by David and Essid.

Serbian cuisine is the traditional cuisine of Serbia, sharing characteristics with the rest of the Balkan nations.

Iraqi cuisine culinary traditions of Iraq

Iraqi cuisine or Mesopotamian cuisine has a long history going back some 10,000 years – to the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, ancient Persians, and Mesopotamian Arabs. Tablets found in ancient ruins in Iraq show recipes prepared in the temples during religious festivals – the first cookbooks in the world. Ancient Iraq, or Mesopotamia, was home to a sophisticated and highly advanced civilization, in all fields of knowledge, including the culinary arts. However, it was in the Islamic Golden Age when Baghdad was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258) that the Iraqi kitchen reached its zenith. Today, the cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influences from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Iran, Turkey, and the Syria region area.

Assyrian cuisine Wikimedia list article

Assyrian cuisine is the cuisine of the indigenous ethnic Assyrian people, Eastern Aramaic-speaking Syriac Christians of Iraq, northeastern Syria, northwestern Iran and southeastern Turkey. Assyrian cuisine is primarily identical to Iraqi/Mesopotamian cuisine, as well as being very similar to other Middle Eastern and Caucasian cuisines, as well as Greek cuisine, Levantine cuisine, Turkish cuisine, Israeli cuisine, and Armenian cuisine, with most dishes being similar to the cuisines of the area in which those Assyrians live/originate from. It is rich in grains such as barley, meat, tomato, herbs, spices, cheese, and potato as well as herbs, fermented dairy products, and pickles.

Byzantine cuisine

Byzantine cuisine was marked by a merger of Greek and Roman gastronomy. The development of the Byzantine Empire and trade brought in spices, sugar and new vegetables to Greece.

Medieval cuisine foods, eating habits, and cooking methods of various European cultures during the Middle Ages

Medieval cuisine includes foods, eating habits, and cooking methods of various European cultures during the Middle Ages, which lasted from the fifth to the fifteenth century. During this period, diets and cooking changed less than they did in the early modern period that followed, when those changes helped lay the foundations for modern European cuisine. Cereals remained the most important staple during the early Middle Ages as rice was introduced late, and the potato was only introduced in 1536, with a much later date for widespread consumption. Barley, oats and rye were eaten by the poor. Wheat was for the governing classes. These were consumed as bread, porridge, gruel and pasta by all of society's members. Fava beans and vegetables were important supplements to the cereal-based diet of the lower orders.

Ancient Israelite cuisine refers to the food eaten by the ancient Israelites during a period of over a thousand years, from the beginning of the Israelite presence in the Land of Israel at the beginning of the Iron Age until the Roman period. The dietary staples were bread, wine and olive oil, but also included legumes, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, fish and meat. Religious beliefs, which prohibited the consumption of certain foods, shaped the Israelite diet. There was considerable continuity in the main components of the diet over time, despite the introduction of new foodstuffs at various stages. The food of ancient Israel was similar to that of other ancient Mediterranean diets.

Myma was an ancient Greek meat dish that incorporated animal blood. In his Deipnosophists, the 2nd century Greek rhetorician and grammarian Athenaeus quotes recipes from Artemidorus and Epaenetus, authors of cookery books who lived in the Hellenistic period:

Food and dining in the Roman Empire

Food and dining in the Roman Empire reflect both the variety of foodstuffs available through the expanded trade networks of the Roman Empire and the traditions of conviviality from ancient Rome's earliest times, inherited in part from the Greeks and Etruscans. In contrast to the Greek symposium, which was primarily a drinking party, the equivalent social institution of the Roman convivium was focused on food. Banqueting played a major role in Rome's communal religion. Maintaining the food supply to the city of Rome had become a major political issue in the late Republic, and continued to be one of the main ways the emperor expressed his relationship to the Roman people and established his role as a benefactor. Roman food vendors and farmers' markets sold meats, fish, cheeses, produce, olive oil and spices; and pubs, bars, inns and food stalls sold prepared food.

History of breakfast Wikimedia history article

Breakfast is the first meal taken after rising from a night's sleep, most often eaten in the early morning before undertaking the day's work. It was not until the 15th century that "breakfast" came into use in written English to describe a morning meal, which literally means to break the fasting period of the prior night; in Old English the term was morgenmete meaning "morning meal."

Kandaulos was an ancient Greek luxury dish of Lydian origin. The Ionian rich savoury confection was a new delicacy in Athens in the early 4th century BC. According to the Greek rhetorician and grammarian Athenaeus, kandaulos came in three forms. One of them was sweet, and is described by one Hellenistic source as a πλακοῦς, flat cake. A second was savoury, consisting of meat and broth with breadcrumbs. However, what these two kinds of kandaulos had in common with one another or with the third kind is not clear.

Middle Eastern cuisine regional cuisine

Middle Eastern cuisine is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of the Middle East. The cuisine of the region is diverse while having a degree of homogeneity. It includes Arab, Iranian, Jewish, Assyrian, Azerbaijani, Armenian, Georgian, Kurdish,Cypriot and Turkish cuisines. In 2017, Middle Eastern cuisine was claimed by many sources to be one of the most popular and fastest growing ethnic cuisines in the US. Some commonly used ingredients include olives and olive oil, pitas, honey, sesame seeds, dates, sumac, chickpeas, mint, rice, and parsley. Some popular dishes include kebabs, dolma, falafel, baklava, yogurt, doner kebab, shawarma and mulukhiyah.


Further reading