Anders Kristian Orvin (24 October 1889 – 2 October 1980) was a Norwegian geologist and explorer.
He was born at Hattfjelldal in Nordland, Norway. He was a son of Ole Tobias Olsen (1830–1924) and Christine Bernhardine Dahl (1855–1910). His father was a parish pastor in Nordland.
Orvin finished his secondary education in 1909 and graduated cand.min. from the Royal Frederick University (now University of Oslo) in mineralogy in 1912. He mostly explored and worked at Spitsbergen, but had tenures in Siberia in 1914. As well as Spitsbergen his expeditions went to East Greenland and Bear Island. He served as operating manager of the molybdenite mines Ornehommen Molybdengruber 1915 to 1916 and at Dalen Gruber in Telemark from 1918 to 1921. He was hired in the Norwegian Polar Institute in 1928. He was acting managing director from 1945 to 1948. He served as sub-director until being managing director from 1958 to 1961.
He took his dr.philos. degree in 1934 on the thesis Geology of the Kings Bay Region, Spitsbergen. Among his other writings are Geology of Bear Island (1928, with Gunnar Horn) and Outline of the Geological History of Spitsbergen (1940). After the war he wrote The place-names of Jan Mayen (1960).
He was a fellow of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters from 1952, was made a Knight, First Class of Order of St. Olav in 1960 and a Knight of the Order of the Polar Star. He died during 1980 and was buried in the cemetery at Vestre Aker Church in Oslo.
The Orvin Mountains in Queen Maud Land in Antarctica and Orvin Land in Svalbard are named after him.
Jan Mayen is a Norwegian volcanic island in the Arctic Ocean, with no permanent population. It is 55 km (34 mi) long (southwest-northeast) and 373 km2 (144 sq mi) in area, partly covered by glaciers. It has two parts: larger northeast Nord-Jan and smaller Sør-Jan, linked by a 2.5 km (1.6 mi) wide isthmus. It lies 600 km (370 mi) northeast of Iceland, 500 km (310 mi) east of central Greenland and 1,000 km (620 mi) west of the North Cape, Norway. The island is mountainous, the highest summit being the Beerenberg volcano in the north. The isthmus is the location of the two largest lakes of the island, Sørlaguna, and Nordlaguna. A third lake is called Ullerenglaguna. Jan Mayen was formed by the Jan Mayen hotspot.
Svalbard, previously known as Spitsbergen, or Spitzbergen, is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. Situated north of mainland Europe, it is about midway between the northern coast of Norway and the North Pole. The islands of the group range from 74° to 81° north latitude, and from 10° to 35° east longitude. The largest island is Spitsbergen, followed by Nordaustlandet and Edgeøya, and the largest settlement is Longyearbyen.
Spitsbergen is the largest and only permanently populated island of the Svalbard archipelago in northern Norway.
Svalbard and Jan Mayen is a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1 for a collective grouping of two remote jurisdictions of Norway: Svalbard and Jan Mayen. While the two are combined for the purposes of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) category, they are not administratively related. This has further resulted in the country code top-level domain .sj being issued for Svalbard and Jan Mayen, and ISO 3166-2:SJ. The United Nations Statistics Division also uses this code, but has named it Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands.
Longyearbyen is the largest settlement and the administrative centre of Svalbard, Norway. It stretches along the foot of the left bank of the Longyear Valley and on the shore of Adventfjorden, the short estuary leading into Isfjorden on the west coast of Spitsbergen, the island's broadest inlet. Since 2002 Longyearbyen Community Council has had many of the same responsibilities as a Norwegian municipality, including utilities, education, cultural facilities, fire brigade, roads and ports. The town is the seat of the Governor of Svalbard. It is the world's northernmost settlement of any kind with more than 1,000 permanent residents. Since 2015 Arild Olsen has served as Mayor.
The Norwegian Polar Institute is Norway's central governmental institution for scientific research, mapping and environmental monitoring in the Arctic and the Antarctic. The NPI is a directorate under Norway's Ministry of Climate and Environment. The institute advises Norwegian authorities on matters concerning polar environmental management and is the official environmental management body for Norwegian activities in Antarctica.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Svalbard:
Norway is commonly divided into five major geographical regions (landsdeler). These regions are purely geographical, and have no administrative purpose. However, in 2017 the government decided to abolish the current counties of Norway (fylker) and to replace them with fewer, larger administrative regions (regioner). The first of these new areas came into existence on 1 January 2018, when Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag merged to form Trøndelag.
Events in the year 1889 in Norway.
Norway's elongated shape, its numerous internal geographical barriers, and the often widely dispersed and separated settlements are all factors that have strongly influenced the structure of the country's administrative subdivisions. This structure has varied over time and is subject to continuous review. In 2017 the government decided to abolish some of the counties and to merge them with other counties to form larger ones, reducing the number of counties from 19 to 11, which was implemented on 1 January 2020.
Rekvedbukta is an open bay on the central southern coast of the island of Jan Mayen, about eight nautical miles long.
Finn Malmgren Fjord is a fjord in Orvin Land at Nordaustlandet, Svalbard, between Glenhalvøya and Bergstrømodden. A land tongue of 0.5 kilometers separates the fjord from Adlersparrefjorden. Finn Malmgrenfjorden is named after Arctic explorer Finn Malmgren.
Alpini Island is an island in the Svalbard archipelago, north of Orvin Land in Nordaustlandet. It is located off the headland Bergströmodden, at the mouth of Finn Malmgren Fjord. The island is named after the Italian military corps Alpini, due to a visit to the island in 1928 by an expedition leader and captain of an Alpini regiment, Gennaro Sora.
Eggøya is a peninsula of Jan Mayen island of the Arctic Ocean. It is located on the southern side, in the central part of the island, east of Sørlaguna, and defines the northeastern extension of the bay Rekvedbukta. To the west of the peninsula is the bay Eggøybukta, and to the east is the bay Jamesonbukta. The highest peak at the peninsula has a height of 217 m.a.s.l. Eggøya consists of the northern part of an old volcanic crater, and small hydrothermal vents are still present. The outer part of the peninsula forms the semicircular bay of Kraterbukta, facing south-southeast with steep slopes. To the south of the peninsula is a small islet, Eggøykalven.
Nansenflua is an undersea rock in the northern part of Rekvedbukta off the southeastern coast of Jan Mayen in the Arctic Ocean. The shoal is named after the ship HNoMS Fridtjof Nansen, which sank after striking the previously uncharted rock in November 1940. Nansenflua is the only obstruction in Rekvedbukta. The name Nansenflua was introduced in charts published by the Norwegian Polar Institute in 1955, and is included as a recognized name in Anders K. Orvin's 1960 paper The place-names of Jan Mayen. It follows a convention based on two then in force Orders in Council, dated 28 April 1933 and 31 May 1957, of using the Nynorsk grammatical form. The suffix "-a" in the feminine definite form was chosen, as no local dialect existed on Jan Mayen. The last part of the name, "flu(a)", means "rock awash", or "sunken rock". The geographical location is given by Orvin as , with an exactitude of 1'. The rock, located two meters under the surface, has a small top area and vertical sides of about twenty meters. It is located about one nautical mile from Eggøykalven and 1.7 nautical miles west-southwest of the peninsula Eggøya. In anything but completely calm weather conditions, Nansenflua is visible by waves being broken against it. The rock is part of the remains of a crater.
Trollsletta is a coastal plain on the North Arctic Ocean island of Jan Mayen.
Båtvika is a cove at the southern part of the island of Jan Mayen. It is located at the southeastern side of the island, in the southwestern part of Rekvedbukta, northeast of Kapp Traill. The settlement Olonkinbyen is located on the plain northeast of the cove, and Båtvika is the settlement's nearest harbour.
Eggøykalven is an islet south of the peninsula of Eggøya at the southern part of Jan Mayen. It is located just about 80 meters west of the point of Eggøyodden, and southeast of the bay Eggøybukta. The islet was earlier much higher, but has been significantly worn down by the ocean.
John Bernhard Rekstad was a Norwegian geologist.
Hallvard Ophuus Devold was a Norwegian Arctic explorer, trapper and meteorologist. He was instrumental in the attempt to establish Eric the Red's Land in 1931. His brother Finn Devold shared his vision and helped to establish a Norwegian station at Finnsbu, SE Greenland.