Andre Geim

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Sir Andre Geim
Andre Geim 2010-1.jpg
Geim in 2010
Born
  • Andrei Konstantinovich Geim
  • Russian: Андре́й Константи́нович Гейм

(1958-10-21) 21 October 1958 (age 61) [1]
NationalityDutch and British
Alma mater Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Known for
Spouse(s) Irina Grigorieva [7] [8]
Awards
Scientific career
Fields Condensed matter physics
Institutions
Thesis Investigation of mechanisms of transport relaxation in metals by a helicon resonance method (1987)
Doctoral advisor Victor Petrashov [11] [12]
Doctoral students
Website condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/people/academic/geim/

Sir Andre Konstantin Geim FRS, HonFRSC, HonFInstP (Russian : Андре́й Константи́нович Гейм; born 21 October 1958) is a Russian-born Dutch-British physicist working in England in the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Manchester. [20]

Contents

Geim was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with Konstantin Novoselov for his work on graphene. [21] [22] He is Regius Professor of Physics and Royal Society Research Professor at the National Graphene Institute. Sir Andre Geim had also been awarded an Ig Nobel Prize earlier in 2000 for levitating a frog using its intrinsic magnetism. He is the only individual, as of 2020, to have received both Nobel and Ig Nobel prizes.

Education

Andre Geim was born to Konstantin Alekseyevich Geim and Nina Nikolayevna Bayer in Sochi, Russia, on 21 October 1958. Both his parents were engineers of German origin. [23] [24] His grandfather N.N. Bayer (Mykola Baier in Ukrainian) was a notable public figure in Ukraine of the early 20th century, one of its first nature conservationists and the first rector of Kaminiets-Podilskyi University. [25]

In 1965, the family moved to Nalchik, [26] where he studied at a high school. [26] After graduation, he applied to the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. [27] He took the entrance exams twice, but attributes his failure to qualify to discrimination on account of his German ethnicity. [23] He then applied to the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), where he was accepted.

He said that at the time he would not have chosen to study solid-state physics, preferring particle physics or astrophysics, but is now happy with his choice. [28] He received a diplom (MSc degree equivalent) from MIPT in 1982 and a Candidate of Sciences (PhD equivalent) degree in metal physics in 1987 from the Institute of Solid State Physics (ISSP) at the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) in Chernogolovka. [28] [29]

Academic career

After earning his PhD with Victor Petrashov, [11] Geim worked as a research scientist at the Institute for Microelectronics Technology (IMT) at RAS, and from 1990 as a post-doctoral fellow at the universities of Nottingham (twice), Bath, and Copenhagen. He said that while at Nottingham he could spend his time on research rather than "swimming through Soviet treacle," [23] and determined to leave the Soviet Union. [30]

He obtained his first tenured position in 1994, when he was appointed associate professor at Radboud University Nijmegen, where he worked on mesoscopic superconductivity. [31] He later gained Dutch citizenship. One of his doctoral students at Nijmegen was Konstantin Novoselov, who went on to become his main research partner. However, Geim has said that he had an unpleasant time during his academic career in the Netherlands.

He was offered professorships at Nijmegen and Eindhoven, but turned them down as he found the Dutch academic system too hierarchical and full of petty politicking. "This can be pretty unpleasant at times," he says. "It's not like the British system where every staff member is an equal quantity." [30] On the other hand, Geim writes in his Nobel lecture that "the situation was a bit surreal because outside the university walls I received a warm-hearted welcome from everyone around, including Jan Kees and other academics." [32] (Prof. Jan Kees Maan was the research boss of Geim during his time at Radboud University Nijmegen.)

In 2001 he became a professor of physics at the University of Manchester, and was appointed director of the Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology in 2002. Geim's wife and long-standing co-author, Irina Grigorieva, also moved to Manchester as a lecturer in 2001. The same year, they were joined by Novoselov who moved to Manchester from Nijmegen, which awarded him a PhD in 2004. Geim served as Langworthy Professor between 2007 and 2013, leaving this endowed professorship to Novoselov in 2012. [29] Also, between 2007 and 2010 Geim was an EPSRC Senior Research Fellow before becoming one of Royal Society Research Professors. [29] [33]

Geim holds many honorary professorships including those from Tsinghua University (China), Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russia), and Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands). [34]

Research

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon atoms. Graphen.jpg
Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon atoms.

Geim's achievements include the discovery of a simple method for isolating single atomic layers of graphite, known as graphene, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Manchester [35] and IMT. The team published their findings in October 2004 in Science . [36] [37] [38]

Graphene consists of one-atom-thick layers of carbon atoms arranged in two-dimensional hexagons, [39] [40] and is the thinnest material in the world, as well as one of the strongest and hardest. [41] The material has many potential applications.

Geim said one of the first applications of graphene could be in the development of flexible touchscreens, and that he has not patented the material because he would need a specific application and an industrial partner. [42]

"Spider-Man test" of gecko tape Test of gecko tape.jpg
"Spider-Man test" of gecko tape

Geim also developed a biomimetic adhesive which became known as gecko tape [6] —so called because it works on the same principle as adhesion of gecko feet—research of which is still in the early stages. [43] It is hoped that the development will eventually allow humans to scale ceilings, like Spider-Man. [44]

Geim's research in 1997 into the possible effects of magnetism on water scaling led to the famous discovery of direct diamagnetic levitation of water, and led to a frog being levitated. [45] For this experiment, he and Michael Berry received the 2000 Ig Nobel Prize. [5] "We were asked first whether we dared to accept this prize, and I take pride in our sense of humor and self-deprecation that we did". [23]

Geim has also carried out research on mesoscopic physics and superconductivity. [30] [46]

He said of the range of subjects he has studied: "Many people choose a subject for their PhD and then continue the same subject until they retire. I despise this approach. I have changed my subject five times before I got my first tenured position and that helped me to learn different subjects." [28] "When one dares to try, rewards are not guaranteed but at least it is an adventure." [23]

Expanding the scope of his research adventures, Geim started studying low-dimensional water in 2012, after his Nobel-prize achievements. A part of this work was acknowledged by the 2018 International Creativity Prize for Water. [47]

He named his favourite hamster, H.A.M.S. ter Tisha, co-author in a 2001 research paper. [36] [48]

Honours and awards

In 2006 he appeared on the Scientific American 50. [49] The Institute of Physics awarded him the 2007 Mott Medal and Prize "for his discovery of a new class of materials—free-standing two-dimensional crystals—in particular graphene". [50] Geim was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 2007. [51] His certificate of election reads:

Geim's research is notable for its internationally-recognised quality, originality and breadth. He has recently discovered a conceptually new class of materials strictly two-dimensional atomic crystals, including graphene. This has opened up a prolific research area including a new paradigm of "relativistic-like condensed matter", where relativistic quantum physics can be studied in a bench-top experiment. Previously, Geim pioneered ballistic Hall micromagnetometry and discovered a paramagnetic Meissner effect and new vortex physics in superconductors. He has also realised a microfabricated adhesive, based on the gecko's climbing mechanism, now being exploited by DuPont, BAe and TESA. His experiments at Nijmegen on magnetic levitation attracted worldwide media attention and stimulated international research in this field. His earlier research on mesoscopic physics included studies of non-local and interaction phenomena, and of the quantum motion of electrons in periodic and random magnetic fields. He disseminates science to the public and schoolchildren through broadcasts and "roadshow" lectures. [51]

He shared the 2008 EPS Europhysics Prize with Novoselov "for discovering and isolating a single free-standing atomic layer of carbon (graphene) and elucidating its remarkable electronic properties". [52] In 2009 he received the Körber European Science Award. [53] The US National Academy of Sciences honoured him with the 2010 John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science "for his experimental realisation and investigation of graphene, the two-dimensional form of carbon". [54]

He was awarded one of six Royal Society 2010 Anniversary Research Professorships. [55] The Royal Society added its 2010 Hughes Medal "for his revolutionary discovery of graphene and elucidation of its remarkable properties". [56] He was awarded honorary doctorates from Delft University of Technology, [57] ETH Zürich, [34] the University of Antwerp [58] and the University of Manchester. In 2010, Geim was appointed as Knight Commander of the Order of the Netherlands Lion for his contribution to Dutch Science. [10]

In 2011, Geim became a corresponding member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. [59] He is Honorary Professor of Moscow Phys-Tech, Honorary Professor of the University of Nijmegen, Honorary Fellow of the Institute of Physics (HonFInstP), Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (HonFRSC), Honorary Fellow of Singapore Institute of Physics, Honorary Professor of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. [60] Geim was furthermore made a Knight Bachelor in the 2012 New Year Honours for services to science. [61] [62] He was elected a foreign associate of the US National Academy of Sciences in May 2012. [63] He was awarded the Copley Medal in 2013 and the Carbon Medal in 2016.

Nobel Prize in Physics

Peter Diamond, Dale T. Mortensen, Christopher A. Pissarides, Konstantin Novoselov, Andre Geim, Akira Suzuki, Ei-ichi Negishi, and Richard Heck, Nobel Prize Laureates 2010, at a press conference at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. Nobel Prize 2010-Press Conference KVA-DSC 8019.jpg
Peter Diamond, Dale T. Mortensen, Christopher A. Pissarides, Konstantin Novoselov, Andre Geim, Akira Suzuki, Ei-ichi Negishi, and Richard Heck, Nobel Prize Laureates 2010, at a press conference at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm.

On 5 October 2010, Geim was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with Novoselov "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene". [64] Upon hearing of the award he said, "I'm fine, I slept well. I didn't expect the Nobel Prize this year", and that his plans for the day would not change. [65] The lecture for the award took place on 8 December 2010 at Stockholm University. [66] He said he hopes that graphene and other two-dimensional crystals will change everyday life as plastics did for humanity, although we need to wait for a few decades to see the results. [67]

Personal life

View and opinions

Geim was one of 38 Nobel laureates who signed a declaration in 2010 issued by Scholars for Peace in the Middle East condemning international attempts to boycott Israeli academics, institutions, and research centers. [68]

At the Nobel Minds symposium in December 2010, Geim said the Nobel Peace Prize committee's choice of Chinese dissident, the imprisoned Liu Xiaobo, as winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, was patronising, saying

"Look at the people who give this Nobel prize. They are retired Norwegian politicians who have spent all their careers in a safe environment, in an oil-rich modern country. They try to extend their views of the world, how the world should work and how democracy works in another country. It's very, very patronising— they have not lived in these countries. In the past 10 years, China has developed not only economically, but even the strongest human rights supporter would agree also human rights have improved. Why do we need to distort this?" [69] [70]

Geim has written several opinion pieces for The Financial Times , examples of which can be found on his university webpage. [71]

In 2014, Geim's interview for Desert Island Discs, a popular BBC radio programme, revealed details of his personal life and taste in music. [72]

A quote from Geim was deliberately doctored by the campaign group Vote Leave in the run-up to the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. An open letter about science, signed by 13 Conservative MPs including Boris Johnson, attempted to paint European science funding as unnecessarily bureaucratic and deliberately misrepresented Geim's views on Europe:

As the Nobel Prize winner Andre Geim said: 'I can offer no nice words for the EU framework programmes [for research] which ... can be praised only by Europhobes for discrediting the whole idea of an effectively working Europe.'

The ellipsis (...) present in the quotation from Geim's Nobel lecture removed the words "except for the European Research Council". [73]

Identity

Geim has a complex ancestry which is described in detail in his Nobel Prize autobiography. [23] In there, Geim has stated that most of his family are ethnic Germans where his father descended from Volga Germans and his mother was mostly an ethnic German as well. Both his father and paternal grandfather had spent many years of their lives as prisoners in Siberia in Stalin's Gulags, and "some of the family had been prisoners in German concentration camps". He also states that he "suffered from anti-Semitism in Russia because my name sounds Jewish". [74]

Geim summarises his identity as follows. "To the best of my knowledge, the only Jew in the family was my great-grandmother, with the rest on both sides being German. Having lived and worked in several European countries, I consider myself European and do not believe that any further taxonomy is necessary, especially in such a fluid world as the world of science." [23] [75]

Ig Nobel

Magnetically levitating a live frog, an experiment that earned Geim and Michael Berry the 2000 Ig Nobel Prize Frog diamagnetic levitation.jpg
Magnetically levitating a live frog, an experiment that earned Geim and Michael Berry the 2000 Ig Nobel Prize

Geim shared the 2000 Ig Nobel Prize in physics with Michael Berry for the frog experiment. [76] He received it for using the magnetic properties of water scaling to levitate a small frog with magnets.

Mark Miodownik said that his award shows that people can still win a Nobel by "mucking about in a lab". [77] The award made him the first person to win, as an individual, both a Nobel Prize and an Ig Nobel Prize. [78] On winning both a Nobel and Ig Nobel, he has stated that

"Frankly, I value both my Ig Nobel prize and Nobel prize at the same level and for me Ig Nobel prize was the manifestation that I can take jokes, a little bit of self-deprecation always helps." [11]

See also

Related Research Articles

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The year 2004 in science and technology involved some significant events.

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology university in Russia

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, known informally as PhysTech (Физтех), is a Russian university, originally established in the Soviet Union. It prepares specialists in theoretical and applied physics, applied mathematics and related disciplines.

Graphene two-dimensional crystalline structure of carbon

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Radboud University Nijmegen University in the Netherlands

Radboud University is a state funded Roman Catholic university with a strong focus on research located in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. RU has been included in the top 150 of universities in the world by four major university ranking tables.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester department of the University of Manchester

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The Faculty of Science and Engineering (FES) is one of the four faculties that comprise the University of Manchester in northern England. Established in October 2004, the faculty was originally called the Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences. It spans a range of "discipline areas" consisting of the Schools of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science; Chemistry; Petroleum Engineering; Computer Science; Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Science; Physics and Astronomy; Electrical & Electronic Engineering; Materials; Mathematics; and Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering.

Walter de Heer Dutch physicist

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Philip Kim South Korean physicist

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Carbocatalysis is a form of catalysis that uses heterogeneous carbon materials for the transformation or synthesis of organic or inorganic substrates. The catalysts are characterized by their high surface areas, surface functionality, and large, aromatic basal planes. Carbocatalysis can be distinguishable from supported catalysis in that no metal is present, or if metals are present they are not the active species.

Konstantin Novoselov Russian-British physicist known for graphene work

Sir Konstantin Sergeevich Novoselov is a Russian-British physicist, and a Professor at the Centre for Advanced 2D Materials, National University of Singapore. He is also the Langworthy Professor in the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Manchester. His work on graphene with Andre Geim earned them the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010.

The Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology is a centre for interdisciplinary research in mesoscience and nanotechnology headed by Andre Geim at the University of Manchester. The purpose of the centre is to allow researchers to construct devices from a few micrometres down to 10 nanometres in size. It was opened by Lord Sainsbury on 7 April 2003.

The Centre for Advanced 2D Materials (CA2DM), at the National University of Singapore (NUS), is the first centre in Asia dedicated to graphene research. The Centre was established under the scientific advice of two Nobel Laureates in physics – Prof Andre Geim and Prof Konstantin Novoselov - who won the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of graphene. It was created for the conception, characterization, theoretical modeling, and development of transformative technologies based on two-dimensional crystals, such as graphene. In 2019, Prof Konstantin Novoselov moved to Singapore and joined NUS as Distinguished Professor of Materials Science and Engineering.

The European Magnetic Field Laboratory (EMFL) gathers the efforts of three laboratories in Germany, France, and the Netherlands: the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD), the Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses (LNCMI) in Grenoble and Toulouse and the High Field Magnet Laboratory (HFML) in Nijmegen. EMFL was an initiative of Prof. Jan Kees Maan, former director of HFML in Nijmegen.

Mikhail Katsnelson Russian and Dutch physicist

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Carbon Medal

The Carbon Medal is a medal of achievement in carbon science and technology given by the American Carbon Society for the "... outstanding contributions to the discovery of novel carbon products or processes."

History of graphene

Single-layer graphene was explored theoretically by P. R. Wallace in 1947. It was first unambiguously produced and identified in 2004, by the group of Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, though they credit Hanns-Peter Boehm and his co-workers for the experimental discovery of graphene in 1962. Boehm et al. introduced the term graphene in 1986.

Cinzia Casiraghi is a Professor of Nanoscience in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Manchester and National Graphene Institute in the UK.

Irina Grigorieva is a Professor of Physics at the University of Manchester and Director of the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Centre for Doctoral Training in Science and the Applications of Graphene. She was awarded the 2019 David Tabor Medal and Prize of the Institute of Physics and was elected as a Fellow of the Institute.

Antonio H. Castro Neto Brazilian physicist

Antonio Helio de Castro Neto is a Brazilian-born physicist. He is the founder and director of the Centre for Advanced 2D Materials at the National University of Singapore. He is a condensed matter theorist known for his work in the theory of metals, magnets, superconductors, graphene and two-dimensional materials. He is a distinguished professor in the Departments of Materials Science Engineering, and physics and professor at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. He was elected as a fellow of the American Physical Society in 2003. In 2011 he was elected as a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

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Further reading