Andrei Bely

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Andrei Bely
Andrei Bely in Brussels (1912).jpg
Andrei Bely in Brussels (1912)
Born
Boris Nikolaevich Bugaev

(1880-10-26)October 26, 1880
DiedJanuary 8, 1934(1934-01-08) (aged 53)
Moscow, Russian SFSR, USSR
Residence Russian Empire
Soviet Union
Alma mater Imperial Moscow University (1903)

Boris Nikolaevich Bugaev (Russian :Бори́с Никола́евич Буга́ев,IPA:  [bɐˈrʲis nʲɪkɐˈlajɪvʲɪtɕ bʊˈɡajɪf] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), better known by the pen name Andrei Bely or Biely (Russian :Андре́й Бе́лый,IPA:  [ɐnˈdrʲej ˈbʲelɨj] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); 26 October [ O.S. 14 October] 1880 8 January 1934), was a Russian novelist, poet, theorist, communist, and literary critic. His novel Petersburg was regarded by Vladimir Nabokov as one of the four greatest novels of the 20th century. [1] [2]

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

A pen name is a pseudonym adopted by an author and printed on the title page or by-line of their works in place of their real name. A pen name may be used to make the author's name more distinctive, to disguise the author's gender, to distance the author from their other works, to protect the author from retribution for their writings, to combine more than one author into a single author, or for any of a number of reasons related to the marketing or aesthetic presentation of the work. The author's name may be known only to the publisher or may come to be common knowledge.

Old Style and New Style dates changes in calendar conventions from Julian to Gregorian

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first was to change the start of the year from Lady Day to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar. Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates.

Contents

Biography

Boris Bugaev was born in Moscow, into a prominent intellectual family. His father, Nikolai Bugaev, was a leading mathematician who is regarded as a founder of the Moscow school of mathematics. His mother was not only highly intelligent but a famous society beauty, and the focus of considerable gossip. Young Boris was a polymath whose interests included mathematics, biology, chemistry, music, philosophy, and literature. Bugaev attended university at the University of Moscow. [3] He would go on to take part in both the Symbolist movement and the Russian school of neo-Kantianism. Bugaev became friendly with Alexander Blok and his wife; he fell in love with her, which caused tensions between the two poets.

Moscow Capital of Russia

Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities.

Nikolai Bugaev Russian mathematician

Nikolai Vasilievich Bugaev was a prominent Russian mathematician, the father of Andrei Bely.

Neo-Kantianism

In late modern continental philosophy, neo-Kantianism was a revival of the 18th-century philosophy of Immanuel Kant. More specifically, it was influenced by Arthur Schopenhauer's critique of the Kantian philosophy in his work The World as Will and Representation (1818), as well as by other post-Kantian philosophers such as Jakob Friedrich Fries and Johann Friedrich Herbart.

Nikolai Bugaev was well known for his influential philosophical essays, in which he decried geometry and probability and trumpeted the virtues of hard analysis. Despite—or because of—his father's mathematical tastes, Boris Bugaev was fascinated by probability and particularly by entropy, a notion to which he frequently refers in works such as Kotik Letaev. [4]

Geometry Branch of mathematics that studies the shape, size and position of objects

Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer.

Probability measure of the expectation that an event will occur or a statement is true

Probability is a measure quantifying the likelihood that events will occur. See glossary of probability and statistics. Probability quantifies as a number between 0 and 1, where, roughly speaking, 0 indicates impossibility and 1 indicates certainty. The higher the probability of an event, the more likely it is that the event will occur. A simple example is the tossing of a fair (unbiased) coin. Since the coin is fair, the two outcomes are both equally probable; the probability of "heads" equals the probability of "tails"; and since no other outcomes are possible, the probability of either "heads" or "tails" is 1/2.

Mathematical analysis Branch of mathematics

Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.

As a young man, Bely was strongly influenced by his acquaintance with the family of philosopher Vladimir Solovyov, especially Vladimir's younger brother Mikhail, described in his long autobiographical poem The First Encounter (1921); the title is a reflection of Vladimir Solovyov's Three Encounters. It was Mikhail Solovyov who gave Bugaev his pseudonym Andrei Bely.

Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher) Russian philosopher

Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov was a Russian philosopher, theologian, poet, pamphleteer, and literary critic. He played a significant role in the development of Russian philosophy and poetry at the end of the 19th century and in the spiritual renaissance of the early 20th century.

Portrait of Bely by Leon Bakst, 1905 Bakst Leon. Andrei Belyi.jpg
Portrait of Bely by Léon Bakst, 1905

Bely's symbolist novel Petersburg (1916; 1922) is generally considered to be his masterpiece. The book employs a striking prose method in which sounds often evoke colors. The novel is set in the somewhat hysterical atmosphere of turn-of-the-century Petersburg and the Russian Revolution of 1905. To the extent that the book can be said to possess a plot, this can be summarized as the story of the hapless Nikolai Apollonovich, a ne'er-do-well who is caught up in revolutionary politics and assigned the task of assassinating a certain government official—his own father. At one point, Nikolai is pursued through the Petersburg mists by the ringing hooves of the famous bronze statue of Peter the Great.[ citation needed ]

<i>Petersburg</i> (novel) novel by Andrei Bely

Petersburg is a novel by Russian writer Andrei Bely. A Symbolist work, it arguably foreshadows James Joyce's Modernist ambitions. First published in 1913, the novel received little attention and was not translated into English until 1959 by John Cournos, over 45 years after it was written.

In his later years Bely was influenced by Rudolf Steiner’s anthroposophy [5] [6] and became a personal friend of Steiner's. He spent time between Switzerland, Germany, and Russia, during its revolution. He supported the Bolshevik rise to power and later dedicated his efforts to Soviet culture, serving on the Organizational Committee of the Union of Soviet Writers. [7] He died, aged 53, in Moscow.

The Andrei Bely Prize (Russian : Премия Андрея Белого), one of the most important prizes in Russian literature, was named after him. His poems were set to music and frequently performed by Russian singer-songwriters [8]

Research on rhythm in poems

Bely's essay Rhythm as Dialectic in The Bronze Horseman is cited in Nabokov's novel The Gift , where it is mentioned as "monumental research on rhythm". [9] Fyodor, poet and main character, praises the system Bely created for graphically marking off and calculating the 'half-stresses' in the iambs. Bely found that the diagrams plotted over the compositions of the great poets frequently had the shapes of rectangles and trapeziums. Fyodor, after discovering Bely's work, re-read all his old iambic tetrameters from the new point of view, and was terribly pained to find out that the diagrams for his poems were instead plain and gappy. [9] Nabokov's essay Notes on Prosody follows for the large part Bely's essay Description of the Russian iambic tetrameter (published in the collection of essays Symbolism, Moscow, 1910).

Bibliography

English Translations

Petersburg

The Silver Dove

Kotik Letaev

The Complete Short Stories

Selected Essays of Andrey Bely

The Dramatic Symphony

The Christened Chinaman

In the Kingdom of Shadows

The Moscow Eccentric

Related Research Articles

Russian literature

Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia and its émigrés and to the Russian-language literature. The roots of Russian literature can be traced to the Middle Ages, when epics and chronicles in Old East Slavic were composed. By the Age of Enlightenment, literature had grown in importance, and from the early 1830s, Russian literature underwent an astounding golden age in poetry, prose and drama. Romanticism permitted a flowering of poetic talent: Vasily Zhukovsky and later his protégé Alexander Pushkin came to the fore. Prose was flourishing as well. The first great Russian novelist was Nikolai Gogol. Then came Ivan Turgenev, who mastered both short stories and novels. Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky soon became internationally renowned. In the second half of the century Anton Chekhov excelled in short stories and became a leading dramatist. The beginning of the 20th century ranks as the Silver Age of Russian poetry. The poets most often associated with the "Silver Age" are Konstantin Balmont, Valery Bryusov, Alexander Blok, Anna Akhmatova, Nikolay Gumilyov, Osip Mandelstam, Sergei Yesenin, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Marina Tsvetaeva and Boris Pasternak. This era produced some first-rate novelists and short-story writers, such as Aleksandr Kuprin, Nobel Prize winner Ivan Bunin, Leonid Andreyev, Fyodor Sologub, Aleksey Remizov, Yevgeny Zamyatin, Dmitry Merezhkovsky and Andrei Bely.

Alexander Blok Russian poet

Alexander Alexandrovich Blok was a Russian lyrical poet, writer, publicist, playwright, translator, literary critic.

<i>Nabokovs Congeries</i> book by Vladimir Nabokov

Nabokov's Congeries was a collection of work by Vladimir Nabokov published in 1968 and reprinted in 1971 as The Portable Nabokov. Because Nabokov supervised its production less than a decade before he died, it is useful in attempting to identify which works Nabokov considered to be his best, especially among his short stories.

Russian symbolism

Russian symbolism was an intellectual and artistic movement predominant at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. It represented the Russian branch of the symbolist movement in European art, and was mostly known for its contributions to Russian poetry.

Vladislav Khodasevich Russian poet, literary critic

Vladislav Felitsianovich Khodasevich was an influential Russian poet and literary critic who presided over the Berlin circle of Russian emigre litterateurs.

<i>Notes on Prosody</i>

The book Notes on Prosody by polyglot author Vladimir Nabokov compares differences in iambic verse in the English and Russian languages, and highlights the effect of relative word length in the two languages on rhythm. Nabokov also proposes an approach for scanning patterns of accent which interact with syllabic stress in iambic verse. Originally Appendix 2 to his Commentary accompanying his translation of Aleksandr Pushkin's Eugene Onegin, Notes on Prosody was released separately in book form.

Alexander Zorich Russian/Ukrainian writer

Alexander Zorich is the collective pen name of two Russo-Ukrainian writers; Yana Botsman and Dmitry Gordevsky. The two write in Russian, in genres such as science fiction, fantasy and alternate history, as well as PC game scenarios.

This article is about the society and culture in Saint Petersburg. St. Petersburg has always been known for its high-quality cultural life, and its best known museum is the Hermitage.

Soviet art

Soviet art is the visual art that was produced after October Socialist Revolution of 1917 in the Soviet Russia (1917—1922) and Soviet Union (1922—1991).

The year 1960 was marked by many events that left an imprint on the history of Soviet and Russian Fine Arts.

The year 1984 was marked by many events that left an imprint on the history of Soviet and Russian Fine Arts.

The year 1978 was marked by many events that left an imprint on the history of Soviet and Russian Fine Arts.

The year 1976 was marked by many events that left an imprint on the history of Soviet and Russian Fine Arts.

John Elsworth is an English academic and translator, specialising in Russian literature. He studied Modern Languages at St John’s College, Cambridge, and also spent a year at Moscow University. He is Professor Emeritus of Russian Studies at the University of Manchester, where he taught from 1987 to 2004. He also taught at the University of East Anglia, the University of Virginia and the University of California, Berkeley.

References

  1. 1965, Nabokov's television interview TV-13 NY
  2. Nabokov and the moment of truth on YouTube
  3. Noah Giansiracusa, Anastasia Vasilyev (7 Sep 2017). "Mathematical Symbolism in a Russian Literary Masterpiece" (Report). Morgan, Matthew. arXiv: 1709.02483 . Bibcode:2017arXiv170902483G. (PDF, 24kb). Accessed 12 February 2018.
  4. Janecek, Gerald (1976). "The Spiral as Image and Structural Principle in Andrej Belyj's Kotik Lataev". Russian Literature (4): 357–63.
  5. Judith Wermuth-Atkinson, The Red Jester: Andrei Bely's Petersburg as a Novel of the European Modern (2012). ISBN   3643901542
  6. Bely, Andrei. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–07 Archived July 1, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  7. http://www.britannica.com/biography/Andrey-Bely
  8. Little theater on the planet of Earth , sound tracks of songs on poems by Andrei Bely, music and performance by Elena Frolova
  9. 1 2 Nabokov (1938) The Gift , chapter 3, p. 141.
  10. "Glossolalia" at community.middlebury.edu
  11. "The Christened Chinaman" at community.middlebury.edu

Bibliography