Last updated
NamesDoctor, medical specialist
Occupation type
Activity sectors
Education required
Fields of
Hospitals, clinics

Andrology (from Ancient Greek : ἀνήρ, anēr, genitive ἀνδρός, andros, "man"; and -λογία, -logia ) is the medical specialty that deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men. It is the counterpart to gynaecology, which deals with medical issues which are specific to female health, especially reproductive and urologic health.



Andrology covers anomalies in the connective tissues pertaining to the genitalia, as well as changes in the volume of cells, such as in genital hypertrophy or macrogenitosomia. [1]

From reproductive and urologic viewpoints, male-specific medical and surgical procedures include vasectomy, vasovasostomy (one of the vasectomy reversal procedures), orchidopexy and circumcision as well as intervention to deal with male genitourinary disorders such as the following:

Human male anatomy Male anatomy en.svg
Human male anatomy


Unlike gynaecology, which has a plethora of medical board certification programs worldwide, andrology has none. Andrology has only been studied as a distinct specialty since the late 1960s: the first specialist journal on the subject was the German periodical Andrologie (now called Andrologia), published from 1969 onwards. [2] The next specialty journal covering both the basic and clinical andrology was the International Journal of Andrology, established in 1978, which became the official journal of the European Academy of Andrology in 1992. In 1980 the American Society of Andrology launched the Journal of Andrology. In 2012, these two society journals merged into one premier journal in the field, named Andrology , with the first issue published in January 2013. [3]

See also

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Urology, also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs. Organs under the domain of urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs.

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Gynaecology Science of the treatment of diseases of the female sexual organs and reproductive tract

Gynaecology or gynecology is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive system. Outside medicine, the term means "the science of women". Its counterpart is andrology, which deals with medical issues specific to the male reproductive system.

Vasectomy surgical procedure for male sterilization

Vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization or permanent contraception. During the procedure, the male vasa deferentia are cut and tied or sealed so as to prevent sperm from entering into the urethra and thereby prevent fertilization of a female through sexual intercourse. Vasectomies are usually performed in a physician's office, medical clinic, or, when performed on an animal, in a veterinary clinic—hospitalization is not normally required as the procedure is not complicated, the incisions are small, and the necessary equipment routine.

Testicular cancer male sex reproductive system cancer that is located in the testicles

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Testicular self-examination

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Azoospermia male infertility disease characterized by the absence of any measurable level of sperm in semen

Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man whose semen contains no sperm. It is associated with infertility, but many forms are amenable to medical treatment. In humans, azoospermia affects about 1% of the male population and may be seen in up to 20% of male infertility situations in Canada.

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Testicular sperm extraction

Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is the surgical procedure of removing a small portion of tissue from the testicle and extracting any viable sperm cells from that tissue for use in further procedures, most commonly intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as part of in vitro fertilisation (IVF). TESE is often recommended to patients who cannot produce sperm by ejaculation due to azoospermia.

Reproductive medicine medicine dealing with prevention, diagnosis and management of reproductive problems

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health:

Sudhakar Krishnamurti, is a medical doctor, clinical andrologist, microsurgeon, and sexual medicine expert. He is director of the Andromeda Andrology Center, Hyderabad, India.

Urologic diseases or conditions include urinary tract infections, kidney stones, bladder control problems, and prostate problems, among others. Some urologic conditions do not affect a person for that long and some are lifetime conditions. Kidney diseases are normally investigated and treated by nephrologists, while the specialty of urology deals with problems in the other organs. Gynecologists may deal with problems of incontinence in women.

Vasectomy reversal is a term used for surgical procedures that reconnect the male reproductive tract after interruption by a vasectomy. Two procedures are possible at the time of vasectomy reversal: vasovasostomy and vasoepididymostomy. Although vasectomy is considered a permanent form of contraception, advances in microsurgery have improved the success of vasectomy reversal procedures. The procedures remain technically demanding and expensive, and may not restore the pre-vasectomy condition.

Paul J. Turek American medical researcher

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to obstetrics:

Raymond Costabile American academic

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Marc Goldstein, MD, DSc (hon), FACS is an American urologist and the Matthew P. Hardy Distinguished Professor of Reproductive Medicine, and Urology at Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University; Surgeon-in-Chief, Male Reproductive Medicine and Surgery; and Director of the Center of Male Reproductive Medicine and Microsurgery at the New York Presbyterian Hospital Weill Cornell Medical Center. He is Adjunct Senior Scientist with the Population Council's Center for Biomedical Research, located on the campus of Rockefeller University.

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  1. Thelander, Hulda E., and Mollie Cholffin. "Neonatal cortical insufficiency (Addison's disease) associated with the adrenogenital syndrome." The Journal of Pediatrics 18.6 (1941): 779-792.
  2. Social Studies of Science (1990) 20, p. 32
  3. Meistrich ML & Huhtaniemi IT (2012). "'ANDROLOGY'– The New Journal of the American Society of Andrology and the European Academy of Andrology". International Journal of Andrology. 35: 107-108. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01261.x.