Anerley

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Anerley
Anerley, Anerley Road - geograph.org.uk - 1745779.jpg
Anerley Road 2010
Greater London UK location map 2.svg
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Anerley
Location within Greater London
OS grid reference TQ345695
  Charing Cross 7.0 mi (11.3 km)  NNW
London borough
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district SE20
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°24′53″N0°04′01″W / 51.4147°N 0.067°W / 51.4147; -0.067 Coordinates: 51°24′53″N0°04′01″W / 51.4147°N 0.067°W / 51.4147; -0.067

Anerley ( /ˈænərli/ ) is an area of south east London, England, within the London Borough of Bromley. It is located 7 miles (11 km) south south-east of Charing Cross, to the south of Crystal Palace and Upper Norwood, west of Penge, north of Elmers End and South Norwood.

Contents

History

Origin and development

Anerley Hill road with the Crystal Palace AnerleyHill2.jpg
Anerley Hill road with the Crystal Palace

Anerley has never existed as an independent entity, but rather as a general area. Prior to the enclosure in 1827 and the relocation of the Crystal Palace to Penge Place at the top of Sydenham Hill, Anerley was an unoccupied part of Penge Common, and did not develop until the 19th century. The government Act of 1827 stipulated that a 50 feet (15 metres) wide, new road, was to be set out from Elmers End Road to what is now Church Road, Upper Norwood. [1] In 1827, a Scottish silk manufacturer named William Sanderson bought land on the former Penge Common and built the first house in the area, which he named "Anerly Lodge", a Scottish and Northern English dialect word meaning "solitary" or "only", [2] and the road subsequently became known as Anerley Road, also giving the name to the surrounding area. [1] [3] Sanderson's name is the first to appear in the first rate book, dated 18 June 1827, now held in the Anerley Town Hall. [1]

Canal and railway

Croydon Canal information board in Betts Park, Anerley Croydon Canal information board Betts Park, Anerley.jpg
Croydon Canal information board in Betts Park, Anerley

The Croydon Canal was opened on 22 October 1809, and passed through Anerley. The canal was a financial failure and lasted only 27 years, being sold to the London and Croydon Railway Company for £40,250. [4] London and Croydon Railway would use much of the former canal for the new railway line, with remnants in Betts Park in Anerley and in Dacres Wood, Sydenham. The railway deviated from the canal course entering a new cutting near what is now Anerley railway station (opened on 5 June 1839 and named initially as Annerley Bridge Station). William Sanderson made land available in return for the creation of the railway station adjacent to his house "Anerly". [1] [3] Isambard Kingdom Brunel built an atmospheric railway along this course in 1845, but it was short-lived. The inability to include points on an atmospheric railway resulted in the construction of flyovers one of which runs through Anerley between Crystal Palace railway station and Sydenham railway station. [5] A train collision occurred at Anerley on 5 October 1844 - 24 people were injured, although no fatalities occurred. [6] The driver was found to be at fault, along with a lack of tail lights. The report stated the following: "The second tram passed the Jolly Sailor Station (now Norwood Junction) about three minutes after the first, the green light being then exhibited there as a signal to go on with caution; and on approaching the Anerley Station, the engineman of this train observed a red light on the signal post, which was the signal to stop at that station; but not seeing the red light that ought to have been exhibited in the rear of the preceding train, he considered it was gone. and just as it was slowly quitting the station he ran into it, but with diminished speed" [7]

Anerley Gardens

Anerley Gardens, around 1860, Anerley Railway Station and The Crystal Palace can be seen in the Background Anerley Gardens2.jpg
Anerley Gardens, around 1860, Anerley Railway Station and The Crystal Palace can be seen in the Background
Admission Ticket to the Anerley Gardens Anerley Gardens Ticket.jpg
Admission Ticket to the Anerley Gardens
Anerley Town Hall built in 1878 Anerley Town Hall.jpg
Anerley Town Hall built in 1878
Anerley Station Road in 1900, Anerley Railway station can be seen on the left, the Anerley Arms can be seen on the extreme left, and the buildings on the right are still there to this day. Anerley Road 1900.jpg
Anerley Station Road in 1900, Anerley Railway station can be seen on the left, the Anerley Arms can be seen on the extreme left, and the buildings on the right are still there to this day.

Anerley Gardens opened in 1841, and provided entertainment to the growing 19th century leisure industry. [1] [3] With the new medium of rail travel and boasting its own station, Anerley become a desirable social venue, with regular dances, a boating lake, a Swiss cottage and a maze. [1] [4] The old Croydon Canal was also a popular destination for anglers. The pleasure gardens closed in 1868, due to competition from the nearby Crystal Palace. [1] After the closure of the gardens, The Anerley Arms, a hotel built in the Swiss-style which had catered to visitors, was rebuilt, and this building still stands next to the station. The present day Anerley Arms is referred to in the Sherlock Holmes story The Adventure of the Norwood Builder and celebrates its connection with the story.

1860 onwards

From the 1860s the residential area developed, grand Victorian houses were built along Anerley Road, and Anerley became part of the Parish of St Paul's, forming in 1861. [1] Anerley Vestry Hall (Anerley Town Hall) was built in 1878 for the sum of £4,341, to conduct public business for the area. [8] It became a Town Hall in 1900 as a result of the London Government Act 1899, when Anerley became part of the Penge Urban District of Kent. The Hall was enlarged in 1911 for the sum of £3,229 and contained offices, a public hall, the council chamber, committee rooms, and a petty sessional court which opened in 1925. [8] By the beginning of the 20th century, Anerley's heyday was over, with much of the grand Victorian houses being converted into flats, and by the middle of the century housing estates were constructed. [9] Anerley and Penge became part of the London Borough of Bromley in 1965. With the demise of the local government ward of Anerley, the name Anerley is mainly applied to the area in the proximity of the railway station, to the top of Anerley Hill Road and down to the Birkbeck station (not far from the traditional Kent-Surrey boundary). The postcode SE20 postcode district was officially named Anerley but covered Anerley, Penge and parts of Beckenham.

WWII

During World War II Anerley suffered extensive bomb damage, with five V1 rockets landing; a further six landed in Crystal Palace Park and a total of 23 in the whole SE20 district. [10] On 18 June 1944 it was reported a V1 Rocket was being chased by a Spitfire, and then shot down by AA gun fire. The shot down V1 fell upon Anerley Park near the junction of Anerley Road. Two people were killed and the damage to property were three houses destroyed with a further 20 houses severely damaged. [10] On 11 July 1944 the third V1 Rocket strike to hit Anerley landed on Anerley Road at the Junction with Crystal Palace railway station. People had heard the rocket cut out and ran for cover, with many failing to find any, resulting in 11 deaths. The shops on Station Road were totally destroyed, and on Anerley Road 18 shops were demolished, eight shops and seven houses severely damaged and 84 houses suffered minor damage. The Paxton Arms pub was also partially destroyed and would not re-open until 1955. [10] The last rocket would strike Anerley 24 August 1944.

Transport

Buses

Anerley is served by London buses routes N3, 75, 157, 197, 249, 354, 358 432 and bus 356. The 432 now terminates at Anerley Bus stand, behind the railway station on Anerley Station Road.

Road

Plan of Ringways 1, 2, 3 and 4 London Ringways Plan.png
Plan of Ringways 1, 2, 3 and 4

Two A roads, the A213 and A214 pass through the area. During the late 1960s and 1970s the A214 was to be part of the London Ringways project. The A214 was to become Ringway 2 and it would have passed through much of Anerley, and have followed the railway line from Birkbeck station and travelled north.[ citation needed ] The construction of the A214 into the planned London Motorways network (much like the A2 or Hammersmith flyover London section today), would have seen a lot of destruction of property in Anerley and a great increase in noise pollution. After much consultation and Government dithering the various London Ringway projects were cancelled, including the A214 section.

Rail

Trams

In the era of street trams, a tramway ran down Anerley Road, turning into Croydon Road. It joined the main tram network at West Croydon. In the early days a stationary engine was needed to haul trams up the steepest part of Anerley Hill. Later models were able to climb unassisted, but special gearing was designed exclusively for this route. The tramway was replaced by trolley buses on route 654 which operated until 1959. [11]

TFL had proposed the extension of Tramlink services from Harrington Road tram stop to the bus station on Crystal Palace Parade via Anerley Road, with a consultation exercise on the matter finishing in December 2006. [12] However the then Mayor of London Boris Johnson cancelled the £170 million extension in November 2008. [13]

Notable residents

Nearest places

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Crystal Palace, London</span> Residential area in London, England

Crystal Palace is an area in south London, England, named after the Crystal Palace Exhibition building, which stood in the area from 1854 until it was destroyed by fire in 1936. Approximately 7 miles (11 km) south-east of Charing Cross, it includes one of the highest points in London, at 367 feet (112 m), offering views over the capital. The area has no defined boundaries and straddles five London boroughs and three postal districts, although there is a Crystal Palace electoral ward and Crystal Palace Park in the London Borough of Bromley. It forms a part of the greater area known as Upper Norwood, and is contiguous with the areas of Anerley, Dulwich Wood, Gipsy Hill, Penge, South Norwood and Sydenham.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Penge</span> Human settlement in England

Penge is an area of South East London, England, in the London Borough of Bromley, 3.5 miles (5.6 km) west of Bromley, 3.7 miles (6.0 km) north east of Croydon and 7.1 miles (11.4 km) south east of Charing Cross.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sydenham, London</span> Human settlement in England

Sydenham is a district of south-east London, England, which is shared between the London boroughs of Lewisham, Bromley and Southwark. Prior to the creation of the County of London in 1889, Sydenham was located in Kent, bordering Surrey. Historically, the area was very affluent, with the Crystal Palace being relocated to Sydenham Hill in 1854. Today, Sydenham is a diverse area, with a population of 28,378 and borders Forest Hill, Dulwich, Crystal Palace, Penge, Beckenham, Catford and Bellingham.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">London Borough of Bromley</span> Borough in United Kingdom

The London Borough of Bromley is the southeasternmost of the London boroughs that make up Greater London, bordering the ceremonial county of Kent, which most of Bromley was part of before 1965. The borough's population is an estimated 332,336. It is named after Bromley, its principal town; other major towns are Penge, Hayes, West Wickham, Chislehurst, Beckenham and Orpington. The local authority is Bromley London Borough Council.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Upper Norwood</span> Area of south London

Upper Norwood is an area of south London, England, within the London Boroughs of Bromley, Croydon, Lambeth and Southwark. It is north of Croydon and the eastern part of it is better known as the Crystal Palace area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Crystal Palace railway station</span> National Rail station in London, England

Crystal Palace railway station is a Network Rail and London Overground station in the London Borough of Bromley in south London. It is located in the Anerley area between the town centres of Crystal Palace and Penge, 8 miles 56 chains (14.0 km) from London Victoria. It is one of two stations built to serve the site of the 1851 exhibition building, the Crystal Palace, when it was moved from Hyde Park to Sydenham Hill after 1851.

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Birkbeck is a railway station and light rail stop in the London Borough of Bromley in the southern suburbs of London. On the rail network it is 10 miles 26 chains (16.6 km) measured from London Victoria. It is located on Elmers End Road (A214) and alongside Beckenham Crematorium.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Penge West railway station</span> National rail station in London, England

Penge West railway station is located in Penge, a district of the London Borough of Bromley in south London. The station is operated by London Overground, with Overground and Southern trains serving the station. Thameslink and some Southern services pass through the station. It is 7 miles 15 chains down the line from London Bridge, in Travelcard Zone 4.

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Penge Common was an area of north east Surrey and north west Kent which now forms part of London, England; covering most of Penge, all of Anerley, and parts of surrounding suburbs including South Norwood. It abutted the Great North Wood and John Rocque's 1745 map of London and its environs showed that Penge Common now included part of that wood.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sydenham Hill</span> Affluent locality in southeast London

Sydenham Hill forms part of a longer ridge and is an affluent locality in southeast London. It is also the name of a road which runs along the northeastern part of the ridge, demarcating the London Boroughs of Southwark, Bromley, and Lewisham. Its highest part is the apex of the Boroughs of Southwark and Lewisham and the 15th-highest peak in London, at 367 feet (112 m).

The West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway (WELCPR) was an early railway company in south London between Crystal Palace station and Wandsworth, which was opened in 1856. The line was extended in 1858 to a station at Battersea Wharf near the bridge to Pimlico. Throughout its brief existence the railway was operated by the London Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) to which it was leased in 1858 and sold in 1859. This relatively short line was of considerable importance to the history of railways of south London as it was the first line to create a corridor from the south and east towards Westminster and led to the development of London Victoria railway station.

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References

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Sources