Anglesey

Last updated

Isle of Anglesey
Ynys Môn
Island
View from the Anglesey Coastal Path (geograph 6222502).jpg
View from the Anglesey Coastal Path
Arms of Isle of Anglesey County Council.svg
Isle of Anglesey UK location map.svg
Sovereign StateUnited Kingdom
Constituent Country Wales
County Council Isle of Anglesey
Preserved County Gwynedd
Admin HQ Llangefni
Largest town Holyhead
Government
  Type Isle of Anglesey County Council
  ControlPlaid Cymru/Independent Coalition
   Member of Parliament Virginia Crosbie, Con
   Member of Senedd Rhun ap Iorwerth, PC
  Council LeaderCllr Llinos Medi Huws, PC
Area
  Total276 sq mi (714 km2)
Area rank 9th
Population
 (2017)
  Total70,043
  Rank 20th
  Density250/sq mi (98/km2)
  Density rank 17th
  Ethnicity
98.1% White
Welsh language
  Rank 2nd
  Any skills70.4%
Geocode 00NA (ONS)
W06000001 (GSS)
ISO 3166 code GB-AGY
Website www.anglesey.gov.uk

Anglesey ( /ˈæŋɡəls/ ; Welsh : Ynys Môn [ˈənɨs ˈmoːn] ), an island off the north-west coast of Wales, forms a principal area (Isle of Anglesey) and historic county. It includes Holy Island across the narrow Cymyran Strait, and also some islets and skerries. [1] Anglesey island, at 260 square miles (673 km2), is the largest in Wales, the seventh largest in the British Isles, largest in the Irish Sea and second most populous there after the Isle of Man. The area run by Isle of Anglesey County Council measures 276 square miles (715 km2), [2] with a 2011 census population of 69,751, [3] including 13,659 on Holy Island. The Menai Strait between Anglesey and mainland Wales is spanned by the Menai Suspension Bridge, designed by Thomas Telford in 1826, and the Britannia Bridge, built in 1850 and replaced in 1980. The largest town is Holyhead on Holy Island, whose port handles over two million passengers a year to and from Ireland. [4] The next largest is Llangefni, the county council seat. From 1974 to 1996 Anglesey was part of Gwynedd. [5] Most inhabitants are habitual Welsh speakers. [6] The name Ynys Môn is used for the UK Parliament and Senedd (Welsh Parliament) constituencies. The island postcodes are LL58–LL78.

Contents

Name

Ordnance Survey map of Anglesey Anglesey OS map.png
Ordnance Survey map of Anglesey

The English name of the island may be derived from the Old Norse; either Ǫngullsey "Hook Island" [7] or Ǫnglisey "Ǫngli's Island". [7] [8] No record of such an Ǫngli survives, [9] but the placename was used by Viking raiders as early as the 10th century and was later adopted by the Normans during their invasions of Gwynedd. [10] The traditional folk etymology reading the name as the "Island of the Angles (English)" [11] [12] may account for its Norman use but has no merit, [8] but the Angles' name itself is probably a cognate reference to the shape of the Angeln peninsula. All of them ultimately derive from the proposed Proto-Indo-European root *ank- ("to flex, bend, angle"). [13] Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries and into the 20th, it was usually spelt Anglesea in documents. [11]

Ynys Môn, the island's Welsh name, was first recorded as Latin Mona by various Roman sources. [14] [15] [16] It was likewise known to the Saxons as Monez. [17] The Brittonic original was in the past taken to have meant "Island of the Cow". [11] [18] This view is untenable according to modern scientific philology, and the etymology remains a mystery.

Poetic names for Anglesey include the Old Welsh Ynys Dywyll (Shady or Dark Isle) for its former groves and Ynys y Cedairn (Isle of the Brave) for its royal courts; [12] Gerald of Wales' Môn Mam Cymru ("Môn, Mother of Wales") for its productivity[ clarification needed ]; [12] and Y fêl Ynys (Honey Isle).

History

John Speed's map of Anglesey, 1607 John Speed Anglesey.jpg
John Speed's map of Anglesey, 1607

There are numerous megalithic monuments and menhirs on Anglesey, testifying to the presence of humans in prehistory. Plas Newydd is near one of 28 cromlechs that remain on uplands overlooking the sea. The Welsh Triads claim that Anglesey was once part of the mainland. [11]

Plas Newydd Plas Newydd Anglesey House NW view.jpg
Plas Newydd

Historically, Anglesey has long been associated with the druids. The Roman conquest of Anglesey began in AD 60 when the Roman general Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, determined to break the power of the druids, attacked the island using his amphibious Batavian contingent as a surprise vanguard assault [19] and then destroying the shrine and the nemeta (sacred groves). News of Boudica's revolt reached him just after his victory, causing him to withdraw his army before consolidating his conquest. The island was finally brought into the Roman Empire by Gnaeus Julius Agricola, the Roman governor of Britain, in AD 78. During the Roman occupation, the area was notable for the mining of copper. The foundations of Caer Gybi, a fort in Holyhead, are Roman, and the present road from Holyhead to Llanfairpwllgwyngyll was originally a Roman road. [20] The island was grouped by Ptolemy with Ireland ("Hibernia") rather than with Britain ("Albion"). [21]

British Iron Age and Roman sites have been excavated and coins and ornaments discovered, especially by the 19th-century antiquarian William Owen Stanley. [22] After the Roman departure from Britain in the early 5th century, pirates from Ireland colonised Anglesey and the nearby Llŷn Peninsula. In response to this, Cunedda ap Edern, a Gododdin warlord from Scotland, came to the area and began to drive the Irish out. This was continued by his son Einion Yrth ap Cunedda and grandson Cadwallon Lawhir ap Einion; the last Irish invaders were finally defeated in battle in 470. As an island, Anglesey was in a good defensive position, and so Aberffraw became the site of the court, or Llys, of the Kingdom of Gwynedd. Apart from a devastating Danish raid in 853 it remained the capital until the 13th century, when improvements to the English navy made the location indefensible. Anglesey was also briefly the most southerly possession of the Norwegian Empire.

After the Irish, the island was invaded by Vikings — some of the raids were noted in famous sagas (see Menai Strait History) — and by Saxons, and Normans, before falling to Edward I of England in the 13th century.

Anglesey (with Holy Island) is one of the 13 historic counties of Wales. In medieval times, before the conquest of Wales in 1283, Môn often had periods of temporary independence, when frequently bequeathed to the heirs of kings as a sub-kingdom of Gwynedd. The last times this occurred were a few years after 1171, after the death of Owain Gwynedd, when the island was inherited by Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd, and between 1246 and about 1255, when it was granted to Owain Goch as his share of the kingdom. After the conquest of Wales by Edward I, Anglesey became a county under the terms of the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284. Hitherto it had been divided into the cantrefi of Aberffraw, Rhosyr and Cemaes.

20th century

During the First World War, the Presbyterian minister and celebrity preacher John Williams toured the island as part of an effort to recruit young men to volunteer for a just war. [23] The island's location made it an ideal place to monitor German U-Boats operating in the Irish Sea. Some half a dozen airships operated out of Mona airfield to monitor submarine activity. [23] German POWs were kept on the island. [23] By the end of the war, some 1,000 of the island's men had died while on active service. [23]

In 1936 the NSPCC opened its first branch on Anglesey. [24]

During the Second World War, Anglesey received Italian POWs. [23] The island was designated a reception zone, and was home to evacuee children from Liverpool and Manchester. [23]

In 1971, an 100,000 ton per annum aluminum smelter was opened here by Rio Tinto Zinc Corporation, British Insulated Calenders' Cables and the Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation as a 30 per cent partner. [25]

In 1974, Anglesey became a district of the new large county of Gwynedd. The Local Government (Wales) Act 1994 abolished the 1974 county and the five districts on 1 April 1996. Anglesey became a separate unitary authority. In 2011, the Welsh Government appointed a panel of commissioners to administer the council, thus the elected members were not in control. The commissioners remained in control until an election was held in May 2013, restoring an elected Council. Before the period of direct administration, there had been a majority of independent councillors. Though members did not generally divide along party lines, these were organised into five non-partisan groups on the council, containing a mix of party and independent candidates. The position remains substantially unchanged since the election, although the Labour Party has formed a governing coalition with the independents.

The principal offices of the Isle of Anglesey County Council are in Llangefni, the county town. [26]

Geography

Britannia Bridge from the east along the Menai Strait Britannia Bridge Train crossing 3.jpg
Britannia Bridge from the east along the Menai Strait

Anglesey is a low-lying island with low hills spaced evenly over the north of the island. The highest six are Holyhead Mountain, 220 metres (720 ft); Mynydd Bodafon, 178 metres (584 ft); Mynydd Llaneilian, 177 metres (581 ft); Mynydd y Garn, 170 metres (560 ft); Bwrdd Arthur, 164 metres (538 ft); and Mynydd Llwydiarth, 158 metres (518 ft). To the south and south-east, the island is divided from the Welsh mainland by the Menai Strait, which at its narrowest point is about 250 metres (270 yd) wide. In all other directions the island is surrounded by the Irish Sea. At 714 km2 (276 sq mi), it is the 52nd largest island of Europe and just five km (3.1 mi) smaller than Singapore.

There are several scattered small towns making it quite evenly populated. The largest are Holyhead, Llangefni, Benllech, Menai Bridge, and Amlwch. Beaumaris (Welsh: Biwmares), in the east, features Beaumaris Castle, built by Edward I as part of his Bastide Town campaign in North Wales. Beaumaris is a yachting centre, with many boats moored in the bay or off Gallows Point. The village of Newborough (Welsh: Niwbwrch), in the south, created when the townsfolk of Llanfaes were relocated for the building of Beaumaris Castle, includes the site of Llys Rhosyr, another of the courts of the medieval Welsh princes, featuring one of the oldest courtrooms in the United Kingdom. Llangefni, located centrally, is the island's administrative centre. The town of Menai Bridge (Welsh: Porthaethwy) in the south-east, expanded when the first bridge to the mainland was being built, to accommodate workers and construction. Until then, Porthaethwy had been one of the main ferry crossing points from the mainland. A short distance from this town lies Bryn Celli Ddu, a Stone Age burial mound.

Nearby is the village with the longest name in Europe, Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch, and Plas Newydd, ancestral home of the Marquesses of Anglesey. The town of Amlwch is situated in the north-east of the island and was once largely industrialised, having grown in the 18th century to support a major copper-mining industry at Parys Mountain.

Trwyn Du Lighthouse Penmon Lighthouse off Anglesey.jpg
Trwyn Du Lighthouse
Anglesey coast Anglesey Coast - geograph.org.uk - 1367265.jpg
Anglesey coast
Menai Bridge Menai Bridge - Anglesey August 2009 (3834581170).jpg
Menai Bridge

Other villages and settlements include Cemaes, Pentraeth, Gaerwen, Dwyran, Bodedern, Malltraeth and Rhosneigr. The Anglesey Sea Zoo is a local tourist attraction, providing a descriptive look[ clarification needed ] at local marine wildlife from common lobsters to congers. All fish and crustaceans on display are caught around the island and placed in reconstructions of their habitat. The zoo also breeds lobsters commercially for food and oysters, for pearls, both from local stocks. Sea salt (Halen Môn, evaporated from local sea water), now produced in a modern facility nearby, was formerly made at the Sea Zoo site.

There are a few natural lakes, mostly in the west, such as Llyn Llywenan, the largest on the island, Llyn Coron, and Cors Cerrig y Daran, but rivers are few and small. There are two large water supply reservoirs operated by Welsh Water. These are Llyn Alaw to the north of the island and Llyn Cefni in the centre of the island, which is fed by the headwaters of the Afon Cefni.

The climate is humid (though much less so than neighbouring mountainous Gwynedd) and generally equable thanks to the Gulf Stream. The land is of variable quality and was probably much more fertile in the past. Anglesey has the northernmost olive grove in Europe and presumably in the world. [27]

Coastal path

The coastline has been classed as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, with many sandy beaches, notably along its east coast between Beaumaris and Amlwch and west coast from Ynys Llanddwyn through Rhosneigr to the bays around Carmel Head. The north coast has sharp cliffs with small bays [28] The Anglesey Coastal Path outlining the island is 124 miles (200 km) long and touches 20 towns/villages. The starting point is St Cybi's Church, Holyhead. [29]

Economy

Tourism is now the major economic activity. Agriculture comes second, with local dairies being some of the most productive in the region.[ citation needed ]

Major industry is restricted to Holyhead (Caergybi), which until 30 September 2009 supported an aluminium smelter, and the Amlwch area, once a copper mining town. Nearby stood Wylfa Nuclear Power Station and a former bromine extraction plant. With construction starting in 1963, the two Wylfa reactors began producing electricity in 1971. One reactor was decommissioned in 2012 and the other in 2015. Plans were developed for a replacement, planned by Horizon, a subsidiary of Hitachi, to start production in the 2020s. [30] Though enthusiastically endorsed by Anglesey Council and Welsh Assembly members, protesters have raised doubts about its economic and safety claims, [31] and in January 2019 Hitachi announced it was putting development on hold, which meant its future was in serious doubt. [32]

Anglesey has three wind farms on land. [33] There were plans to install tidal flow turbines near The Skerries off the north coast, [34] and for a major biomass plant on Holy Island (Ynys Gybi). Developing such low-carbon-energy assets to their full potential forms part of the Anglesey Energy Island project. [35] [ needs update ]

When the aluminium smelter closed in September 2009, it cut its workforce from 450 to 80, as a major blow to the island's economy, especially to Holyhead. The Royal Air Force station RAF Valley (Y Fali) holds the RAF Fast Jet Training School and 22 Sqn Search and Rescue Helicopters, both units providing employment to about 500 civilians. RAF Valley is now the 22 Sqn Search and Rescue headquarters.

There is a range of smaller industries, mostly in industrial and business parks such as Llangefni and Gaerwen, including an abattoir, fine chemical manufacturing, and factories for timber production, aluminium smelting, fish farming and food processing.[ citation needed ] The island is on one of the main road routes from Britain to Ireland, via ferries from Holyhead on Holy Island to Dún Laoghaire and Dublin Port.

Ecology and conservation

Much of Anglesey is used for relatively intensive cattle and sheep farming. However, several important wetland sites have protected status, and the several lakes all have significant ecological interest, including support for a wide range of aquatic and semi-aquatic bird species. In the west, the Malltraeth Marshes are believed to support an occasional visiting bittern, and the nearby estuary of the Afon Cefni has a bird population made internationally famous by the paintings of Charles Tunnicliffe, who lived and died at Malltraeth on the Cefni estuary. The RAF airstrip at Mona is a nesting site for skylarks. The sheer cliff faces at South Stack near Holyhead provide nesting sites for huge numbers of auks, including puffins, razorbills and guillemots, along with choughs and peregrine falcons. Anglesey holds several tern species including the roseate tern. Three sites on Anglesey are important for breeding them – see Anglesey tern colonies.

There are marked occurrences of the Juncus subnodulosusCirsium palustre fen-meadow plant association, a habitat marked by certain hydrophilic grasses, sedges and forbs. [36]

Anglesey supports two of the UK's few remaining colonies of red squirrels, at Pentraeth and Newborough. [37] [ better source needed ]

Almost the entire coastline of Anglesey is designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) to protect the aesthetic appeal and variety of the island's coastal landscape and habitats from inappropriate development. The coastal zone of Anglesey was designated as an AONB in 1966 and confirmed as such in 1967.[ citation needed ]

The AONB is predominantly a coastal designation covering most of Anglesey's 125 miles (201 km) coastline but encompasses Holyhead Mountain and Mynydd Bodafon. Substantial areas of other land protected by the AONB form the backdrop to the coast. The AONB is about 221 sq. m (85 sq mi) and is the largest in Wales, covering a third of the island.

A number of Anglesey habitats gain still greater protection through UK and European designations of their nature conservation value. These include:

These support a variety of wildlife, such as harbour porpoises and marsh fritillary.

The AONB also takes in three sections of open, undeveloped coastline designated as Heritage Coast. These non-statutory designations complement the AONB and cover about 31 miles (50 km) of the coastline. The sections are:

  1. North Anglesey 28.6 km (17.8 mi)
  2. Holyhead Mountain 12.9 km (8.0 mi)
  3. Aberffraw Bay 7.7 km (4.8 mi)

Popular recreations include sailing, angling, cycling, walking, wind surfing and jet skiing. They place pressures and demands on the AONB, while contributing to the local economy. [38]

Abandoned nuclear plan

On 17 January 2019, Hitachi-Horizon Nuclear Power announced it was abandoning plans to build a nuclear plant on the Wylfa Newydd site in Anglesey. There had been concern that the start of the project might involve too much public expenditure, but Hitachi-Horizon say the decision to scrap has cost the company over £2 billion. [39] [40] [41] [42]

Ynys Llanddwyn, old lighthouse with Snowdonia in background. Ynys Llanddwyn old light.pg.jpg
Ynys Llanddwyn, old lighthouse with Snowdonia in background.

Culture

Anglesey hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1957, 1983, 1999, and 2017.

It is also a member of the International Island Games Association. Anglesey's biggest successes were at the 1997 Island Games held in Jersey, (11th in the medals table, with two gold, three silver and nine bronze medals) and the 2005 Island Games in the Shetland Islands, (again 11th, with 4 gold, 2 silver and 2 bronze).

The annual Anglesey Show is held on the second Tuesday and Wednesday of August. Farmers from around the country compete in livestock rearing contests, including sheep and cattle. Other events have included the Channel 4 archaeological television programme Time Team (series 14), transmitted on 4 February 2007, and Gottwood, an electronic music and arts festival held each summer at the Carreglwyd estate.

The Druidic college at Anglesey is referred to in the metal band Eluveitie's song "Inis Mona", an incorrect spelling of Ynys Môn.

Capital Cymru, a commercial contemporary hit radio station, also covers Gwynedd. Môn FM, a volunteer community radio station, broadcasts from the county town, Llangefni.

In 2017 filming took place for the Netflix TV series Free Rein . Scenes from there were used in all three series. Locations included Newborough Warren and Beaumaris Pier [43] In 2018, the BBC began a three-part series entitled Anglesey: Island Lives, detailing the lives of several residents of the island. In the first episode, Kris Hughes, a noted companion of the Druid community and the Anglesey Druid Order, was followed as the order marked the Summer Solstice. [44]

Welsh language

Anglesey is a stronghold of the Welsh language. According to the 2011 census it was the local authority with the second highest proportion of Welsh speakers. The earlier percentages were these:

Today, Welsh is less widely used, but remains the dominant language in some areas, particularly in the centre, including Llangefni and some parts of the south coast. The island's five secondary schools vary widely in the proportions of their pupils from predominantly Welsh-speaking homes, and in those who can speak Welsh:

Geology

The geology of Anglesey is complex and frequently targeted for geology field trips by schools and colleges. Younger strata in Anglesey rest upon a foundation of old Precambrian rocks that appear at the surface in four areas:

  1. a western region including Holyhead and Llanfaethlu [11]
  2. a central area about Aberffraw and Trefdraeth [11]
  3. an eastern region which includes Newborough, [11] Gaerwen and Pentraeth
  4. a coastal region at Glyn Garth between Menai Bridge and Beaumaris [11]

These rocks are schists and phyllites, often contorted and disturbed. The general line of strike of the formations in the island is from north-east to south-west. [11] } A belt of granitic rocks lies just north-west of the central Precambrian mass, reaching from Llanfaelog near the coast to the vicinity of Llanerchymedd. Between this granite and the Precambrian of Holyhead is a narrow tract of Ordovician slates and grits with Llandovery beds in places; this tract spreads out in the north of the island between Dulas Bay and Carmel Point.[ citation needed ] A small patch of Ordovician strata lies on the northern side of Beaumaris. In parts, these Ordovician rocks are much folded, crushed and metamorphosed, and associated with schists and altered volcanic rocks which are probably Precambrian. Between the eastern and central Precambrian masses carboniferous rocks are found. Carboniferous limestone occupies a broad area south of Lligwy Bay and Pentraeth, and sends a narrow spur in a south-westerly direction by Llangefni to Malltraeth Sands. It is underlain on the north-west by a red basement conglomerate and yellow sandstone (sometimes considered to be of Old Red Sandstone age). Limestone occurs again on the north coast around Llanfihangel and Llangoed; and in the south-west round Llanidan near the Menai Strait. Puffin Island is made of carboniferous limestone. Malltraeth Marsh is occupied by Coal Measures, and a small patch of the same formation appears near Tal-y-foel Ferry on the Menai Strait. A patch of rhyolitic/felsitic rocks form Parys Mountain, where copper and iron ochre have been worked. Serpentine (Mona Marble) is found near Llanfair-yn-Neubwll and upon the opposite shore in Holyhead. [11] Anglesey is the only part of the UK to have sediments from the Middle Miocene. [49]

Under the name GeoMôn , in recognition of its extraordinary geological heritage, the island gained membership of the European Geoparks Network in spring 2009. [50] and the Global Geoparks Network in September 2010.

Landmarks

South Stack lighthouse South Stack Lighthouse Anglesey.jpg
South Stack lighthouse

Notable people

Born in Anglesey

Lived in Anglesey

Schools

Secondary schools:

There are 50 primary, all co-educational day schools. [52]

Transport

Anglesey is linked to the mainland by the Britannia Bridge, carrying the A55 from Holyhead, and the Menai Suspension Bridge, carrying the A5 trunk road. The A5025 round the northern edge of Anglesey and the A4080 round the southern edge form a ring.

The six railway stations are Holyhead, Valley, Rhosneigr, Ty Croes, Bodorgan and Llanfairpwll. All are on the North Wales Coast Line, with services operated by Avanti West Coast to London Euston, and by Transport for Wales Rail to Chester, Manchester Piccadilly, Birmingham New Street and Cardiff Central. Historically the island was also served by the Anglesey Central Railway which ran from Gaerwen to Amlwch, and the Red Wharf Bay branch line between Holland Arms railway station and Red Wharf Bay.

By air, Anglesey Airport has a twice-daily scheduled service to Cardiff Airport, where connections worldwide can be made.

The ferry port of Holyhead handles over two million passengers a year. Stena Line and Irish Ferries sail to Dublin and previously to Dún Laoghaire in Ireland, forming the main surface transport link from central and northern England and Wales to Ireland.

Sport and leisure

Anglesey is independently represented in the Island Games (as Ynys Môn). The team finished joint 17th in the 2009 Games hosted by Åland, [53] winning medals in gymnastics, sailing and shooting. [54]

Anglesey made an unsuccessful bid to host the 2009 games, led by Ynys Môn MP Albert Owen. It was expected to benefit from more than £3m of spending if it had hosted the event. However, Anglesey currently lacks two needful facilities: a six-lane competition swimming pool and an athletics track. [55]

Several precursors to the modern football codes were popular in Anglesey. They had few rules, and were quite violent. Rhys Cox, at the turn of the 18th century, described a game in Llandrygan as ending with "numbers of players... left here and there on the road, some having limbs broken in the struggle, others severely injured, and some carried on biers to be buried in the churchyard nearest to where they had been mortally injured." William Bulkeley, in his April 1734 diary, records that the violence of such games left no hard feelings, with both sides parting "as good friends as they came, after they had spent half an hour together cherishing their spirits with a cup of ale... having finished Easter Holydays innocently and merrily." [56]

Association football

Football arrived in the 1870s. It was initially met with resistance, given its locally perceived associations with drunkenness and rowdiness and the lower classes. One critic called it as "un-Christian practice". The Anglesey League of teams from Amlwch, Beaumaris, Holyhead, Menai Bridge, Llandegfan, and Llangefni was formed in the 1895–96 season. [57] The league folded in 2020 and was replaced by the North Wales Coast West Football League.

The Ynys Môn football team represent the island of Anglesey at the biannual Island Games, winning gold in 1999. In 2018, the island was chosen to host the 2019 Inter Games Football Tournament, where the men's team won gold and the women's team won silver.

For the aborted 2020–21 season, Llangefni Town and Holyhead Hotspur were due to play in the Cymru North league, the second tier of the Welsh football league system, after winning the Welsh Alliance League two years before. There were due to be nine Anglesey sides in the same season's fourth tier North Wales Coast West Football League Premier Division: Aberffraw, Amlwch Town, Bodedern Athletic, Bro Goronwy, Gaerwen, Gwalchmai, Menai Bridge Tigers, Pentraeth and Trearddur Bay Bulls. There are a further nine teams in Division One.

Rugby Union

Llangefni RFC is the island's highest competing team in the WRU Division One North.

Llangoed hosts an annual rugby sevens contest. Touring sides have included Manhattan RFC.

Anglesey Hunt

The Anglesey Hunt, formed in 1757, was the second oldest fox hunting association in Wales (the oldest being the Tivyside Hunt in Cardiganshire). [58]

Athletics

Every September the Anglesey Festival of Running includes a marathon, a half-marathon, 10-km and 5–km races, and children's contests. Its slogan is Run the Island. There are at present no 400-metre, all-weather, synthetic tracks on the island, the nearest on being between Bangor and the Britannia Bridge on the mainland.

Motorsport

The Anglesey Circuit (Welsh: Trac Môn) is a licensed MSA and ACU championship racing circuit that opened in 1997.

Cricket

The Beaumaris Cricket Club was formed in 1858. Clubs at Holyhead, Amlwch and Llangefni were formed within the following decade, but it was not until the 1880s that the sport became popular outside the upper classes. Bodedern Cricket Club was formed in 1947. [57]

Sailing

The Royal Anglesey Yacht Club hosts the Menai Strait Regatta yearly.

Swimming

The Menai Strait hosts two annual open-water swimming contests: the Menai Strait Swim from Foel to Caernarfon (1 mile), and the Pier to Pier Open Water Swim, between Beaumaris and Garth Pier, Bangor. There is a 25-metre pool on the island at Plas Arthur Leisure Centre in Llangefni.

See also

Notes

  1. "Sir Ynys Mon – Isle of Anglesey". Ordnance Survey . Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  2. "Anglesey Nature introduction" . Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  3. "Local Authority population 2011". Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  4. C. Michael Hogan (2011). "Irish Sea". In P. Saundry; C. Cleveland (eds.). Encyclopedia of Earth. Washington, D. C.: National Council for Science and the Environment.
  5. National Archives of the United Kingdom. Local Government (Wales) Act 1994, Schedule 1: The New Principal Areas. Accessed 6 February 2013.
  6. "Background Paper 10B: Anglesey Language Profile" (PDF). Gwynedd Council. February 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  7. 1 2 Lena Peterson, et al. Nordiskt runnamnslexikon Archived 2011-08-26 at WebCite (Dictionary of Names from Runic Inscriptions), p. 116, May 2001. Accessed 6 June 2012.
  8. 1 2 Room, Adrian. Placenames of the World , p. 30. McFarland, 2003. Accessed 6 February 2013.
  9. Warren Kovach Anglesey, Wales. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  10. Davies, John. A History of Wales, pp. 98–99.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Chisholm 1911, pp. 17–18.
  12. 1 2 3 The London Encyclopaedia. "Anglesey". Tegg (London), 1839. Accessed 6 February 2013.
  13. University of Texas at Austin's Linguistics Research Center.Proto-Indo-European Etyma 9.14 Archived March 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine : Physical Acts & Materials: to Bend". 17 May 2011. Accessed 6 February 2013.
  14. Tacitus. Annals , XIV.29. and Agricola , XIV.14 & 18. Accessed 6 April 2013.
  15. Pliny. Natural History , IV.30. Accessed 6 April 2013.
  16. Cassius Dio. Roman History, 62.
  17. The Present State of the British Empire in Europe, America, Africa, and Asia. Wales. Anglesea. Griffith (London), 1768.
  18. Davies, Edward. The Mythology and Rites of the British Druids , p. 177. Booth (London), 1809. Accessed 6 February 2013.
  19. Tacitus Agricola 18.3–5.
  20. Chisholm, Hugh (1910). The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. Encyclopædia Britannica Company. p.  18.
  21. Ptolemy, Geog. , Bk. 2, Ch. 1 & 2
  22. Stanley, Anglesey, 1871, and many Celtic contributions, especially on Celtic subjects, to Archaeologia Cambrensis .
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Devine, Darren (15 February 2012). "Anglesey during the First World War and Second World War". walesonline. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  24. A Years' Work of the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, Annual Report for 1936-1937, adopted by the Council and Corporation, May 28, 1937, London, p. 12.
  25. Lee, John M. (29 May 1971). "British Aluminum Debut Faces World Glut". The New York Times Company.
  26. Davies, John; Jenkins, Nigel; Baines, Menna; Llynch, Peredur (2008). The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. p. 494. ISBN   978-0-7083-1953-6.
  27. "First Welsh olive grove planted on Anglesey". WalesOnline. 30 April 2007. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  28. "40 years of outstanding natural beauty". Welsh Government. 13 December 2007. Archived from the original on 24 September 2006. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  29. "Visit Anglesey – Home". Visit Anglesey. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  30. Damian Carrington (4 December 2013). "Renewables industry welcomes reduced subsidies for onshore windfarms". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  31. Anglesey protest over plans for new nuclear power plant BBC News, 30 March 2014
  32. "Hitachi's Wylfa nuclear project pause 'tremendous blow'". BBC News. 17 January 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  33. Anglesey Today: Energy accessed 15 April 2014
  34. SeaGen Wales accessed 15 April 2014
  35. Energy Island Programme Archived 2014-02-22 at the Wayback Machine , accessed 15 April 2014.
  36. "Home – Squirrels Map". Squirrels Map. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  37. "Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty". Pixaerial: North Wales from the Air. Archived from the original on 18 February 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2006.
  38. Vaughan, Adam (17 January 2019). "Hitachi scraps £16bn nuclear power station in Wales" via www.theguardian.com.
  39. Hitachi-Horizon Nuclear Power Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  40. Vaughan, Adam (9 April 2018). "Plans for Welsh nuclear power plant delayed by concerns over seabirds" via www.theguardian.com.
  41. "UK and Japan look at public finance for Wylfa nuclear plant" . Financial Times.
  42. "Everything you need to know about Free Rein - the Netflix drama being filmed in North Wales". 27 September 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  43. BBC One site. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  44. 1 2 "Language spoken in Wales, 1911". www.histpop.org. p. iv. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  45. "Welsh Language and Culture - Gwynedd Council report" (PDF). gwynedd.gov.uk.
  46. "Linguistic progression and standards of Welsh in ten bilingual schools - November 2014 - Estyn". www.estyn.gov.wales. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  47. "Ysgol Uwchradd Bodedern Estyn Report 2014" (PDF). Estyn. Retrieved 28 October 2016.[ permanent dead link ]
  48. Pound, Matthew J.; McCoy, Jessica (15 April 2021). "Palaeoclimate reconstruction and age assessment of the Miocene flora from the Trwyn y Parc solution pipe complex of Anglesey, Wales, UK". Palynology. 0: 1–21. doi:10.1080/01916122.2021.1916636.
  49. "GeoMôn – Anglesey Geopark" . Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  50. "Stone Science Museum - Fossils & Dinosaurs - Anglesey North Wales". Stone Science Museum Anglesey.
  51. Isle of Anglesey County Council, Serving Anglesey Archived May 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  52. "NatWest Island Games XIII – Medal Table" . Retrieved 28 August 2010.
  53. "NatWest Island Games XIII – Ynys Môn Medal Winners" . Retrieved 28 August 2010.
  54. Clark, Rhodri. "Out of the running for island 'Olympics'". Western Mail. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  55. ETBRS (2005b).
  56. 1 2 Pretty (2005).
  57. ETBRS (2005a).

Related Research Articles

Holy Island, Anglesey

Holy Island is an island on the western side of the larger Isle of Anglesey, Wales, from which it is separated by the Cymyran Strait. It is called "Holy" because of the high concentration of standing stones, burial chambers, and other religious sites on the small island. The alternative English name of the island is Holyhead Island. According to the 2011 UK Census, the population was 13,659, of which 11,431 (84%) lived in the largest town, Holyhead.

Llangefni Human settlement in Wales

Llangefni is the county town of Anglesey in Wales and contains the principal offices of the Isle of Anglesey County Council. United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded Llangefni's population as 5,116 people, making it the second largest settlement in the county. The community includes the village of Rhosmeirch.

Amlwch Human settlement in Wales

Amlwch is the most northerly town in Wales and is a community. It is situated on the north coast of the Isle of Anglesey, on the A5025 which connects it to Holyhead and to Menai Bridge. As well as Amlwch town and Amlwch Port, other settlements within the community include Burwen, Porthllethog/Bull Bay and Pentrefelin. The town has a beach in Llaneilian, and it has significant coastal cliffs. Tourism is an important element of the local economy. At one time it was a booming mining town that became the centre of a vast global trade in copper ore. The harbour inlet became a busy port and significant shipbuilding and ship repair centre, as well as an embarkation point with boats sailing to the Isle of Man and to Liverpool. The community covers an area of about 18 square kilometres.

Bangor railway station (Wales) Railway station in Gwynedd, Wales

Bangor railway station is a railway station in Bangor, Gwynedd, operated by Transport for Wales Rail Limited. The station, which is 24+34 miles (40 km) east of Holyhead, is the last mainland station on the North Wales Coast line between Crewe and Holyhead. It is the busiest in terms of passenger numbers in North Wales, as it serves the community around Caernarfon and further west, it is close to the Snowdonia National Park and Bangor University, and has an interchange with bus services to the various towns and villages of northern/western Gwynedd and Anglesey.

The Anglesey Football League was a football league in Anglesey, Wales, and was equivalent to the sixth level of the Welsh football league system in North Wales. The champions were promoted to the Gwynedd League.

Anglesey Coastal Path

The Anglesey Coastal Path is a 200-kilometre (124 mi) long-distance footpath around the island of Anglesey in North Wales. The route is part of the Wales Coast Path.

Isle of Anglesey County Council Welsh County Council

The Isle of Anglesey County Council is the governing body for the county of Anglesey, one of the unitary authority areas of Wales. The council has 30 councillors who represent 11 multi-member electoral wards.

The Gwynedd Football League was a football league at the fifth level of the Welsh football league system in north-west Wales.

Ysgol David Hughes Comprehensive school in Menai Bridge, Isle of Anglesey, Wales

Ysgol David Hughes is a bilingual secondary school on Anglesey, Wales. The school building was completed and opened in Menai Bridge in 1963 by Anglesey County Council which, ten years earlier, had become the first education authority in the UK to adopt non-selective comprehensive education.

The Anglesey Central Railway was a 17.5-mile (28.2 km) standard-gauge railway in Anglesey, Wales, connecting the port of Amlwch and the county town of Llangefni with the North Wales Coast Line at Gaerwen. Built as an independent railway, the railway opened in portions from 1864 to 1867. Due to financial troubles the railway was sold to the London and North Western Railway in 1876, which invested significantly in the infrastructure. Operation continued under various companies during the 20th century, but passenger services were withdrawn in 1964 as part of the Beeching Axe. Industrial freight services continued until 1993. The railway's tracks remain and local groups have demonstrated an interest in restoring services as a heritage railway.

Afon Cefni One of the major rivers on the island of Anglesey, Wales

Afon Cefni is one of the major rivers on the island of Anglesey, Wales. It is 16.9 kilometres (11 mi) long. The river starts at the Llyn Cefni in the centre of the island and then runs south through the county town of Llangefni. Just north of the A55 the river turns and flows south-west. It passes through the flatlands of the Malltraeth Marshes, where the river course was altered in 1824, creating a canal-like straight stretch. This part of the river and the surrounding marshes, part of which is a RSPB reserve, are frequented by a variety of wetland birds which in their turn are preyed on by falcons, hawks and harriers. A cycle trail follows the straightened course of the river as it flows through the marshes.

LL postcode area Postcode area within the United Kingdom

The LL postcode area, also known as the Llandudno postcode area, is a group of 67 postcode districts, within 62 post towns. These cover the majority of north Wales, plus a very small part of west Wales and the English county of Shropshire. The districts start at LL11 so as to avoid confusion with Liverpool postcodes.

GeoMôn UNESCO Global Geopark, covering the entire island of Anglesey in North Wales, was admitted to the European Geoparks Network and to the UNESCO-assisted Global Network of National Geoparks in May 2009. It is the second Geopark to be designated in Wales, the seventh within the United Kingdom and the thirty-third in Europe. The UNESCO Geopark designation reflects the diversity of the island's geology, which encompasses solid rocks from the Precambrian to the Neogene with some Miocene sediments and extensive Pleistocene glaciation features from the Quaternary period. GeoMôn covers 720 square kilometres and has 125 miles of coastal walks.

The Isle of Anglesey electoral boundary changes in 2012 reduced the numbers of electoral wards to the Isle of Anglesey County Council from 40 to 11. This led to the postponement of local government elections in the county by 12 months. The changes were confirmed by the Isle of Anglesey Order 2012 in October 2012.

The 2018–19 Welsh Alliance League, known as the Lock Stock Welsh Alliance League for sponsorship reasons, was the 35th season of the Welsh Alliance League, which consisted of two divisions: the third and fourth levels of the Welsh football pyramid.

The North Wales Coast West Football League is a football league in Wales, at tiers 4 and 5 of the Welsh football league system in North Wales, founded in 2020. The league is under the control of the North Wales Coast Football Association. The league replaced the former Gwynedd League and Anglesey Leagues, and covers the North West of Wales. A corresponding North Wales Coast East Football League will be also be established at the same time.

The geology of Anglesey, the largest (714 km2) island in Wales is some of the most complex in the country. Anglesey has relatively low relief, the 'grain' of which runs northeast-southwest, i.e. ridge and valley features extend in that direction reflecting not only the trend of the late Precambrian and Palaeozoic age bedrock geology but also the direction in which glacial ice traversed and scoured the island during the last ice age. It was realised in the 1980s that the island is composed of multiple terranes, recognition of which is key to understanding its Precambrian and lower Palaeozoic evolution. The interpretation of the island's geological complexity has been debated amongst geologists for decades and recent research continues in that vein.

References

Attribution:

Coordinates: 53°17′N4°20′W / 53.283°N 4.333°W / 53.283; -4.333