Anglo-French War (1294–1303)

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The Anglo-French War (in French: Guerre de Guyenne) was a conflict between 1294–98 and 1300–03 revolved around Gascony. The Treaty of Paris (1303) ended the conflict.

Contents

Anglo-French War 1294-1303
Date1294–1303
Location
Flanders, Aquitaine and Gascony
Result French victory but return to status quo
Belligerents
Blason pays fr FranceAncien.svg Kingdom of France Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg Kingdom of England
Commanders and leaders
Blason pays fr FranceAncien.svg Philip IV of France Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg Edward I of England
France in 1294 Guyenne 1328-en.svg
France in 1294

Aquitaine & Gascony

Serious conflict was precipitated in 1293, when clashes between French and English seamen caused Philip IV of France to summon his vassal to Parlement. When Gascon castles occupied by the French as part of the settlement were not returned to the English on schedule, Edward I of England renounced his homage and prepared to fight for Aquitaine. The war that ensued (1294–1303) went in favour of Philip the Fair, whose armies thrust deep into Gascony.

Flanders

Edward retaliated by allying with Flanders and other northern princes. He launched a campaign in concert with the Count of Flanders in August 1297, but met defeat from a French force led by Robert II, Count of Artois, and during a truce from October 1297 to 1303 the rival monarchs reestablished the status quo ante. [1] The peace of 1303 carried all a potential for conflict, by returning the duchy to Edward in exchange for homage. [2]

A consequence of this first war was to be the chronic insubordination of Flanders. After the count's surrender and imprisonment, it was left to the Flemish burghers to revolt against the French garrisons, and the French knights suffered a terrible defeat at Courtrai in July 1302. Thereafter the tide turned. But it was only in 1305 that a settlement satisfactory to the king could be reached. [1]

Aftermath

At a time when warfare was placing an unprecedented strain on royal resources, Gascony also supplied manpower. No English king, therefore, could afford to risk a French conquest of Gascony, for too much was at stake. [2]

The English Kings as Dukes of Aquitaine owed feudal allegiance to the French King and the conflicting claims of suzerainty and justice were a frequent source of disputes. [3] Given the inconveniences of the feudal relationship it may seem surprising that no wider conflict grew out of the Gascon situation before the 1330s. Yet until that decade the tensions arising from the English position in Gascony were contained and controlled. [2] The war marked a watershed in relations between the two powers.

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Gascony was a province of southwestern France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution. The region is vaguely defined, and the distinction between Guyenne and Gascony is unclear; by some they are seen to overlap, while others consider Gascony a part of Guyenne. Most definitions put Gascony east and south of Bordeaux.

Philip IV of France King of France from 1285 to 1314

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Duchy of Aquitaine Medieval duchy in southern France

The Duchy of Aquitaine was a historical fiefdom in western, central and southern areas of present-day France to the south of the Loire River, although its extent, as well as its name, fluctuated greatly over the centuries, at times comprising much of what is now southwestern France (Gascony) and central France.

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Battle of Auberoche Battle during the Hundred Years War (1345)

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Saintonge War

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Duchy of Gascony

The Duchy of Gascony or Duchy of Vasconia was a duchy located in present-day southwestern France and northeastern Spain, an area encompassing the modern region of Gascony. The Duchy of Gascony, then known as Wasconia, was originally a Frankish march formed to hold sway over the Basques (Vascones). However, the Duchy went through different periods, from its early years with its distinctively Basque element to the merger in personal union with the Duchy of Aquitaine to the later period as a dependency of the Plantagenet kings of England.

Battle of Caen (1346) Battle during the Hundred Years War

The Battle of Caen on 26 July 1346 was the assault on the French-held town by elements of an invading English army under King Edward III as a part of the Hundred Years' War. The English army numbered 12,000–15,000, and part of it, nominally commanded by the Earls of Warwick and Northampton, prematurely attacked the town. Caen was garrisoned by 1,000–1,500 soldiers and an unknown, but large, number of armed townsmen, commanded by Raoul, the Count of Eu, the Grand Constable of France. The town was captured in the first assault; more than 5,000 of the ordinary soldiers and townspeople were killed and a few nobles were taken prisoner. The town was then sacked for five days.

Homage (feudal) Medieval oath of allegiance

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Events from the 1290s in England.

Hundred Years War Series of conflicts and wars between England and France during the 14th and 15th centuries

The Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) was a series of conflicts in Western Europe waged between the House of Plantagenet and its cadet House of Lancaster, the rulers of the Kingdom of England, and the House of Valois over the right to rule the Kingdom of France. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of stronger national identities in both countries.

Franco-Flemish War

The Franco-Flemish War was a conflict between the Kingdom of France and the County of Flanders between 1297 and 1305.

Capetian–Plantagenet rivalry Conflict between the dynasties of the Capetians and Plantagenets

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The English expedition to Flanders (1297–98) was an English expedition to Flanders that lasted from August 1297 until March 1298. King Edward I of England in an alliance with Guy, Count of Flanders, as part of the wider Anglo-French War (1294–1303), led an English force to Flanders, hoping to form military alliances and support to lead a combined force against King Philip IV of France. The expedition was difficult and expensive for Edward, but enough of his allies went into action to gain a truce from the French. After a peace was reached with King Philip IV of France, Edward left Flanders in March 1298.

Gascon campaign of 1345 Military campaign during the Hundred Years War

The Gascon campaign of 1345 was conducted by Henry, Earl of Derby, as part of the Hundred Years' War. The whirlwind campaign took place between August and November 1345 in Gascony, an English-controlled territory in south-west France. Derby, commanding an Anglo-Gascon force, oversaw the first successful English land campaign of the war. He twice defeated large French armies in battle, taking many noble and knightly prisoners. They were ransomed by their captors, greatly enriching Derby and his soldiers in the process. Following this campaign, morale and prestige swung England's way in the border region between English-occupied Gascony and French-ruled territory, providing an influx of taxes and recruits for the English armies. As a result, France's ability to raise tax money and troops from the region was much reduced.

Gascon campaign (1294–1303)

The Gascon campaign of 1294 to 1303 was a military conflict between English and French forces over the Duchy of Aquitaine, including the Duchy of Gascony. The Duchy of Aquitaine was held in fief by King Edward I of England as a vassal of King Philip IV of France. Starting with a fishing fleet dispute and then naval warfare, the conflict escalated to open warfare between the two countries. In spite of a French military victory on the ground, the war ended when the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1303, which restored the status quo. The war was a premise to future tensions between the two nations culminating in the Hundred Years' War.

References

  1. 1 2 Encyclopædia Britannica, France – Foreign relations
  2. 1 2 3 The Origins of the Hundred Years War, History Today, John Maddicott, Published in Volume: 36 Issue: 5, 1986
  3. Ginger M. Lee, "French War of 1294–1303", in Ronald H. Fritze and William Baxter Robison (eds.), Historical Dictionary of Late Medieval England, 1272–1485 (Greenwood, 2002), pp. 215–16 ISBN   9780313291241.