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|Anglo-Swedish War of 1810–1812|
|Part of the Napoleonic Wars|
|Casualties and losses|
|30, by Swedish forces||None|
During the Napoleonic Wars until 1810, Sweden and the United Kingdom were allies in the war against Napoleon. As a result of Sweden's defeat in the Finnish War and the Pomeranian War, and the following Treaty of Fredrikshamn and Treaty of Paris, Sweden declared war on the United Kingdom. The bloodless war, however, existed only on paper, and Britain was still not hindered in stationing ships at the Swedish island of Hanö and trade with the Baltic states.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813), and the Seventh (1815).
Sweden, formal name: the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.3 million of which 2.5 million have a foreign background. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre (57/sq mi). The highest concentration is in the central and southern half of the country.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Treaty of Paris, concluded on 6 January 1810, forced Sweden to join the Continental System, a trade embargo against Great Britain. Since Great Britain was Sweden's biggest trade partner this caused economic difficulties, and trade continued to take place through smuggling. On 13 November 1810 France delivered an ultimatum to the Swedish government demanding that within five days Sweden:
The Continental System or Continental Blockade was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France against the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars. As a response to the naval blockade of the French coasts enacted by the British government on 16 May 1806, Napoleon issued the Berlin Decree on 21 November 1806, which brought into effect a large-scale embargo against British trade. The embargo was applied intermittently, ending on 11 April 1814 after Napoleon's first abdication. The blockade caused little economic damage to the UK, although British exports to the continent dropped from 55% to 25% between 1802 and 1806. As Napoleon realized that extensive trade was going through Spain and Russia, he invaded those two countries. His forces were tied down in Spain—in which the Spanish War of Independence was occurring simultaneously—and suffered severely in, and ultimately retreated from, Russia in 1812.
France and its allies threatened to declare war against Sweden if it did not meet the French demands. On 17 November the Swedish government declared war against Great Britain.
No acts of war occurred during the conflict and Britain was even allowed to station boats in Hanö, thus "occupying" the island. Sweden did not try to hinder the occupation as Britain used the island to continue trading with Sweden. The only bloodshed during the war occurred on the 15th of June 1811, when Major-General Hampus Mörner with 140 men acted to disperse a group of farmers in Klågerup in Scania who objected to the conscription policy. In the Klågerup riots, Mörner's soldiers killed 30 farmers.
Hanö is an island off Listerlandet peninsula, western Blekinge, Sweden.
Klågerup is a locality situated in Svedala Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 1,904 inhabitants in 2010. It is located next to road 108. This was the scene of the Klågerup Riots of 1811.
Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden. Within Scania, there are 33 municipalities that are autonomous within the Scania Regional Council. Scania's largest city is Malmö, which is also the third largest in Sweden, as well as the fifth largest in Scandinavia.
The elected Crown Prince of Sweden, Danish Prince Charles August, had died on 28 May 1810, and on 21 August 1810, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte was elected crown prince of Sweden. Although Bernadotte was only the Crown Prince and technically subservient to King Charles XIII, the King's deteriorating health and disinterest made the Crown Prince the de facto ruler of Sweden. Under Bernadotte's rule, Sweden's relationship with Napoleonic France deteriorated. When France occupied Swedish Pomerania and the island of Rügen in 1812, Sweden sought peace with Great Britain.
Charles August or Carl August was a Danish prince. He is best known for serving as Crown Prince of Sweden briefly in 1810, adopted by Charles XIII, before his sudden death from stroke. Earlier, he had been a general in the Royal Danish Army as well as the Governor-general of Norway. His name before assuming the Swedish title in 1810 was Christian August of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenborg; Christian August of Augustenborg for short.
Charles XIII & II also Carl, Swedish: Karl XIII, was King of Sweden from 1809 and King of Norway from 1814 until his death. He was the second son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden and Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great.
The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III.
After long negotiations, the Treaty of Orebro was signed on 18 July 1812. On the same day and at the same place, Britain and Russia signed a peace treaty bringing the Anglo–Russian War of 1807–1812 to an end.
The Treaties of Orebro, the full names being the Treaty of Peace, Union, and Friendship, between His Britannic Majesty and the Emperor of all the Russias and the Treaty of Peace, Union, and Friendship, between His Britannic Majesty and the King of Sweden, were both signed on the same day, 18 July 1812, in Örebro, Sweden. They formally end the Anglo-Russian War (1807–1812) and the Anglo-Swedish War (1810–1812).
The 1810s decade ran from January 1, 1810, to December 31, 1819.
Charles XIV John or Carl John, was King of Sweden and King of Norway from 1818 until his death in 1844.
The House of Bernadotte is the royal house of Sweden, which has reigned since 1818. Between 1818 and 1905, it was also the royal house of Norway. Its founder Charles XIV John of Sweden, born a Frenchman as Jean Bernadotte, was adopted by the elderly King Charles XIII of Sweden, who had no other heir and whose Holstein-Gottorp branch of the House of Oldenburg thus was soon to be extinct.
Swedish Pomerania was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from 1630 to 1815, situated on what is now the Baltic coast of Germany and Poland. Following the Polish War and the Thirty Years' War, Sweden held extensive control over the lands on the southern Baltic coast, including Pomerania and parts of Livonia and Prussia.
The Franco-Swedish War or Pomeranian War was the first involvement by Sweden in the Napoleonic Wars. The country joined the Third Coalition in an effort to defeat France under Napoleon Bonaparte.
The Treaty of Paris, signed on 6 January 1810, ended the war between France and Sweden after Sweden's defeat by Russia, an ally of France, in the Finnish War of 1808–1809. Russia had previously been an ally of Sweden in the Third and Fourth Coalitions against France, but after Russia's defeat at Friedland, she joined France and attacked Sweden so as to compel her to join Napoleon's Continental System. The primary result of the treaty was Sweden's agreement to join the Continental System, so that Sweden would not trade with the United Kingdom. Shortly after the treaty was signed, on 21 August 1810, one of Napoleon's marshals, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, was elected crown prince of Sweden, and he went on to found the House of Bernadotte, which remains the Royal House of Sweden. The peace resulting from the treaty lasted until Napoleon's refusal to permit Sweden to annex Norway, which was then under the sovereignty of Denmark, an ally of France. This was followed in January 1812 by French occupation of Swedish Pomerania for violation of the Continental System, since Sweden was still trading with the United Kingdom, and, in April, Sweden's conclusion of the Treaty of Petersburg with Russia against France.
The Guadeloupe Fund was established by Sweden's Riksdag of the Estates in 1815 for the benefit of Crown Prince and Regent Charles XIV John of Sweden, also known as Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, and his heirs.
In the War of the Sixth Coalition, sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German States defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba. After the disastrous French invasion of Russia of 1812, the continental powers joined Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal and the rebels in Spain who were already at war with France.
The Treaty of Kiel or Peace of Kiel was concluded between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Sweden on one side and the Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway on the other side on 14 January 1814 in Kiel. It ended the hostilities between the parties in the ongoing Napoleonic Wars, where the United Kingdom and Sweden were part of the anti-French camp while Denmark–Norway was allied to Napoleon Bonaparte.
The Treaty of Stolbovo is a peace treaty of 1617 that ended the Ingrian War which had been fought between Sweden and Russia between 1610 and 1617.
During the Napoleonic Wars, the Anglo-Russian War was the phase of hostilities between the United Kingdom and Russia after the latter signed the Treaty of Tilsit that ended its war with France. Anglo-Russian hostilities were limited primarily to minor naval actions in the Baltic and Barents Seas.
The Swedish–Norwegian War, also known as the Campaign against Norway, War with Sweden 1814, or the Norwegian War of Independence, was a war fought between Sweden and Norway in the summer of 1814. The war resulted in a Swedish victory which led to Norway being forced to enter into union with Sweden, but with its own constitution and parliament under the rule of the Swedish monarch Charles XIV.
The Treaty of Saint Petersburg was signed in Saint Petersburg on March 24, 1812 between Sweden and the Russian Empire. The treaty established an alliance between Russia and Sweden against the French Empire of Napoleon.
Prince Alexander Ivanovich Chernyshov, General of Cavalry (1827), was a Russian military leader, diplomat and statesman, whose career began in the Napoleonic Wars. After the Battle of Austerlitz (1805), he carried out successful diplomatic missions to France and Sweden and served with distinction in battles of 1812 and 1813. Chernyshyov rose through the ranks to the role of Russian Minister of War (1827–1852), chairman of the State Council and Cabinet of Ministers (1848–1856), and acquired the styles from Count (1826) to Serene Prince (1849).
The English Wars were a series of conflicts between England and Sweden with Denmark-Norway as part of the Napoleonic Wars. It is named after England, the common name in Scandinavia of the state that called itself the United Kingdom, which declared war on Denmark-Norway due to disagreements over the neutrality of Danish trade and to prevent the Danish fleet falling into the hands of the First French Empire. It began with the first battle of Copenhagen in 1801 and its latter stage from 1807 onwards was followed by the Gunboat War, the Dano-Swedish War of 1808-1809 and the Swedish invasion of Holstein in 1814.
Vice-admiral William Bentinck, FRS was an officer in the Royal Navy and during the years 1798–1802 Governor of St. Vincent and the Grenadines. He rose to the rank of vice-admiral of the blue during his long career in the navy.
Events from the year 1810 in Sweden
France–Sweden relations refers to the current and historical relations between France and Sweden. Both nations are members of the Council of Europe, European Union and the OECD.