Anglo-Swedish War (1810–1812)

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Anglo-Swedish War of 1810–1812
Part of the Napoleonic Wars
Date17 November 1810–18 July 1812
Location
No battles fought
Result Treaty of Orebro
Belligerents
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Casualties and losses
30, by Swedish forcesNone

During the Napoleonic Wars until 1810, Sweden and the United Kingdom were allies in the war against Napoleon. As a result of Sweden's defeat in the Finnish War and the Pomeranian War, and the following Treaty of Fredrikshamn and Treaty of Paris, Sweden declared war on the United Kingdom. The bloodless war, however, existed only on paper, and Britain was still not hindered in stationing ships at the Swedish island of Hanö and trade with the Baltic states.

Napoleonic Wars Series of early 19th century European wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813), and the Seventh (1815).

Sweden constitutional monarchy in Northern Europe

Sweden, formal name: the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.3 million of which 2.5 million have a foreign background. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre (57/sq mi). The highest concentration is in the central and southern half of the country.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Historical sovereign state from 1801 to 1921

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

Contents

Background

The Treaty of Paris, concluded on 6 January 1810, forced Sweden to join the Continental System, a trade embargo against Great Britain. Since Great Britain was Sweden's biggest trade partner this caused economic difficulties, and trade continued to take place through smuggling. On 13 November 1810 France delivered an ultimatum to the Swedish government demanding that within five days Sweden:

Continental System

The Continental System or Continental Blockade was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France against the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars. As a response to the naval blockade of the French coasts enacted by the British government on 16 May 1806, Napoleon issued the Berlin Decree on 21 November 1806, which brought into effect a large-scale embargo against British trade. The embargo was applied intermittently, ending on 11 April 1814 after Napoleon's first abdication. The blockade caused little economic damage to the UK, although British exports to the continent dropped from 55% to 25% between 1802 and 1806. As Napoleon realized that extensive trade was going through Spain and Russia, he invaded those two countries. His forces were tied down in Spain—in which the Spanish War of Independence was occurring simultaneously—and suffered severely in, and ultimately retreated from, Russia in 1812.

France and its allies threatened to declare war against Sweden if it did not meet the French demands. On 17 November the Swedish government declared war against Great Britain.

The war

No acts of war occurred during the conflict and Britain was even allowed to station boats in Hanö, thus "occupying" the island. Sweden did not try to hinder the occupation as Britain used the island to continue trading with Sweden. The only bloodshed during the war occurred on the 15th of June 1811, when Major-General Hampus Mörner with 140 men acted to disperse a group of farmers in Klågerup in Scania who objected to the conscription policy. In the Klågerup riots, Mörner's soldiers killed 30 farmers. [1]

Hanö island

Hanö is an island off Listerlandet peninsula, western Blekinge, Sweden.

Klågerup Place in Skåne, Sweden

Klågerup is a locality situated in Svedala Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 1,904 inhabitants in 2010. It is located next to road 108. This was the scene of the Klågerup Riots of 1811.

Scania Place in Götaland, Sweden

Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden. Within Scania, there are 33 municipalities that are autonomous within the Scania Regional Council. Scania's largest city is Malmö, which is also the third largest in Sweden, as well as the fifth largest in Scandinavia.

Aftermath

The elected Crown Prince of Sweden, Danish Prince Charles August, had died on 28 May 1810, and on 21 August 1810, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte was elected crown prince of Sweden. Although Bernadotte was only the Crown Prince and technically subservient to King Charles XIII, the King's deteriorating health and disinterest made the Crown Prince the de facto ruler of Sweden. Under Bernadotte's rule, Sweden's relationship with Napoleonic France deteriorated. When France occupied Swedish Pomerania and the island of Rügen in 1812, Sweden sought peace with Great Britain.

Charles August, Crown Prince of Sweden Danish prince

Charles August or Carl August was a Danish prince. He is best known for serving as Crown Prince of Sweden briefly in 1810, adopted by Charles XIII, before his sudden death from stroke. Earlier, he had been a general in the Royal Danish Army as well as the Governor-general of Norway. His name before assuming the Swedish title in 1810 was Christian August of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenborg; Christian August of Augustenborg for short.

Charles XIII of Sweden King of Sweden and Norway between 1809-1814

Charles XIII & II also Carl, Swedish: Karl XIII, was King of Sweden from 1809 and King of Norway from 1814 until his death. He was the second son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden and Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great.

First French Empire Empire of Napoleon I of France between 1804–1815

The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III.

Treaties of Örebro

After long negotiations, the Treaty of Orebro was signed on 18 July 1812. On the same day and at the same place, Britain and Russia signed a peace treaty bringing the Anglo–Russian War of 1807–1812 to an end. [2]

Treaty of Orebro

The Treaties of Orebro, the full names being the Treaty of Peace, Union, and Friendship, between His Britannic Majesty and the Emperor of all the Russias and the Treaty of Peace, Union, and Friendship, between His Britannic Majesty and the King of Sweden, were both signed on the same day, 18 July 1812, in Örebro, Sweden. They formally end the Anglo-Russian War (1807–1812) and the Anglo-Swedish War (1810–1812).

Notes

  1. Sundberg, Ulf(1998), page 391-393
  2. Norie, John William(1827), page 560

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References

http://blog.svd.se/historia/2012/11/07/hanos-brittiska-historia/ http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/News-and-Events/Latest-News/2013/July/02/130702-Explorer-Pays-Respects-in-Sweden

Literature

See also