Anna Pavlovna of Russia

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Anna Pavlovna of Russia
Hulst - Portrait of Queen Paulowna.jpg
Portrait by Jan Baptist van der Hulst, 1837
Queen consort of the Netherlands
Grand Duchess consort of Luxembourg
Duchess consort of Limburg
Tenure 7 October 1840 – 17 March 1849
Born(1795-01-18)18 January 1795
Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died 1 March 1865(1865-03-01) (aged 70)
The Hague, Netherlands
Burial Nieuwe Kerk, Delft
Spouse William II of the Netherlands
Issue William III of the Netherlands
Prince Alexander
Prince Henry
Prince Ernest Casimir
Sophie, Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
House Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Father Paul I of Russia
Mother Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
Religion Russian Orthodox

Anna Pavlovna of Russia (Russian : Анна Павловна; Dutch: Anna Paulowna; 18 January 1795 [OS 7 January] — 1 March 1865) was a queen consort of the Netherlands.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.

Dutch language West Germanic language

Dutch(Nederlands ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands and Belgium. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.

Netherlands Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe

The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.

Contents

Youth

Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna of Russia, circa 1813. Portret velikoi kniazhny Anny Pavlovny. Neizvestnyi avtor. Kholst, maslo. Kopiia XIX veka..jpg
Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna of Russia, circa 1813.

She was born in 1795 at Gatchina Palace, the eighth child and sixth daughter of Paul I of Russia and Empress Maria Feodorovna (born Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg), [1] and thus was Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna of Russia. Anna was raised by her mother at the summer residence of the Romanovs, Tsarskoye Selo. She spent her childhood there with her two younger brothers, Nicholas (1796–1855) and Michael (1798–1849). Anna received a broad education, including foreign languages and mathematics. She was good at handicrafts and painting. [1]

Gatchina Palace palace in Gatchina, Leningrad Oblast, Russia

The Great Gatchina Palace is a palace in Gatchina, Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It was built from 1766 to 1781 by Antonio Rinaldi for Count Grigori Grigoryevich Orlov, who was a favourite of Catherine the Great, in Gatchina, a suburb of the royal capital Saint Petersburg. The Gatchina Palace combines classical architecture and themes of a medieval castle with ornate interiors typical of Russian classicism, located on a hill in central Gatchina next to Lake Serebryany. The Gatchina Palace became one of the favourite residences of the Russian Imperial Family, and during the 19th century was an important site of Russian politics. Since the February Revolution in 1917 it has been a museum and public park, and received UNESCO World Heritage Site status in 1990.

Paul I of Russia Emperor of Russia

Paul I reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. Officially, he was the only son of Peter III and Catherine the Great, though Catherine hinted that he was fathered by her lover Sergei Saltykov, who also had Romanov blood, being a descendant of the first Romanov tsar's sister, Tatiana Feodorovna Romanova.

Maria Feodorovna (Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg) wife of Paul I of Russia

Maria Feodorovna was Empress consort of Russia as the second wife of Tsar Paul I.

In 1809, after failing to secure her elder sister Ekaterina, Emperor Napoleon I of France asked for Anna's hand in marriage. Her mother managed to delay her reply long enough for Napoleon to lose interest and marry Archduchess Marie Louise, the eighteen-year-old daughter of the Austrian emperor. [2]

Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma Empress of France

Marie Louise was an Austrian archduchess who reigned as Duchess of Parma from 1814 until her death. She was Napoleon's second wife and, as such, Empress of the French from 1810 to 1814.

Marriage

Anna Pavlovna of Russia, between 1824 and 1825. Anna Pavlovna of Russia.jpg
Anna Pavlovna of Russia, between 1824 and 1825.

On 21 February 1816 at the Chapel of the Winter Palace in St Petersburg, she married the Prince of Orange, who would later become King William II of the Netherlands. The marriage had been suggested by her brother the Tsar Alexander I in 1815, as a symbol of the alliance created after the Congress of Vienna. As it had been decided that no member of the Romanov family should be forced to marry against their will, William was invited to Russia before the wedding so that Anna could get to know him and consent to marry him, which she did. At the time of their marriage, it was agreed that Prince Willem's children should be raised as Protestants, although Anna herself remained Russian Orthodox. [1] Alexander Pushkin celebrated the marriage in a special poem entitled To the Prince of Orange. [2] The couple remained in Russia for one year.

Grand Church of the Winter Palace

The Grand Church of the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, sometimes referred to as the Winter Palace's cathedral, was consecrated in 1763. It is located on the piano nobile in the eastern wing of the Winter Palace, and is the larger, and principal, of two churches within the Palace. A smaller, more private church was constructed in 1768, near the private apartment in the northwest part of the wing. The Grand Church was designed by Francesco Rastrelli, and has been described as "one of the most splendid rooms" in the Palace. Today, the church is an unconsecrated exhibition hall of the State Hermitage Museum.

Winter Palace historic building in St. Petersburg, Russia

The Winter Palace was the official residence of the Russian Emperors from 1732 to 1917. Today, the palace and its precincts form the Hermitage Museum. Situated between Palace Embankment and Palace Square, in Saint Petersburg, adjacent to the site of Peter the Great's original Winter Palace, the present and fourth Winter Palace was built and altered almost continuously between the late 1730s and 1837, when it was severely damaged by fire and immediately rebuilt. The storming of the palace in 1917, as depicted in Soviet paintings and Sergei Eisenstein's 1927 film October, became an iconic symbol of the Russian Revolution.

William II of the Netherlands King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg 1840 - 1849

William II was King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and Duke of Limburg.

Anna Pavlovna was shocked over the differences between Russia and her new home country, especially when it came to the class system and the separation between the classes, which was much less strict in the Netherlands, where the distance between royalty and the public was not as great as in Russia, and she had difficulties adjusting herself to this. The couple lived in Brussels until the Belgian revolution forced them to leave in 1830. Anna liked Brussels much more than the North, as it reminded her more of her native country. She founded a school where poor women and girls were educated in sewing (1832), and a hospital for soldiers wounded in the Belgian revolution (1830).

The royal family by Van der Hulst Jan Baptist van der Hulst - Koning Willem II en familie.jpg
The royal family by Van der Hulst

Her marriage was stormy. From the beginning, Anna considered herself superior in rank to William. In 1829, several pieces of her jewellery were stolen, and she suspected her spouse of stealing them, as he was at the time in debt and mixing with people she considered to be questionable. The adultery of her spouse created conflicts between them. They lived separated until 1843. Despite this, Anna continued to profess undiminished love for William. Anna also acted as a mediator between her husband and her father-in-law and tried to ease the tension between them during political conflicts. Otherwise, she was not politically active, despite her strong political convictions. As a person, she was described as intelligent, sensitive, loyal to her family and with a violent temperament. During her time in Holland, she studied the Dutch language, history and culture, and founded more than fifty orphanages. [2]

Anna Paulowna in court dress (Jean Chretien Valois, 1845) Anna Paulowna in ball dress, by Jean Chretien Valois.jpg
Anna Paulowna in court dress (Jean Chrétien Valois, 1845)

On 7 October 1840, on the abdication of her father-in-law, William I of the Netherlands, she became queen consort of the Netherlands. She became the 343rd Dame of the Royal Order of Queen Maria Luisa on 1 February 1842.

As a queen, Anna is described as dignified, arrogant and distant towards the public. She did in fact learn to speak better Dutch than her often French-speaking spouse, but she upheld a strict etiquette and never became very popular as queen. She valued pomp, etiquette and formal ceremonies and rituals. Anna Pavlovna corresponded with her mother and brothers in Russia and treasured the memory of her birth country: she founded a Russian boys' choir, where the members were to be dressed in traditional Russian costume, and it has been said of her that she remained a Russian Grand Duchess more than she ever became Queen of the Netherlands.

As a queen dowager, Anna left the royal palace, retired from court life and lived a discreet life. She did not get along with her daughter-in-law, Sophie, who was the daughter of her sister, Catherine, as she was allegedly jealous of Catherine's beauty and status as their mother's favourite child. She had plans to return to Russia after a conflict with her son, King William III, in 1855, but in the end, she did not.

Children

Anna and William II of the Netherlands had five children:

Legacy

The municipality Anna Paulowna in the Dutch province of Noord Holland is named after her.

The genus of trees Paulownia was coined by the German botanist Philipp Franz von Siebold to honour Anna Pavlovna. The common name of Paulownia tomentosa is Royal Paulownia, (also known as Empress Tree, Princess Tree, and Foxglove Tree. [3]

Titles

Royal Monogram Royal Monogram of Queen Anna Pavlovna of the Netherlands.svg
Royal Monogram

Ancestry

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References

  1. 1 2 3 "Anna Pavlovna – Hermitage Amsterdam". hermitage.nl.
  2. 1 2 3 Kenneth. "Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna". rusartnet.com.
  3. Needham, William. The Hiker's Notebook [ permanent dead link ]
Anna Pavlovna of Russia
Born: 18 January 1795 Died: 1 March 1865
Royal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Wilhelmine of Prussia
Queen consort of the Netherlands
Grand Duchess consort of Luxembourg
Duchess consort of Limburg

1840–1849
Succeeded by
Sophie of Württemberg