Anna von Schweidnitz

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Anna of Świdnica
Holy Roman Empress; Queen consort of Germany and Bohemia
Anna von Schweidnitz.jpg
Tenure1353–1362
Bornc.1339
Świdnica
Died11 July 1362 (aged 22 or 23)
Prague, Bohemia
Spouse Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Issue Wenceslaus, King of the Romans
Elisabeth of Bohemia
House Piast
Father Henry II of Świdnica
Mother Katharina of Hungary
Charles IV and Anna Karl Fourth Bohemia Anna Schweidnitz.jpeg
Charles IV and Anna

Anna of Schweidnitz (Świdnica) [1] [2] [3] [4] (also known as Anne or Anna of Świdnica, [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] Czech : Anna Svídnická, Polish : Anna Świdnicka, German : Anna von Schweidnitz und Jauer) (Świdnica, 1339 – 11 July 1362 in Prague) was Queen of Bohemia, German Queen, and Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. She was the third wife of Emperor Charles IV.

Contents

Biography

Anne was the daughter of Polish Duke Henry II of Świdnica-Jawor from the Silesian branch of the Piast dynasty. Her mother was Katherine of Hungary, the daughter of Charles I of Hungary. In his autobiography written in Latin, [14] which covers only his youth prior to marrying Anna, emperor Charles mentions civitatem Swidnitz and dux Swidnicensis, as depicted in the coat of arms room [15] of his Wenzelschloss castle at Lauf an der Pegnitz near Nuremberg.

Anne's father died when she was four years old, and her childless uncle, Bolko II, Duke of Świdnica-Jawor became her guardian. She was brought up and educated by her mother at Visegrád in Hungary. At the age of 11, Anne had been promised to Wenceslaus, newborn son and successor to Charles IV. After the infant Wenceslaus and his mother Anna of the Palatinate died, the now-widowed Emperor asked to marry Anne himself. The planned marriage was part of the strategies devised by Charles and his then-deceased father John to gain control of the Piast Duchies of Silesia as vedlejší země ("neighboring countries") for the Kingdom of Bohemia. Anne's uncle, Louis of Hungary, the future King of Poland, was able to assist her by renouncing his rights to Świdnica in favor of the House of Luxemburg.

Anna (far right) with her mother-in-law Elisabeth (centre) and Margaret, grandmother of her husband (left) Manzelky.jpg
Anna (far right) with her mother-in-law Elisabeth (centre) and Margaret, grandmother of her husband (left)

At the instigation of archbishop Arnošt of Pardubice, Pope Innocent VI issued a dispensation for the marriage, which was required because of the degree of relationship between the bride and groom (they were second cousins once removed through their common ancestors Rudolf I of Germany and Gertrude of Hohenberg). The two were married on 27 May 1353, when Anne was 14; her new husband was 37. The wedding was attended by Anne's guardian Bolko II of Świdnica, Duke Albert II of Austria, King Louis of Hungary, Margrave Louis of Brandenburg, Duke Rudolf of Saxony, an envoy of King Casimir III of Poland, and an envoy of the Republic of Venice.

On 28 July 1353, Anna was crowned Queen of Bohemia in Prague by Archbishop Arnošt of Pardubice. On 9 February 1354, in Aachen, she was crowned German queen. As part of the coronation of Charles as Holy Roman Emperor on 5 April 1355, in the Roman Basilica of Saint Peter, Anne was crowned Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. She was thereby the first Queen of Bohemia to become Empress.

In 1358, Anne bore a daughter, Elisabeth, who was named after Elisabeth of Bohemia (1292–1330). In February 1361 she became mother of the desired successor to the throne, Wenceslaus, who was born in Nuremberg, and baptized on 11 April in the Sebalduskirche by the Archbishops of Prague, Cologne, and Mainz. She did not live to see the coronation of the two-year-old Wenceslaus, however. At age 23, she died in childbirth on 11 July 1362. She is buried in St. Vitus Cathedral. The emperor married Elisabeth of Pomerania one year later. The Duchies of Świdnica and Jawor passed to Bohemia after Bolko's death in 1368.

Ancestry

Anna's ancestors in three generations
Anna von SchweidnitzFather:
Henry II of Świdnica
Paternal Grandfather:
Bernard of Świdnica
Paternal Great-Grandfather:
Bolko I of Świdnica
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Beatrice of Brandenburg
Paternal Grandmother:
Kunigunde of Poland
Paternal Great-Grandfather:
Władysław I the Elbow-high
Paternal Great-Grandmother:
Jadwiga of Greater Poland
Mother:
Katharine of Hungary
Maternal Grandfather:
Charles I of Hungary
Maternal Great-Grandfather:
Charles Martel of Anjou
Maternal Great-Grandmother:
Klementia of Habsburg
Maternal Grandmother:
?
Maternal Great-grandfather:
?
Maternal Great-Grandmother:
?

Related Research Articles

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Piast dynasty Polish royal dynasty

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Świdnica Place in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

Świdnica is a city in south-western Poland in the region of Silesia. As of 2019, it has a population of 57,014 inhabitants. It lies in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, being the seventh largest town in that voivodeship. From 1975–98 it was in the former Wałbrzych Voivodeship. It is now the seat of Świdnica County, and also of the smaller district of Gmina Świdnica. Świdnica became part of the Wałbrzych agglomeration on 23 January 2014.

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References

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  14. http://www.planet-franken-online.de/wapp/seite1.jpg

Literature

Preceded by
Anna of Bavaria
Queen consort of Germany
1353–1362
Succeeded by
Elisabeth of Pomerania
Queen consort of Bohemia
1353–1362
Preceded by
Margaret II of Hainaut
Holy Roman Empress
1355–1362