Anna von Schweidnitz

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Anna of Świdnica
Holy Roman Empress; Queen consort of Germany and Bohemia
Anna von Schweidnitz.jpg
Tenure1353–1362
Bornc.1339
Świdnica
Died11 July 1362 (aged 22 or 23)
Prague, Bohemia
Spouse Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Issue Wenceslaus, King of the Romans
Elisabeth of Bohemia
House Piast
Father Henry II of Świdnica
Mother Katharina of Hungary
Charles IV and Anna Karl Fourth Bohemia Anna Schweidnitz.jpeg
Charles IV and Anna

Anna of Schweidnitz (Świdnica) [1] [2] [3] [4] (also known as Anne or Anna of Świdnica, [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] Czech : Anna Svídnická, Polish : Anna Świdnicka, German : Anna von Schweidnitz und Jauer) (Świdnica, 1339 – 11 July 1362 in Prague) was Queen of Bohemia, German Queen, and Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. She was the third wife of Emperor Charles IV.

Świdnica Place in Lower Silesian, Poland

Świdnica is a city in south-western Poland in the region of Silesia. It has a population of 59,002 inhabitants according to 2014 figures. It lies in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, being the seventh largest town in that voivodeship. From 1975–98 it was in the former Wałbrzych Voivodeship. It is now the seat of Świdnica County, and also of the smaller district of Gmina Świdnica. Świdnica became part of the Wałbrzych agglomeration on 23 January 2014.

Czech language West Slavic language spoken in the Czech Republic

Czech, historically also Bohemian, is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group. Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree. Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin and German.

Polish language West Slavic language spoken in Poland

Polish is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group. It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million Polish language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.

Contents

Biography

Anne was the daughter of Polish Duke Henry II of Świdnica-Jawor from the Silesian branch of the Piast dynasty. Her mother was Katherine of Hungary, the daughter of Charles I of Hungary. In his autobiography written in Latin, [14] which covers only his youth prior to getting married to Anna, emperor Charles mentions civitatem Swidnitz and dux Swidnicensis, as depicted in the coat of arms room [15] of his Wenzelschloss castle at Lauf an der Pegnitz near Nuremberg.

Jawor Place in Lower Silesian, Poland

Jawor is a town in south-western Poland with 24,347 inhabitants (2006). It is situated in Lower Silesian Voivodeship. It is the seat of Jawor County, and lies approximately 61 kilometres (38 mi) west of the regional capital Wrocław.

Silesian Piasts

The Silesian Piasts were the elder of four lines of the Polish Piast dynasty beginning with Władysław II the Exile (1105–1159), eldest son of Duke Bolesław III of Poland. By Bolesław's testament, Władysław was granted Silesia as his hereditary province and also the Lesser Polish Seniorate Province at Kraków according to the principle of agnatic seniority.

The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland. The first documented Polish monarch was Prince Mieszko I. The Piasts' royal rule in Poland ended in 1370 with the death of king Casimir III the Great.

Anne's father died when she was four years old, and her childless uncle, Bolko II, Duke of Świdnica-Jawor became her guardian. She was brought up and educated by her mother at Visegrád in Hungary. At the age of 11, Anne had been promised to Wenceslaus, newborn son and successor to Charles IV. After the infant Wenceslaus and his mother Anna of the Palatinate died, the now-widowed Emperor asked to marry Anne himself. The planned marriage was part of the strategies devised by Charles and his then-deceased father John to gain control of the Piast Duchies of Silesia as vedlejší země ("neighboring countries") for the Kingdom of Bohemia. Anne's uncle, Louis of Hungary, the future King of Poland, was able to assist her by renouncing his rights to Świdnica in favor of the House of Luxemburg.

Visegrád Place in Pest, Hungary

Visegrád is a small castle town in Pest County, Hungary. It is north of Budapest on the right bank of the Danube in the Danube Bend. It had a population of 1,864 in 2010. Visegrád is famous for the remains of the Early Renaissance summer palace of King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary and the medieval citadel.

Duchies of Silesia

The Duchies of Silesia were the more than twenty divisions of the region of Silesia formed between the 12th and 14th centuries by the breakup of the Duchy of Silesia, then part of the Kingdom of Poland. In 1335, the duchies were ceded to the Kingdom of Bohemia under the Treaty of Trentschin. Thereafter until 1742, Silesia was one of the Bohemian crown lands and lay within the Holy Roman Empire. Most of Silesia was annexed by the King of Prussia under the Treaty of Berlin in 1742. Only the Duchy of Teschen, the Duchy of Troppau and the Duchy of Nysa remained under the control of the Bohemian crown and as such were known as the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia until 1918.

Anna (far right) with her mother-in-law Elisabeth (centre) and Margaret, grandmother of her husband (left) Manzelky.jpg
Anna (far right) with her mother-in-law Elisabeth (centre) and Margaret, grandmother of her husband (left)

At the instigation of archbishop Arnošt of Pardubice, Pope Innocent VI issued a dispensation for the marriage, which was required because of the degree of relationship between the bride and groom (they were second cousins once removed through their common ancestors Rudolph I of Germany and Gertrude of Hohenburg). The two were married on 27 May 1353, when Anne was 14; her new husband was 37. The wedding was attended by Anne's guardian Bolko II of Świdnica, Duke Albert II of Austria, King Louis of Hungary, Margrave Louis of Brandenburg, Duke Rudolf of Saxony, an envoy of King Casimir III of Poland, and an envoy of the Republic of Venice.

Arnošt of Pardubice Roman Catholic archbishop

Arnošt z Pardubic was the first Archbishop of Prague. He was also an advisor and diplomat to Emperor Charles IV.

Pope Innocent VI pope

Pope Innocent VI, born Étienne Aubert, was Pope from 18 December 1352 to his death in 1362. He was the fifth Avignon Pope and the only one with the pontifical name of "Innocent".

Albert II, Duke of Austria austrian duke

Albert II, known as the Wise or the Lame, a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1330, as well as Duke of Carinthia from 1335 until his death.

On 28 July 1353, Anna was crowned Queen of Bohemia in Prague by Archbishop Arnošt of Pardubice. On 9 February 1354, in Aachen, she was crowned German queen. As part of the coronation of Charles as Holy Roman Emperor on 5 April 1355, in the Roman Basilica of Saint Peter, Anne was crowned Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. She was thereby the first Queen of Bohemia to become Empress.

Prague Capital city in Czech Republic

Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of 2.6 million. The city has a temperate climate, with warm summers and chilly winters.

Aachen Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Aachen, also known as Bad Aachen, and in French and traditional English as Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen developed from a Roman settlement and spa, subsequently becoming the preferred medieval Imperial residence of Charlemagne, and, from 936 to 1531, the place where 31 Holy Roman Emperors were crowned Kings of the Germans.

The Holy Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was, almost without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany throughout the 12th to 18th centuries.

In 1358, Anne bore a daughter, Elisabeth, who was named after Elisabeth of Bohemia (1292–1330). In February 1361 she became mother of the desired successor to the throne, Wenceslaus, who was born in Nuremberg, and baptized on 11 April in the Sebalduskirche by the Archbishops of Prague, Cologne, and Mainz. She did not live to see the coronation of the two-year-old Wenceslaus, however. At age 23, she died in childbirth on 11 July 1362. She is buried in St. Vitus Cathedral. The emperor married Elisabeth of Pomerania one year later. The Duchies of Świdnica and Jawor passed to Bohemia after Bolko's death in 1368.

Nuremberg Place in Bavaria, Germany

Nuremberg is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, and its 511,628 (2016) inhabitants make it the 14th largest city in Germany. On the Pegnitz River and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it lies in the Bavarian administrative region of Middle Franconia, and is the largest city and the unofficial capital of Franconia. Nuremberg forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring cities of Fürth, Erlangen and Schwabach with a total population of 787,976 (2016), while the larger Nuremberg Metropolitan Region has approximately 3.5 million inhabitants. The city lies about 170 kilometres (110 mi) north of Munich. It is the largest city in the East Franconian dialect area.

St. Vitus Cathedral Church in Prague, Czech Republic

The Metropolitan Cathedral of Saints Vitus, Wenceslaus and Adalbert is a Roman Catholic metropolitan cathedral in Prague, the seat of the Archbishop of Prague. Until 1997, the cathedral was dedicated only to Saint Vitus, and is still commonly named only as St. Vitus Cathedral.

Ancestry

Anna's ancestors in three generations
Anna von SchweidnitzFather:
Henry II of Świdnica
Paternal Grandfather:
Bernard of Świdnica
Paternal Great-Grandfather:
Bolko I of Świdnica
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Beatrice of Brandenburg
Paternal Grandmother:
Kunigunde of Poland
Paternal Great-Grandfather:
Władysław I the Elbow-high
Paternal Great-Grandmother:
Jadwiga of Greater Poland
Mother:
Katharine of Hungary
Maternal Grandfather:
Charles I of Hungary
Maternal Great-Grandfather:
Charles Martel of Anjou
Maternal Great-Grandmother:
Klementia of Habsburg
Maternal Grandmother:
?
Maternal Great-grandfather:
?
Maternal Great-Grandmother:
?

Related Research Articles

Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Charles IV, born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor. He was a member of the House of Luxembourg from his father's side and the Czech House of Přemyslid from his mother's side.

Churches of Peace wooden church

The Churches of Peace in Jawor and Świdnica in Silesia were named after the Peace of Westphalia of 1648.

Bolko II the Small, was the last independent Duke of the Piast dynasty in Silesia. He was Duke of Świdnica from 1326, Duke of Jawor and Lwówek from 1346, Duke of Lusatia from 1364, Duke over half of Brzeg and Oława from 1358, Duke of Siewierz from 1359, and Duke over half of Głogów and Ścinawa from 1361.

Joanna of Bavaria Czech queen

Joanna of Bavaria, a member of the House of Wittelsbach, was German queen from 1376 and Queen of Bohemia from 1378 until her death, by her marriage with the Luxembourg king Wenceslaus.

Przemyslaus I Noszak, Duke of Cieszyn Duke of Cieszyn, Bytom, Siewierz, Głogów, Ścinawa, and Oświęcim at various times in the late 14th century

Przemysław I Noszak, was a Duke of Cieszyn-Bytom-Siewierz from 1358, from 1384 ruler over half of both Głogów and Ścinawa and since 1401 ruler over Toszek.

Treaty of Trentschin

The Treaty of Trentschin was concluded on 24 August 1335 between King Casimir III of Poland and King John of Bohemia as well as his son Margrave Charles IV. The agreement was reached by the agency of Casimir's brother-in-law King Charles I of Hungary and signed at Trencsén Castle in the Kingdom of Hungary. It initiated the transfer of the suzerainty over the former Polish province of Silesia to the Kingdom of Bohemia, whereafter the Duchies of Silesia were incorporated into the Bohemian Crown.

Henry II of Świdnica,, was a Duke of Świdnica from 1326 until his death.

Henry V, Duke of Legnica Duke of Jawor and Legnica

Henry V the Fat was a Duke of Jawor (Jauer) from 1273, of Legnica (Liegnitz) from 1278, and Duke of Wrocław (Breslau) from 1290.

Bolko I the Strict Duke of Jawor

Bolko I the Strict also known as the Raw or of Jawor, was a Duke of Lwówek (Löwenberg) during 1278–81 and Jawor (Jauer) since 1278, sole Duke of Lwówek since 1286, Duke of Świdnica-Ziębice since 1291.

Bernard (II) of Świdnica was a Duke of Jawor-Lwówek-Świdnica-Ziębice during 1301–1312, of Świdnica-Ziębice during 1312–1322, and sole Duke of Świdnica since 1322 until his death.

Kunigunde of Poland was a daughter of Władysław I the Elbow-high and his wife Jadwiga of Greater Poland. Her siblings included, Casimir III of Poland and Elisabeth, Queen of Hungary. She was a member of the House of Piast.

Catherine of Hungary was a daughter of King Charles I of Hungary. Her mother is uncertain. She was a member of the House of Anjou and was a Hungarian princess.

Beatrice of Silesia German queen

Beatrice of Silesia was a Polish princess member of the House of Piast in the Silesian branch of Jawor-Świdnica and by marriage Duchess of Bavaria and German Queen.

Beatrice of Brandenburg, was a German princess and a member of the House of Ascania in the Brandenburg branch. By her two marriages she was Duchess of Świdnica and Koźle-Bytom-Siewierz.

Bolko II of Opole, was a Duke of Opole from 1313.

Elisabeth of Świdnica was a member of the Piast dynasty in the Świdnica-Jawor branch and by marriage Duchess of Opole.

Duchy of Jawor

Duchy of Jawor was one of the Duchies of Silesia established in 1274 as a subdivision of the Duchy of Legnica. It was ruled by the Silesian Piasts, with its capital at Jawor in Lower Silesia.

References

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  2. Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Sarah Stanbury: Women's Space: Patronage, Place, and Gender in the Medieval Church, Published by SUNY Press, 2005, ISBN   0-7914-6365-6, ISBN   978-0-7914-6365-9
  3. David E. Wellbery, Judith Ryan, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht et al.: Published by Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2004, ISBN   0-674-01503-7, ISBN   978-0-674-01503-6
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  14. http://www.planet-franken-online.de/wapp/seite1.jpg

Literature

Preceded by
Anna of Bavaria
Queen consort of Germany
1353–1362
Succeeded by
Elisabeth of Pomerania
Queen consort of Bohemia
1353–1362
Preceded by
Margaret II of Hainaut
Holy Roman Empress
1355–1362