Annapurna Conservation Area

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Annapurna Conservation Area
अन्नपूर्णा संरक्षण क्षेत्र
IUCN category VI (protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)
AnapurnaFromPokhara.jpg
Annapurna range as seen from Pokhara
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Location Nepal
Coordinates 28°47′N83°58′E / 28.78°N 83.97°E / 28.78; 83.97 Coordinates: 28°47′N83°58′E / 28.78°N 83.97°E / 28.78; 83.97
Area7,629 km2 (2,946 sq mi)
Established1992
Governing body Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation

Annapurna Conservation Area is Nepal's largest protected area covering 7,629 km2 (2,946 sq mi) in the Annapurna range of the Himalayas. It ranges in elevation from 790 m (2,590 ft) to the peak of Annapurna I at 8,091 m (26,545 ft). The conservation area stretches across Manang, Mustang, Kaski, Myagdi, and Lamjung Districts. [1] Annapurna Conservation Area encompasses Annapurna Sanctuary and is known for several trekking routes including Annapurna Circuit.

Contents

History

The Annapurna Conservation Area was established in 1985 and gazetted in 1992. It is managed by the National Trust for Nature Conservation. [1]

Climate

Two climatic regions within a span of 120 km (75 mi) and an altitude of 1,000 to 8,000 m (3,300 to 26,200 ft) are distinguished. [1] Rainfall in the southern part of the Annapurnas is higher than in the rain shadow to the north of the peaks. Annual precipitation is highest during the Asian monsoon between June and September ranging from 5,032 mm (198.1 in) on the southern slopes at 2,950 m (9,680 ft) altitude to 1,099 mm (43.3 in) in rain shadow areas at 2,760 m (9,060 ft) altitude. Snow accumulates between 2,000 and 3,000 m (6,600 and 9,800 ft). In the winter of 1999–2000, areas above 3,000 m (9,800 ft) were snow-covered until end of March, and until May above 4,400 m (14,400 ft). At this altitude, winter air temperatures range from −4.65 to −6.06 °C (23.63 to 21.09 °F). [2]

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Geography of Nepal

Nepal measures about 880 kilometers (547 mi) along its Himalayan axis by 150 to 250 kilometers across. It has an area of 147,516 km2 (56,956 sq mi), of which 335 km2 (129 sq mi) is disputed with India.

Himalayas Mountain range in Asia

The Himalayas, or Himalaya ; Sanskrit: himá and ā-laya ), is a mountain range in South and East Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The range has many of Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest, at the border between Nepal and China. The Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 m (23,600 ft) in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia is 6,961 m (22,838 ft) tall.

Annapurna Massif Himalayan mountain range in north-central Nepal

Annapurna is a massif in the Himalayas in north-central Nepal that includes one peak over 8,000 metres (26,247 ft), thirteen peaks over 7,000 metres (22,966 ft), and sixteen more over 6,000 metres (19,685 ft). The massif is 55 kilometres (34 mi) long, and is bounded by the Kali Gandaki Gorge on the west, the Marshyangdi River on the north and east, and by Pokhara Valley on the south. At the western end, the massif encloses a high basin called the Annapurna Sanctuary. The highest peak of the massif, Annapurna I Main, is the tenth highest mountain in the world at 8,091 metres (26,545 ft) above sea level. Maurice Herzog led a French expedition to its summit through the north face in 1950, making it the first of the eight-thousanders to be climbed and the only 8,000 meter-peak to be summited with a safe descent on the first try.

Upper Mustang

Upper Mustang is an upper part of Mustang District. The Upper Mustang was a restricted kingdom and demilitarized area until 1992 which makes it one of the most preserved regions in the world, with a majority of the population still speaking traditional Tibetic languages. Tibetan culture has been preserved by the relative isolation of the region from the outside world. Life in Mustang revolves around tourism, animal husbandry and trade.

Manaslu Mountain in Nepal

Manaslu is the eighth-highest mountain in the world at 8,163 metres (26,781 ft) above sea level. It is in the Mansiri Himal, part of the Nepalese Himalayas, in the west-central part of Nepal. The name Manaslu means "mountain of the spirit" and is derived from the Sanskrit word manasa, meaning "intellect" or "soul". Manaslu was first climbed on May 9, 1956 by Toshio Imanishi and Gyalzen Norbu, members of a Japanese expedition. It is said that, given the many unsuccessful attempts by the British to climb Everest before Edmund Hilary, "just as the British consider Everest their mountain, Manaslu has always been a Japanese mountain".

Sagarmatha National Park National Park of Nepal

Sagarmāthā National Park is a national park in the Himalayas of eastern Nepal that is dominated by Mount Everest. It encompasses an area of 1,148 km2 (443 sq mi) in the Solukhumbu District and ranges in elevation from 2,845 to 8,848 m at the summit of Mount Everest. In the north, it shares the international border with Qomolangma National Nature Preserve of Tibet. In the east, it is adjacent to Makalu Barun National Park, and in the south it extends to Dudh Kosi river. It is part of the Sacred Himalayan Landscape.

Hemis National Park National Park in Ladakh, India

Hemis National Park is a high altitude national park in Ladakh, India. Globally famous for its snow leopards, it is believed to have the highest density of them in any protected area in the world. It is the only national park in India that is north of the Himalayas, the largest notified protected area in India and is the second largest contiguous protected area, after the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve and surrounding protected areas. The park is home to a number of species of endangered mammals, including the snow leopard. Hemis National Park is India's protected area inside the Palearctic realm, outside the Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary northeast of Hemis, and the proposed Tso Lhamo Cold Desert Conservation Area in North Sikkim.

Kosi River River in Tibet, Nepal, and India

The Kosi or Koshi is a trans-boundary river which flows through Tibet, Nepal and India. It drains the northern slopes of the Himalayas in Tibet and the southern slopes in Nepal. From a major confluence of tributaries north of the Chatra Gorge onwards, the Kosi River is also known as Saptakoshi for its seven upper tributaries. These include the Tamor River originating from the Kanchenjunga area in the east and Arun River and Sun Kosi from Tibet. The Sun Koshi's tributaries from east to west are Dudh Koshi, Bhote Koshi, Tamakoshi River, Likhu Khola and Indravati. The Saptakoshi crosses into northern Bihar, India where it branches into distributaries before joining the Ganges near Kursela in Katihar district.

Makalu Barun National Park

Makalu Barun National Park is a national park in the Himalayas of Nepal that was established in 1992 as eastern extension of Sagarmatha National Park. It is the world's only protected area with an elevation gain of more than 8,000 m (26,000 ft) enclosing tropical forest as well as snow-capped peaks. It covers an area of 1,500 km2 (580 sq mi) in the Solukhumbu and Sankhuwasabha districts, and is surrounded by a bufferzone to the south and southeast with an area of 830 km2 (320 sq mi).

Protected areas of Nepal

The protected areas of Nepal cover mainly forested land and are located at various altitudes in the Terai, in the foothills of the Himalayas and in the mountains, thus encompassing a multitude of landscapes and preserving a vast biodiversity in the Palearctic and Indomalayan realms. Nepal covers 147,181 km2 (56,827 sq mi) in the central part of the Himalayas. Altitudes range from 67 m (220 ft) in the south-eastern Terai to 8,848 m (29,029 ft) at Sagarmatha within a short horizontal span. This extreme altitudinal gradient has resulted in 11 bio-climatic zones ranging from lower tropical below 500 m (1,600 ft) to nival above 5,000 m (16,000 ft) in the High Himalayas, encompassing nine terrestrial ecoregions with 36 vegetation types. Botanists recorded 1,120 species of non-flowering plants and 5,160 species of flowering plants. Nepal ranks 10th in terms of richest flowering plant diversity in Asia. Zoologists recorded 181 mammal species, 844 bird species, 100 reptile species, 43 amphibian species, 185 freshwater fish species, and 635 butterfly species. In recognition of the magnitude of biodiversity the Government of Nepal has established a network of 20 protected areas since 1973, consisting of ten national parks, three wildlife reserves, six conservation areas and one hunting reserve. In 2017, the Shuklaphanta and Parsa Wildlife Reserves were upgraded to National Parks.

Shey Phoksundo National Park National Park of Nepal

Shey Phoksundo National Park is the largest and only trans-Himalayan national park in Nepal. It was established in 1984 and covers an area of 3,555 km2 (1,373 sq mi) in the districts of Dolpa and Mugu in the Mid-Western Region, Nepal. The protected area ranges in elevation from 2,130 to 6,885 m. Phoksundo Lake is the park's prominent feature, located at an elevation of 3,612 m (11,850 ft).

Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows

The Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows is a montane grasslands and shrublands ecoregion of Nepal, India, and Tibet, which lies between the tree line and snow line in the western portion of the Himalaya Range.

Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows

The Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows is a montane grasslands and shrublands ecoregion of Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, and Nepal, which lies between the tree line and snow line in the eastern portion of the Himalaya Range.

Manang Place in Gandaki Province, Nepal

Manang is a town in the Manang District of Nepal. It is located at 28°40'0N 84°1'0E with an altitude of 3,519 metres (11,545 ft). According to the preliminary result of the 2011 Nepal census it has a population of 6,527 people living in 1,495 individual households. Its population density is 3 persons/km2.

Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary wildlife sanctuary in Uttarakhand, India

Kedarnath Wild Life Sanctuary, also called the Kedarnath Musk Deer Sanctuary, is a wildlife sanctuary declared under Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and located in Uttarakhand, India. Its alternate name comes from its primary purpose of protecting the endangered Himalayan musk deer. Consisting of an area of 975 km2 (376 sq mi), it is the largest protected area in the western Himalayas.It is famous for alpine musk deer, Himalayan Thar, Himalayan Griffon, Himalayan Black bear, Snow Leopard and other flora park and fauna. It is internationally important for the diversity of its flora and fauna.

Rara National Park

Rara National Park is a protected area in the Himalayas of Nepal and was established in 1976. Covering an area of 106 km2 (41 sq mi) in the Mugu and Jumla districts, it is the country's smallest national park. Its main feature is Rara Lake at an altitude of 2,990 m (9,810 ft). The park was established to protect the unique flora and fauna of the Humla–Jumla Region of Nepal.

Langtang National Park National Park of Nepal

Langtang National Park was established in 1976 as Nepal's first Himalayan national park and the country's fourth protected area. It exceeds an elevation range of 6,450 m (21,160 ft) and covers an area of 1,710 km2 (660 sq mi) in the Nuwakot, Rasuwa and Sindhulpalchok Districts of the central Himalayan region encompassing 26 village communities. In the north and east it is linked with Qomolangma National Nature Preserve in Tibet Autonomous Region. The eastern and western boundaries follow the Bhote Koshi and the Trishuli river, respectively. The southern border lies 32 km (20 mi) north of the Kathmandu Valley.

Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park National Park of Nepal

Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park is the ninth national park in Nepal and was established in 2002. It is located in the country's mid-hills on the northern fringe of the Kathmandu Valley and named after Shivapuri Peak of 2,732 m (8,963 ft) altitude. It covers an area of 159 km2 (61 sq mi) in the districts of Kathmandu, Nuwakot and Sindhupalchowk, adjoining 23 Village Development Committees. In the west, the protected area extends to the Dhading District.

Kanchenjunga Conservation Area

Kanchenjunga Conservation Area is a protected area in the Himalayas of eastern Nepal that was established in 1997. It covers 2,035 km2 (786 sq mi) in the Taplejung District and comprises two peaks of Kanchenjunga. In the north it adjoins the Qomolangma National Nature Preserve in Tibet, and in the east the Khangchendzonga National Park in Sikkim. To the west it borders the Sankhuwasabha District. It ranges in altitude from 1,200 to 8,586 m. It is part of the Sacred Himalayan Landscape, which is being developed by WWF Nepal in partnership with the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development.

Annapurna Circuit

The Annapurna Circuit is a trek within the mountain ranges of central Nepal. The total length of the route varies between 160–230 km (100-145 mi), depending on where motor transportation is used and where the trek is ended. This trek crosses two different river valleys and encircles the Annapurna Massif. The path reaches its highest point at Thorung La pass (5416m/17769 ft), touching the edge of the Tibetan plateau. Practically all trekkers hike the route anticlockwise, as this way the daily altitude gain is slower, and crossing the high Thorong La pass is easier and safer.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Bhuju, U. R., Shakya, P. R., Basnet, T. B., Shrestha, S. (2007). Nepal Biodiversity Resource Book. Protected Areas, Ramsar Sites, and World Heritage Sites (PDF). Kathmandu: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, in cooperation with United Nations Environment Programme, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. ISBN   978-92-9115-033-5.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  2. Putkonen, J. K. (2004). "Continuous snow and rain data at 500 to 4400 m altitude near Annapurna, Nepal, 1999–2001". Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. 36 (2): 244–248. doi:10.1657/1523-0430(2004)036[0244:CSARDA]2.0.CO;2.