Anne, Duchess of Cumberland and Strathearn

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Anne
Duchess of Cumberland and Strathearn
Anne-Duchess of Cumberland and Strathearn.jpg
BornAnne Luttrell
(1743-01-24)24 January 1743
Marylebone, London
Died28 December 1808(1808-12-28) (aged 65)
Spouse
Christopher Horton
(m. 1765;died 1768)

Father Simon Luttrell, 1st Earl of Carhampton
MotherJudith Maria Lawes

Anne, Duchess of Cumberland and Strathearn (née Anne Luttrell, later Horton; 24 January 1743 28 December 1808) was a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn.

Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn British noble

Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn was the sixth child and fourth son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, and a younger brother of George III. His 1771 marriage to a commoner against the King's wishes prompted the Royal Marriages Act of 1772.

Contents

Early life

Anne was born in Marylebone, London. She was the daughter of Simon Luttrell, later first Earl of Carhampton, and his wife, Judith Maria Lawes. [1]

Marylebone inner-city area of central London

Marylebone is an area in the West End of London, England, which is part of the City of Westminster.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Simon Luttrell, 1st Earl of Carhampton was an Anglo-Irish politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1754 to 1780.

Her father was a Member of the House of Commons before being created Baron Irnham in 1768, Viscount Carhampton in 1781 and Earl of Carhampton in 1785.

Earl of Carhampton

Earl of Carhampton was a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1785 for Simon Luttrell, 1st Viscount Carhampton. He had already been created Baron Irnham, of Luttrellstown in the County of Dublin, in 1768 and Viscount Carhampton, of Castlehaven in the County of Cork, in 1781, also in the Peerage of Ireland. He was the son of Henry Luttrell. Lord Carhampton was succeeded by his eldest son, the second Earl. He was a General in the British Army and served as Commander-in-Chief of Ireland from 1796 to 1798. He was childless and was succeeded by his younger brother, the third Earl. He was a Captain in the Royal Navy and also sat as Member of Parliament for Stockbridge. He married as his first wife the Honourable Elizabeth Olmius, daughter of John Olmius, 1st Baron Waltham, and assumed in 1787 by Royal Licence the additional surname of Olmius. Lord Carhampton had no sons and the titles became extinct on his death in 1829. Already the same year George IV offered to revive the earldom in favour of Sir Simeon Stuart, 5th Baronet, son of Sir Simeon Stuart, 4th Baronet, and his wife Lady Frances Maria, daughter of the third Earl. However, the offer was declined.

Marriages

Anne was first married to a commoner, Christopher Horton (sometimes spelled Houghton) of Catton Hall, on 4 August 1765. [2]

She later married Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, the sixth child of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, and a younger brother of George III. Their marriage took place at Hertford Street in Mayfair, London on 2 October 1771.

Frederick, Prince of Wales heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death

Frederick, Prince of Wales, KG, was heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death from a lung injury at the age of 44 in 1751. He was the eldest but estranged son of King George II and Caroline of Ansbach, and the father of King George III.

George III of the United Kingdom King of Great Britain and Ireland

George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, and never visited Hanover.

Mayfair area of central London, England

Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the eastern edge of Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Park Lane. It is one of the most expensive districts in London and the world.

George III did not approve of the marriage as Anne was a commoner and previously married. He later had the Royal Marriages Act 1772 passed to prevent any descendant of George II marrying without the consent of the sovereign, a law which remained in effect until passage of the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, which, in addition to several other modifications, limited the requirement to obtain royal consent to only the first six persons in line to the throne (rather than all descendants).

Royal Marriages Act 1772 law requiring potential heirs to the British throne to receive royal permission to marry

The Royal Marriages Act 1772 was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain, which prescribed the conditions under which members of the British royal family could contract a valid marriage, in order to guard against marriages that could diminish the status of the royal house. The right of veto vested in the sovereign by this act provoked severe adverse criticism at the time of its passage. It was repealed as a result of the 2011 Perth Agreement, which came into force on 26 March 2015. Under the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, the first six people in the line of succession need permission to marry if they and their descendants are to remain in the line of succession.

George II of Great Britain British monarch

George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.

Succession to the Crown Act 2013 act of the UK parliament amending the royal succession to implement the Perth Agreement of 2011

The Succession to the Crown Act 2013 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which altered the laws of succession to the British throne in accordance with the 2011 Perth Agreement. The act repealed the Royal Marriages Act 1772, replacing male-preference primogeniture with absolute primogeniture for those born in the line of succession after 28 October 2011, which meant the eldest child, regardless of sex, would precede his or her brothers and sisters. The act also ended the historical disqualification of a person who married a Roman Catholic from the line of succession, and removed the requirement of those outside the first six persons in line to the throne to seek the Sovereign's approval to marry. It came into force on 26 March 2015, at the same time as the other Commonwealth realms implemented the Perth Agreement in their own laws.

Character and appearance

Horace Walpole wrote "her coquetry was so active, so varied and yet so habitual, that it was difficult not to see through it and yet as difficult to resist it." [3] While she was generally considered a great beauty, Walpole thought her merely "pretty", except for her green eyes, which were enchanting. That her eyes were remarkably expressive is confirmed in the several portraits of Anne by Thomas Gainsborough.

Citations

  1. The Peerage- Lady Anne Luttrell
  2. The Gentleman's Magazine , vol. 35, August 1765. p. 395.
  3. Horace Walpole, ed. Sir Denis Le Marchant, Memoirs of the Reign of King George the Third, vol. iv (London, 1845) p. 357.

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