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|Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund |
March 4, 2004 –June 7, 2004
|Preceded by||Horst Köhler|
|Succeeded by||Rodrigo Rato|
|First Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund|
September 1, 2001 –September 1, 2006
|Preceded by||Stanley Fischer|
|Succeeded by||John Lipsky|
|Chief Economist of the World Bank|
|President||Alden W. Clausen|
|Preceded by||Hollis Chenery|
|Succeeded by||Stanley Fischer|
|Born||February 12, 1934|
Endicott, New York, U.S.
|Education|| Oberlin College (BA)|
University of Wisconsin, Madison (MA, PhD)
|Institutions|| Johns Hopkins University |
University of Minnesota
|James Stainforth Earley|
Anne Osborn Krueger ( // ; born February 12, 1934) is an American economist. She was the World Bank Chief Economist from 1982 to 1986, and the first deputy managing director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) from 2001 to 2006. She is currently the senior research professor of international economics at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies in Washington, D.C. She also is a senior fellow of Center for International Development (also was the founding Director) and the Herald L. and Caroline Ritch Emeritus Professor of Sciences and Humanities' Economics Department at Stanford University.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.
The Chief Economist of the World Bank is the senior economist at the World Bank Group, tasking with providing intellectual leadership and direction to the Bank’s overall international development strategy and economic research agenda, at global, regional and country levels.
Krueger was born on February 12, 1934, in Endicott, New York. Her father was a physician. Her uncles include the Australian politician Sir Reginald Wright and physiologist Sir Roy Wright. She received her undergraduate degree from Oberlin College and her Ph.D. in economics from the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Endicott is a village in Broome County, New York, United States. The population was 13,392 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Binghamton Metropolitan Statistical Area. The village is named after Henry B. Endicott, a founding member of the Endicott Johnson Corporation shoe manufacturing company, who founded the community as the "Home of the Square Deal".
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients, and methods of treatment—known as specialities—or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice. Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines, such as anatomy and physiology, underlying diseases and their treatment—the science of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or craft of medicine.
Sir Reginald Charles Wright was an Australian barrister and politician. A member of the Liberal Party, Wright served as a Senator for Tasmania from 1950 to 1978.
As an economist, Krueger is known in macroeconomics and trade, famously coining the term rent-seeking in a 1974 article.Furthermore, she has frequently criticised the U.S. sugar subsidies. She has published extensively on policy reform in developing countries, the role of multilateral institutions in the international economy, and the political economy of trade policy. In her 1996 Presidential address to the American Economic Association, she explored the lack of congruence between successful trade and development policies enacted worldwide and prevailing academic views.
Rent-seeking is a concept in public choice theory as well as in economics, that involves seeking to increase one's share of existing wealth without creating new wealth. Rent-seeking results in reduced economic efficiency through misallocation of resources, reduced wealth-creation, lost government revenue, heightened income inequality, and potential national decline.
A developing country is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category. A nation's GDP per capita compared with other nations can also be a reference point.
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth. As a discipline, political economy originated in moral philosophy, in the 18th century, to explore the administration of states' wealth, with "political" signifying the Greek word polity and "economy" signifying the Greek word "okonomie". The earliest works of political economy are usually attributed to the British scholars Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo, although they were preceded by the work of the French physiocrats, such as François Quesnay (1694–1774) and Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot (1727–1781).
She taught Economics at the University of Minnesota from 1959 to 1982 before serving as World Bank Chief Economist from 1982 to 1986 where she was the Vice President of Economics and Research.
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota. The Minneapolis and St. Paul campuses are approximately 3 miles (4.8 km) apart, and the St. Paul campus is actually in neighboring Falcon Heights. It is the oldest and largest campus within the University of Minnesota system and has the sixth-largest main campus student body in the United States, with 50,943 students in 2018-19. The university is the flagship institution of the University of Minnesota system, and is organized into 19 colleges and schools, with sister campuses in Crookston, Duluth, Morris, and Rochester.
After leaving the Bank, she taught at Duke University from 1987–1993, when she joined the faculty of Stanford University as Herald L. and Caroline L. Ritch Professor in Humanities and Sciences in the Department of Economics.She was also the founding Director of Stanford's Center for Research on Economic Development and Policy Reform; and a Senior Fellow of the Hoover Institution.
Duke University is a private research university in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James Buchanan Duke established The Duke Endowment and the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke.
Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, wealth, proximity to Silicon Valley, and ranking as one of the world's top universities.
The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California. It began as a library founded in 1919 by Republican and Stanford alumnus Herbert Hoover, before he became President of the United States. The library, known as the Hoover Institution Library and Archives, houses multiple archives related to Hoover, World War I, World War II, and other world history. According to the 2016 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, Hoover is No. 18 in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States".
She served as First Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) from September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2006, serving as Acting Managing Director of the Fund on a temporary basis between March 4, 2004 (resignation of Horst Köhler), and June 7, 2004 (starting date for Rodrigo de Rato's mandate). Until the appointment of Christine Lagarde in 2011, she was the only female to fill the role of IMF Managing Director.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of 189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world. Formed in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system. It now plays a central role in the management of balance of payments difficulties and international financial crises. Countries contribute funds to a pool through a quota system from which countries experiencing balance of payments problems can borrow money. As of 2016, the fund had SDR477 billion.
Horst Köhler is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union, and served as President of Germany from 2004 to 2010. As the candidate of the two Christian Democratic sister parties, the CDU and the CSU, and the liberal FDP, Köhler was elected to his first five-year term by the Federal Assembly on 23 May 2004 and was subsequently inaugurated on 1 July 2004. He was reelected to a second term on 23 May 2009. Just a year later, on 31 May 2010, he resigned from his office in a controversy over his comment on the role of the German Bundeswehr in light of a visit to the troops in Afghanistan. During his tenure as German President, whose office is mostly concerned with ceremonial matters, Köhler was a highly popular politician, with approval rates above those of both chancellor Gerhard Schröder and later chancellor Angela Merkel.
Christine Madeleine Odette Lagarde is a French lawyer and politician serving as the Managing Director (MD) and Chairman of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) since 2011.
In 2005, she was awarded the prestigious title of Honorary Patron of the University Philosophical Society, Trinity College Dublin. Beginning in the spring of 2007, she assumed the position of professor of international economics at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies in Washington, D.C.
She is a Distinguished Fellow and past President of the American Economic Association, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, The Econometric Society,and The American Philosophical Society and a Senior Research Fellow of the National Bureau of Economic Research. She is the recipient of a number of economic prizes and awards.
The 1950s and the 1960s brought the neoclassical argument for open trade under attack because it had ignored (as Krueger quotes it) “dynamic considerations” and they stated that open trade was “static” (p. 51). Throughout the 1990s there was a general consensus that open trade was anything but static and the benefits were largely “dynamic” (p51 ).
In the book, Struggling with Success: Challenges Facing the International Economy (2012), Anne Krueger takes a defensive stance on globalization and the role it has played on improving the world and the lives of the people on it as a whole. She states that, “…globalization, has proceeded at a rapid pace since about 1800 and the degree of interdependence has greatly increased (p 24).” During the same time the industrial countries (whose economies were integrating) saw rapid growth in the quality of life for poor nations (p 24 ). Krueger’s main focus is on the causes of the Asian “Tigers” growth, the rise of government regulation after and slightly before WWII and (regulations) inevitable fall, and how further deregulation improved the world economy.
Krueger places emphasis on the need to remove trade barriers and to deregulate domestic economies in the book Struggling with Success. Krueger says a lot of credit must be given to tools like “producer subsidy equivalent” in helping to remove trade barriers. “That tool permitted negotiations to begin restricting and dismantling agricultural protection (p 63).” These effective protection and cost benefit analysis gave politicians “empirical quantification, however rough, of their relevant magnitudes (p 63 ).” Krueger states that research results should be “observable, hopefully quantifiable, and recognizable by the policy maker (p 64 ).” The most prevalent danger for economist is for their theories to be misinterpreted by policy makers (p 64 ).
Ultimately, regulation has negative effects of the market in the country imposing the regulation and may have spillover effects on other countries trading with the nation imposing the regulations (p85). She points to the interest equalization tax that caused the move of financial capital from the New York to London, Sarbanes-Oxley caused corporate headquarters to be moved from the US, and anti-dumping duties caused the move of computer assembly firms (p85 ). She concludes here by saying that unprecedented economic growth from open trade regimes led to an increased appreciation of supply side economics.
John Williamson is an English economist who coined the term Washington Consensus. He is a critic of capital liberalization and the bipolar exchange rate.
Raghuram Govind Rajan is an Indian economist and an international academician who is the Katherine Dusak Miller Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. He was the 23rd Governor of the Reserve Bank of India between September 2013 and September 2016. Between 2003 and 2006, Rajan was the Chief Economist and Director of Research at the International Monetary Fund. In 2015, during his tenure at the Indian Reserve Bank he also became Vice-Chairman of the Bank for International Settlements.
Randall S. Kroszner is a former member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System of the United States. He was chairman of its Committee on Supervision and Regulation of Banking Institutions during the global financial crisis. He took office on March 1, 2006 to fill an unexpired term, and stepped down on January 21, 2009. Kroszner has been professor of economics at the University of Chicago since the 1990s, with various leaves, and named Norman R. Bobins Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business in 2009, and serves as a senior advisor for Patomak Partners.
Capital controls are residency-based measures such as transaction taxes, other limits, or outright prohibitions that a nation's government can use to regulate flows from capital markets into and out of the country's capital account. These measures may be economy-wide, sector-specific, or industry specific. They may apply to all flows, or may differentiate by type or duration of the flow.
Warner Max Corden is an Australian economist. He is mostly known for his work on the theory of trade protection, including the development of the dutch disease model of international trade. He has also been active in the fields of international monetary systems, macroeconomic policies of developing countries and Australian economics. Corden, originally German, emigrated from Nazi Germany to Melbourne in 1939.
Maurice Moses "Maury" Obstfeld is a professor of economics at the University of California, Berkeley and previously Chief Economist at the International Monetary Fund.
Sho-Chieh Tsiang is a Chinese-American economist. He was born in China but resided primarily in the United States from 1949 until his death. He also resided in Taiwan in 1948 and in the 1980s.
Malcolm D. Knight is a Canadian economist, policymaker and banker. He is currently Visiting Professor of Finance at the London School of Economics and Political Science and a Distinguished Fellow at the Center for International Governance Innovation. From 2008 to 2012, Knight was Vice Chairman of Deutsche Bank Group where he was responsible for developing and coordinating the bank's global approach to issues in financial regulation, supervision, and financial stability. He served as General Manager of the Bank for International Settlements from 2003 to 2008 and as Senior Deputy Governor of the Bank of Canada (1999-2003), after holding senior positions at the International Monetary Fund (1975-1999).
Carlos A. Végh is a Uruguayan academic economist who is currently the World Bank Chief Economist for Latin America and the Caribbean. He is also the Fred H. Sanderson Professor of International Economics at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), where he is on leave, and Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. He was previously a Professor of Economics and Vice-Chair of Undergraduate Studies at UCLA. His research work on monetary and fiscal policy in emerging and developing countries has been highly influential and is regularly featured in the international financial press.
Domenico Lombardi is a former Director of the Global Economy program at the Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI), a non-partisan global governance think tank in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. He is also Chair of the Oxford Institute for Economic Policy. Until 2013 he was a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution.
John Phillip Lipsky is an American economist. He was the acting Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund from May to July 2011. He assumed the post of Acting Managing Director after Dominique Strauss-Kahn was arrested in May 2011 accused of sexual assault. After the appointment of Christine Lagarde he returned to his post as the First Deputy Managing Director of the IMF. He retired from the IMF in November 2011 and is currently a Distinguished Visiting Scholar at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS).
Stephany Griffith-Jones is an economist specialising in international finance and development, with emphasis on reform of the international financial system, specifically in relation to financial regulation, global governance and international capital flows. She is currently financial markets director at the Initiative for Policy Dialogue, based at Columbia University in New York and associate fellow at the Overseas Development Institute. Previously she was professorial fellow at the Institute of Development Studies at Sussex University. She has held the position of deputy director of International Finance at the Commonwealth Secretariat and has worked at the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs and in the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. She started her career in 1970 at the Central Bank of Chile. Before joining the Institute of Development Studies, she worked at Barclays Bank International in the UK. She has acted as senior consultant to governments in Eastern Europe and Latin America and to many international agencies, including the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the European Commission, UNICEF, UNDP and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. She was also a member of the Warwick Commission on international financial reform. She has published over 20 books and written many scholarly and journalistic articles. Her latest book, edited jointly with José Antonio Ocampo and Joseph Stiglitz, Time for the Visible Hand, Lessons from the 2008 crisis, was published in 2010.
Gita Gopinath is an Indian-American economist. She is the John Zwaanstra Professor of International Studies and Economics at Harvard University. She is also a co-director of the International Finance and Macroeconomics program at the National Bureau of Economic Research and has worked as the Economic Adviser to the Chief Minister of Kerala.
Warren L. Coats, Jr., is an economist specializing in monetary policy. He retired from the International Monetary Fund in May 2003 to join the board of directors of the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority. He is president of Economic Consulting, providing technical assistance to central banks, and until recently was adviser to the central banks of Afghanistan and Kazakhstan.
Emmanuel Farhi is a French economist who is currently a professor of economics at Harvard University. His research focuses on macroeconomics and finance. He was a member of the French Economic Analysis Council to the French Prime Minister from 2010 to 2012.
Nicoletta Batini is an Italian economist, notable as a scholar of innovative monetary and fiscal policy practices. During the crisis she pioneered the IMF work exposing the dangers of excessive fiscal austerity and designed ways to consolidate public debt successfully during phases of financial deleveraging. Since 2003 at the International Monetary Fund, she has served as Advisor of the Bank of England’s Monetary Policy Committee between 2000-2003 and was Professor of Economics at the University of Surrey (2007-2012), and Director of the International Economics and Policy office of the Department of the Treasury of Italy’s Ministero dell’Economia e delle Finanze (MEF) between 2013-2015. Batini's fields of expertise include monetary policy, public finance, open economy macroeconomics, labor economics, energy and environmental economics, and economic modeling. She has handled extensive consultancy roles in the public sector in advanced and emerging market countries. She holds a Ph.D. in international finance from the Scuola Superiore S. Anna and a Ph.D. in monetary economics from the University of Oxford.
David I. Meiselman was an American economist. Among his contributions to the field of economics are his work on the term structure of interest rates, the foundation today of the implementation of monetary policy by major central banks, and his work with Milton Friedman on the impact of monetary policy on the performance of the economy and inflation.
Richard A. Radford (1919-2006) was a British-born American economist who served in the International Monetary Fund and became widely known for his 1945 article on POW camp economics.
| Chief Economist of the World Bank |
| First Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund |
| Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund |