Annot

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Annot
Annot, vieille ville.jpg
Entrance to the old town of Annot
Blason Annot.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Annot
Annot
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Annot
Provence-Alpes-Cote d'azur region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Annot
Coordinates: 43°57′57″N6°40′10″E / 43.9658°N 6.6694°E / 43.9658; 6.6694 Coordinates: 43°57′57″N6°40′10″E / 43.9658°N 6.6694°E / 43.9658; 6.6694
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
Arrondissement Castellane
Canton Castellane
Intercommunality Alpes Provence Verdon - Sources de Lumière
Government
  Mayor (20202026) Marion Cozzi [1]
Area
1
29.8 km2 (11.5 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2018) [2]
1,036
  Density35/km2 (90/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
04008 /04240
Elevation599–1,638 m (1,965–5,374 ft)
(avg. 680 m or 2,230 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Annot (French pronunciation:  [anɔt] ; Occitan : Anòt) is a commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of southeastern France.

Contents

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Annotains or Annotaines [3]

The commune has been awarded one flower by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. [4]

Geography

Annot is located some 80 km north-west of Nice, 15 km east of Saint-Andre-les-Alpes, and 13 km west of Puget-Theniers. Access to the commune is by National Road N202 from Saint-Andre-les-Alpes to Puget-Theniers which passes through the south of the commune. Access to the village is by road D908 running north off the N202 and continuing north to Le Fugeret. [5] There are two railway stations in the commune: Scaffarels station, an optional stop built on a masonry embankment; and Annot Railway Station near the village. They are both served by the line from Nice to Digne. [6]

Scaffarels Station built on a masonry embankment. Gare-des-Scaffarels.JPG
Scaffarels Station built on a masonry embankment.

The hamlet of Les Scaffarels is south-east of the village and there is also the hamlet of Rouaine on the N202 in the south. The commune is mountainous and heavily forested. The forests occupy 2,712 hectares of the commune. [7]

The Galange river forms most of the southern border of the commune while the Vaire flows from north to south past the village gathering many tributaries through the commune. The Beite river joins the Vaire at the village while the Canal des Gastres flows south-east near the village then curves north to join the Coulomp just north-east of the commune.

Geology

The village is located within a resurgence of sandstone amidst limestone mountains at 680 m altitude. This resurgence is up to 250m thick. The rocky ridge overlooking the village is formed of sandstone. The debris that has formed below in picturesque shapes with names such as: the Dent du Diable (Tooth of the Devil), the Chambre du Roi (King's Chamber), the défilé des Garambes (Defile of Garambes), the Chameau des lumières (Camelback of lights), and the rocks of the Cent-Marches (Hundred Steps). It has been classed as a natural site since 1920. [8] Certain houses have been built directly against a rock fallen from the crag: the rock is bigger than a house. The acidic soils on the left bank of the Vaïre allow for chestnut growing.

The centre of the town (Saint-Jean-Baptiste Church, formerly Saint-Pons) has been built on a rocky outcrop between the Vaïre and Beïte rivers.

High points

Natural and technological risks

None of the 200 communes of the department is in a no seismic risk zone. The Canton of Annot is in zone 1b (low risk) according to the deterministic classification of 1991 based on the historical seismic data [9] and in zone 4 (medium risk) according to the probabilistic classification EC8 of 2011. [9] The town of Annot is also exposed to three other natural hazards: [10]

The commune of Annot is also exposed to a risk of technological origin: the transport of dangerous goods by road. [9] The N202 national road can be traveled by carriers of dangerous goods. [9]

The foreseeable natural risk prevention plan (PPR) of the commune was approved in 1990 for flood risk, landslide, and earthquake [9] but a new one was requested in 2003 and a DICRIM has existed since 2011. [11]

The town has had several natural disasters from flooding and mudslides in 1994 [10] and an earthquake powerfully felt in the town on 17 February 1947 whose epicentre was located in the Piedmont. [12]

Neighbouring communes and villages

Toponymy

The locality appears for the first time in charters of 1042 as Anoth when its Lord, Ermerincus of Anoth, gave it to the Abbey of Saint Victor, Marseille. The name perhaps comes from the Gallic ana plus the Latin suffix ottum designating a small marsh. [13] [14] Charles Rostaing thought that the name Ana designated it as an older town which preceded the upper town called Sigumanna. [15] According to Daniel Thiery, the name Sigumanna, cited in the same document as Annot, means the territory rather than a place or a specific village and this name of the territory is probably derived from the name of pre-Roman people who occupied the valley. [16]

The commune name is Anòt in Provençal.

The name of the hamlet of Rouaine comes from the Roman name *Rugius with the suffix -ane indicating the domain of Rugius. [17]

History

Antiquity

The name of the people settled in the valley on the arrival of the Romans is not certain, but it may be the Nemeturii. An oppidum was located at a place called Vers-la-Ville. [18]

Middle Ages

Old village Maison d'Annot.jpg
Old village

The original village was probably in the middle of "Grès d'Annot" (Annot sandstone). The houses were mostly wooden (locations for beams are visible in the rocks that the houses backed on to) and more than one floor. The path called "Vers-la-Ville" leading to a chapel is certainly a testimony to its past existence. On this path there is a large sandstone rock ("the rock of 100 steps") on which a staircase is carved. Around the rock's summit there are holes dug to accommodate wooden beams.

Subsequently, the village was built between the Vaïre and Beite rivers and was fortified around the church of Saint-Pons in 1042. [19] The Lord was the Abbey of Saint Victor, Marseille, who received very many gifts. [16] The Abbey shared some rights with the Order of the Temple. [20] [21] After the dissolution of the Order of the Temple, its property at Fugeret and Annot passed to the Abbey Saint-Pons of Nice. [16]

The lordship then passed to the counts of Provence. [20] The death of Queen Joanna I created a succession crisis for the head of the County of Provence. The towns of the Union of Aix (1382-1387) supported Charles de Duras against Louis I of Anjou. The Annot community supported Duras until 1386 then switched sides to join the Angevins through patient negotiations by Marie de Blois, widow of Louis I and regent for their son Louis II. The surrender of Aix could also have played a role in the turnaround of the community. [22]

A Fair was established in 1388 by Marie de Blois which was maintained until the end of the Ancien Régime. [19] [23] [24] She also authorised a weekly market. [25] Finally in the 15th and 16th centuries it was the Saint-Pons family who were the Lords. [20]

Modern Times

During the Wars of religion the city was attacked by the Protestants in 1574 [26] commanded by the Baron of l'Isle. [27] Annot was spared the plague epidemics of 1626 and 1670 which nevertheless affected Castellane and Entrevaux. [28]

In May 1672 the entire population of the village, led by the notaries and the apothecary, repulsed the new vicar who had been imposed by the diocese and not from the country. [29]

At the end of the 17th century the village was gradually emerging from isolation: the Bishop of Entrevaux, Ithier, established a fortnightly postal service between Entrevaux and Aix by mules, which also served Annot and Guillaumes. [30] [31] The culture of Roman law, which requires frequent use of a notary, was very much alive: thus four notaries were established in Annot in 1680. [30] In the 18th century a viguerie was installed at Annot which also served the communities of Braux, La Colle, Fugeret, Méailles, Argenton, Peyresc, and Saint-Benoît. [25]

In June 1704, as part of the War of the Spanish Succession, a communal militia was raised at Ubraye and Annot. They were repulsed by the Savoyards in the Valley of Marguery, and many residents of both communities were taken prisoner. The ransom for those from Annot amounted to 1,200 livres. [32]

The French Revolution

The community was fully part of the movement of the French Revolution. After sending their complaints in 1789, they planted a tree of liberty in the Place Revelly. [33] The patriotic society of the commune was created during the summer of 1792: [34] it was called the Club of Friends of the Revolution. [33]

19th and 20th centuries

Annot Railway Station Annot station 2012.JPG
Annot Railway Station

In the 19th century the commune was experiencing some industrial development through the spinning and weaving of wool on the model of the Honnorat factory in Saint-André-de-Méouilles. [35] The Moulard factory opened in the early 1830s and the Roux factory in 1836 (but it disappeared before 1843 [36] ). In 1856 two factories employed 40 workers. [37]

The railway arrived at Annot in 1908 with the opening of the penultimate section of the line from Nice to Digne. [38] The Colle tunnel was completed in 1903 and the entire line between Nice and Digne was opened from 5 to 7 August 1911 in the presence of Victor Augagneur, Minister of Public Works. [39]

During the First World War soldiers were assigned to Annot to defend the railway lines for Railways of Provence.

The doctor from Annot belonged to the Milice. His father was shot on 6 August 1944 by the Francs-Tireurs et Partisans from the 11th company. [40]

Until the middle of the 20th century there was a vineyard in Annot whose production was consumed locally and was exported. There remains nothing now. [41]

21st century

On 9 February 2014, a rock tumbled down a mountainside and derailed a train on the Chemins de Fer de Provence near Annot, killing two passengers.

Heraldry

The town of Annot used at least two different shields, both making reference to chestnuts. The current arms of Annot are the second described below without picture.

Arms of Annot Blason Annot.svg
Arms of Annot
These arms. are not dated. It is possible that they are the oldest in the community.

Blazon:
Azure, Fess of Argent charged with the word ANNOT in Roman capitals in Sable, in chief two chestnut branches of Or posed saltirewise and in base a fleur-de-lise the same. [42]

blazon1 Escutcheon to draw-en.svg
blazon1
These arms existed in 1648 [43]

Blazon:
Argent, a chestnut tree Vert charged with two hedgehogs of Or and with three fleurs-de-lis the same in base, 2 and 1. [44]

Administration

List of Successive Mayors [45]

FromToNameParty
1977Fernand Faissole
19772001Yves Bono
20012020Jean Ballester DVD
2020CurrentMarion Cozzi

Inter-communality

Annot is part of:

Education

The commune has a computerized library (catalogue online).

The town has two educational institutions:

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±%
20061,015    
20071,019+0.4%
20081,028+0.9%
20091,046+1.8%
20101,058+1.1%
20111,070+1.1%
20121,082+1.1%
20131,068−1.3%
20141,054−1.3%
20151,049−0.5%
20161,046−0.3%

Economy

In 2017, the active population amounted to 438 people, including 57 unemployed (13%). These workers are in majority employees (81%), and are in majority employed in the commune (71%). [48] Most of the workers are employed in industry and construction (56% in 2015). Agriculture does not provide any employment. Services and administration, with 134 jobs, takes up the remaining 44% of the working population. [48] At the end of 2015 establishments active in the town were mainly shops and services (87 out of 142 establishments) followed by firms in the secondary sector (27), the government, health, the social sector, and education (25 establishments). [48]

Flock of Sheep Mouton sur la route de Entrevaux a Annot 0566.JPG
Flock of Sheep

At the end of 2015 the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, fisheries) had 3 different establishments. [48] A cheese bears the appellation Fromage d'Annot or Tomme d'Annot.

At the end of 2015 the secondary sector (industry and construction) had 27 establishments and employed 169 employees. [48]

The main employer in the town is the Faissole [49] biscuit factory which has produced biscuits and toasted buns since the 1960s [49] and employs 118 employees with an annual turnover of €11 million. [50] The agri-food sector also has the Rigault and Co. factory for cured meats with 18 employees. [51]

A small central hydroelectric plant is installed on the Vaïre near Scaffarels. The water chute is 46 m high and drives a turbine of 820 kW. Production is currently halted from July to October. The plant is equipped with a fish slide. [52]

At the end of 2015 the tertiary sector (trades and services) had 87 establishments with 48 employees plus another 25 administrative establishments employing 86 people. [48]

According to Departmental Observatory of Tourism, the tourist function is important for the town, with between 1 and 5 tourists welcomed per year per inhabitant. [53] Most of the accommodation capacity is non-market. [54] Several tourist accommodation structures exist in the commune:

Overall, second homes add a significant extra accommodation capacity in the commune [64] with 334 homes (35% of the houses in the town). [48]

In summer, the passage of the steam train on the line from Nice to Digne between Puget-Théniers and Annot adds significant tourist activity to the commune. [65] In 2006-2007 this increased the patronage on the line by 50 to 60%. [66]

An Equestrian Centre is located in the commune. [67]

Tourism

Annot is well regarded for bouldering and is particularly popular among climbers, as the second biggest developed area of that kind in France. [68]

Culture and heritage

Civil heritage

Views of Annot town.
A medieval lane Altstadt von Annot.JPG
A medieval lane
Bridge over the Vaire Pont d'Annot.jpg
Bridge over the Vaïre

Religious heritage

The parish church of Saint John the Baptist Annot-200804-1.jpg
The parish church of Saint John the Baptist

The commune has several religious buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments:

Chapel of Verimande. Annot, Chapelle de Verimande.JPG
Chapel of Vérimande.

Environmental heritage

Annot Sandstone Annot les gres.jpg
Annot Sandstone

Military heritage

The Medieval Ramparts are still partly visible, doors have been conserved and provide access to the old village. Tall houses surrounding the town formed the outer wall and marked the outline of the medieval city. At Vérimande there is Templar Chapel and a house said to be from the Templars: a large structure with a tower Dovecote.

Notable people linked to the commune

Bibliography

See also

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  61. "Village Holidays Le Pré Martin... the name changes, the structure remains!", À l’ombre du Baou, May 2009, No. 23, p. 7 (in French)
  62. Atlas of Tourist Accommodation, opcit, p. 30 (in French)
  63. "29 March 2010", À l’ombre du Baou, May 2010, No. 26, p. 9 (in French)
  64. Atlas of Tourist Accommodation, opcit, p. 44 (in French)
  65. Bernard Viglino, "Return of steam trains to Annot Station", À l’ombre du Baou, January 2010, No. 25, p. 5 (in French)
  66. "Assessment of the Tourist season 2007", À l’ombre du Baou, October 2007, No. 19, p. 9 (in French)
  67. Le centre équestre d’Annot Archived October 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  68. YDE. "Bouldering in Annot, France". www.rockclimber.de. Retrieved 2016-09-22.
  69. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA04001114 Pont de la Donne (in French)
  70. Raymond Collier, Upper Provence Monumental and Artistic, Digne, Imprimerie Louis Jean, 1986, 559 p., p 355 (in French)
  71. Raymond Collier, op. cit. , p 357 and 366 (in French)
  72. Raymond Collier, opcit, p 425 (in French)
  73. 1 2 3 Notice that it was consecrated by Guy Barruol in Guy Barruol, Philippe Autran, and Jacqueline Ursch, On one side or the other: the bridges of Haute-Provence from Antiquity to today, Les Alpes de Lumière no 153, Forcalquier 2006, p 56-57. (in French)
  74. 1 2 3 Serge Montens, The most beautiful bridges in France, Paris, Bonneton, 2001, ISBN   2-86253-275-4, p. 41 (in French)
  75. 1 2 Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA04001392 Church of Saint John the Baptist (in French)
  76. 1 2 3 Raymond Collier, opcit, p 116 (in French)
  77. 1 2 Raymond Collier, opcit, p 76
  78. Raymond Collier, opcit, p 169
  79. Raymond Collier, opcit, p 215
  80. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001588 Monstrance (in French)
  81. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001587 Chalice (in French)
  82. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001586 Ciborium (in French)
  83. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001585 Statue: Saint Antoine (in French)
  84. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001584 Bust-Reliquary: Saint Peter (in French)
  85. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001583 Framed Painting: Baptism of Christ (in French)
  86. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001582 Statue: Saint Joseph (in French)
  87. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001581 Statue: Saint John the Baptist (in French)
  88. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001580 Statue: Saint Fortunat (in French)
  89. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001579 Celebrant's Chair (in French)
  90. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00080351 Covered Wayside Cross (in French) Camera aabb.svg
  91. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00080350 Chapel of Notre-Dame-de-Vers-la-Ville (in French) Camera aabb.svg
  92. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA04001385 Chapel of Notre-Dame-de-Vers-la-Ville (in French)
  93. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001595 Cherubs holding candles (in French)
  94. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001598 Monstrance (in French)
  95. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001597 Painting: Portrait of Christ (in French)
  96. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001596 Retable and Painting: Virgin and child (in French)
  97. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001594 Painting: Virgin of Suffering (in French)
  98. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002081 Painting: Virgin of Suffering (in French)
  99. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001593 Painting: Ecce homo (in French)
  100. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002082 Painting: Ecce homo (1) (in French)
  101. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002083 Painting: Ecce homo (2) (in French)
  102. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001592 Statue: Virgin and child (in French)
  103. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04000015 Painting: Ex-voto (in French)
  104. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002080 Painting: Ex-voto (in French)
  105. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002084 Furniture in the Church (in French)
  106. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002079 Painting Ex-voto: Virgin and child (in French)
  107. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002078 Painting: Christ between two thieves (in French)
  108. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002077 2 Statuettes: Angels with torches (in French)
  109. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002076 Statue-Reliquary: Virgin and child (in French)
  110. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002075 Walnut Frame (in French)
  111. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002074 Painting: Annunciation (in French)
  112. 1 2 Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA04001391 Church of Saint Peter (in French)
  113. Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA04001386 Chapel of Notre-Dame-de-Vérimande (in French)
  114. Raymond Collier, opcit, p 219
  115. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001591 Statue: Saint Mary-Magdalene (in French)
  116. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002086 Statue: Saint Mary-Magdalene (in French)
  117. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001590 Statue: Saint Anne (in French)
  118. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002087 Statue: Saint Anne (in French)
  119. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001589 Bust-Reliquary: Saint Fortunat (in French)
  120. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002089 Bust-Reliquary: Saint Fortunat (in French)
  121. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04000018 Painting: Saints Martin and Pons with the Virgin (in French)
  122. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002088 Painting: Saints Martin and Pons with the Virgin (in French)
  123. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04000016 Painting: Saints Prosper, Fortunat, Innocent, and Secure (in French)
  124. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002085 Painting: Saints Prosper, Fortunat, Innocent, and Secure (in French)
  125. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002099 Bronze Bell (in French)
  126. Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM04002090 Furniture in the Chapel (in French)
  127. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001578 Painting: Placing in the Tomb (in French)
  128. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001577 Painting: Saint Famille (in French)
  129. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001576 Bust-Reliquary: Saint Clair (in French)
  130. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001575 Bust-Reliquary: Saint Blaise (in French)
  131. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04001571 Painting: Virgin and child (in French)
  132. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04000546 Retable and Painting: Descent from the Cross with the white penitents and Louis XIII (in French) Camera aabb.svg
  133. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04000545 Statue: Virgin and child (in French)
  134. Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM04000544 Statue: Virgin and child (in French)