Ansbach

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Ansbach
Ansbach Centre.jpg
Wappen von Ansbach.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Ansbach
Germany adm location map.svg
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Ansbach
Bavaria location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Ansbach
Coordinates: 49°18′0″N10°35′0″E / 49.30000°N 10.58333°E / 49.30000; 10.58333 Coordinates: 49°18′0″N10°35′0″E / 49.30000°N 10.58333°E / 49.30000; 10.58333
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Middle Franconia
District Urban district
Government
   Lord Mayor Carda Seidel (BAP/FWG/ödp)
Area
  Total99.92 km2 (38.58 sq mi)
Elevation
405 m (1,329 ft)
Population
 (2018-12-31) [1]
  Total41,847
  Density420/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
91522
Dialling codes 0981
Vehicle registration AN
Website www.ansbach.de
Former building Gewerbevereins Ansbach Ansbach, ehemaliges Gebaude des Gewerbevereins Ansbach DmD-5-61-000-113 foto11 2016-08-05 09.05.jpg
Former building Gewerbevereins Ansbach
Ansbach in the 17th century De Merian Frankoniae 108.jpg
Ansbach in the 17th century

Ansbach ( /ˈænzbæk/ ; German pronunciation: [ˈansbax] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city in the German state of Bavaria. It is the capital of the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Ansbach is 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Nuremberg and 90 miles (140 km) north of Munich, on the Fränkische Rezat (Rezat River), a tributary of the Main river. In 2004, its population was 40,723.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Bavaria State in Germany

Bavaria, officially the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg.

<i>Regierungsbezirk</i> subdivision of some of the 16 federal states in Germany

A Regierungsbezirk is a type of administrative division in Germany.

Contents

Developed in the 8th century as a Benedictine monastery, it became the seat of the Hohenzollern family in 1331. In 1460, the Margraves of Brandenburg-Ansbach lived here. The city has a castle known as Margrafen–Schloss, built between 1704–1738. It was not badly damaged during the World Wars and hence retains its original historical baroque sheen. Ansbach is now home to a US military base and to the Ansbach University of Applied Sciences.

House of Hohenzollern dynasty of former princes, electors, kings, and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania

The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty whose members were variously princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle. The first ancestors of the Hohenzollerns were mentioned in 1061.

Ansbach University of Applied Sciences

The Ansbach University of Applied Sciences is a university of applied sciences (Fachhochschule) in Ansbach, Bavaria, Germany. It was founded in 1996 and counted approximately 1,800 students as of 2008. It is the newest University of Applied Sciences in the Free State of Bavaria. The percentage of foreign students is about 6 percent. As of 2010 there are 2,300 students.

The city has connections via autobahn A6 and highways B13 and B14. Ansbach station is on the Nürnberg–Crailsheim and Treuchtlingen–Würzburg railways and is the terminus of line S4 of the Nuremberg S-Bahn.

Bundesautobahn 6 federal motorway in Germany

Bundesautobahn 6, also known as Via Carolina is a 477 km (296.4 mi) long German autobahn. It starts at the French border near Saarbrücken in the west and ends at the Czech border near Waidhaus in the east.

Bundesstraße 14 federal highway in Germany

Bundesstraße 14 is a German federal road. It connects Stockach in Baden-Württemberg with Rozvadov in the Czech Republic.

Ansbach station railway station in Ansbach, Germany

Ansbach station is the central transportation hub in the town of Ansbach in southern Germany. It is here that two main lines cross: the Nürnberg–Crailsheim and Treuchtlingen–Würzburg railways.

Name origin

Ansbach was originally called Onoltesbach (about 790 AD), a term composed of three parts.

The individual word elements are "Onold" (the city founder's name), the Suffix "-es" (a possessive ending, like "-'s" in English) and the Old High German expression "pah" or "bach" (for brook). The name of the city has slightly changed throughout the centuries into Onoltespah (837 AD), Onoldesbach (1141 AD), Onoldsbach (1230 AD), Onelspach (1338 AD), Onsbach (1508 AD) and finally Ansbach (1732 AD). [2] [3]

In linguistics, a suffix is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word. Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns or adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs.

Old High German Earliest stage of the German language, spoken from 500/750 to 1050 AD

Old High German is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 750 to 1050. There is no standardised or supra-regional form of German at this period, and Old High German is an umbrella term for the group of continental West Germanic dialects which underwent the set of consonantal changes called the Second Sound Shift.

Stream A body of surface water flowing down a channel

A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel. The stream encompasses surface and groundwater fluxes that respond to geological, geomorphological, hydrological and biotic controls.

It was also formerly known as Anspach. [4]

History

According to folklore, towards the end of the 7th century a group of Franconian peasants and their families went up into the wilderness to found a new settlement. Their leader Onold led them to an area called the "Rezattal" (Rezat valley). This is where they founded the "Urhöfe" (meaning the first farms: Knollenhof, Voggenhof and Rabenhof). Gradually more settlers, such as the "Winden-Tribe" came, and the farms grew into a small village. Many villages around Ansbach were founded by the "Winden" during that period (even today their settlements can easily identified by their names, like "Meinhardszwinden", "Dautenwinden" or "Brodswinden" for example). A Benedictine monastery was established there around 748 by the Frankish noble St Gumbertus. The adjoining village of Onoltesbach is first noticed as a proper town in 1221. [5]

Franks Germanic people

The Franks were a group of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term was associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Western Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine. They then imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, and still later they were given recognition by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.

The counts of Öttingen ruled over Ansbach until the Hohenzollern burgrave of Nürnberg took over in 1331. The Hohenzollerns made Ansbach the seat of their dynasty until their acquisition of the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1415. After the 1440 death of Frederick I, a cadet branch of the family established itself as the margraves of Ansbach. George the Pious introduced the Protestant Reformation to Ansbach in 1528, leading to the secularization of Gumbertus Abbey in 1563.

Margraviate of Brandenburg major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806

The Margraviate of Brandenburg was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.

Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg 1371 – 1440, Burgrave of Nuremberg as Frederick VI and Elector of Brandenburg as Frederick I

Frederick was the last Burgrave of Nuremberg from 1397 to 1427, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach from 1398, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach from 1420, and Elector of Brandenburg from 1415 until his death. He became the first member of the House of Hohenzollern to rule the Margraviate of Brandenburg.

George, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach

George of Brandenburg-Ansbach, known as George the Pious, was a Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach from the House of Hohenzollern.

The Markgrafenschloß was built between 1704–1738. [6] Its gardens continued to be a notable attraction into the 19th century. [7] In 1791, the last margrave sold his realm to the Kingdom of Prussia. [7] In 1796, the Duke of Zweibrücken, Maximilian Joseph — the future Bavarian king Max I Joseph — was exiled to Ansbach after Zweibrücken had been taken by the French. In Ansbach, Maximilian von Montgelas wrote an elaborate concept for the future political organization of Bavaria, which is known as the Ansbacher Mémoire. [8] Napoleon forced Prussia to cede Ansbach and its principality to Bavaria [7] in the Franco-Prussian treaty of alliance signed at Schönbrunn Palace on 15 December 1805 at the end of the Third Coalition. The act was confirmed by the 1815 Congress of Vienna; [7] Prussia was compensated with the Bavarian duchy of Berg.[ citation needed ] Ansbach became the capital of the circle of Middle Franconia following the unification of Germany; at the time, it had a population of 12,635. [7]

Jewish families were resident in Ansbach from at least the end of the 18th century. They set up a Jewish Cemetery in the Ruglaender Strasse, which was vandalised and razed under the Nazi regime in the Kristallnacht. It was repaired in 1946, but it was damaged several times more. A plaque on the wall of the cemetery commemorates these events. The Jewish Congregation built its synagogue at No 3 Rosenbadstrasse, but it too was damaged by the SA, though it was not burnt down for fear of damaging the neighbouring buildings. It serves today as a "Symbolic House of God". A plaque in the entrance serves as a memorial to the synagogue and to Jewish residents who were murdered during the Holocaust.[ citation needed ] In 1940, at least 500 patients were deported from the Heil- und Pflegeanstalt Ansbach [Ansbach Medical and Nursing Clinic] to the extermination facilities Sonnenstein and Hartheim which were disguised as psychiatric institutions, as part of the Action T4 euthanasia action. They were gassed there. At the clinic in Ansbach itself, around 50 intellectually disabled children were injected with the drug Luminal and killed that way. A plaque was erected in their memory in 1988 in the local hospital at No. 38 Feuchtwangerstrasse.[ citation needed ]

During World War II, a subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was located here. [9] Also during the Second World War the Luftwaffe and Wehrmacht had bases here. The nearby airbase was the home station for the Stab & I/KG53 (Staff & 1st Group of Kampfgeschwader 53) operating 38 Heinkel He 111 bombers. On 1 September 1939 this unit was one of the many that participated in the attack on Poland that started the war. All of its bridges were destroyed during the course of the war. During the Western Allied invasion of Germany in April 1945, the airfield was seized by the United States Third Army, and used by the USAAF 354th Fighter Group which flew P-47 Thunderbolts from the aerodrome (designated ALG R-82) from late April until the German capitulation on 7 May 1945. [10] [11] [12] At the end of the war, 19-year-old student Robert Limpert tried to get the town to surrender to the US Forces without a fight. He was betrayed by Hitler Youth and was hung from the portal of the City Hall by the city's military commander, Col. (Oberst) Ernst Meyer. Several memorials to his heroic deed have been erected over the years, despite opposition from some residents — in the Ludwigskirche, in the Gymnasium Carolinum and at No 6 Kronenstrasse.[ citation needed ] After the Second World War, Ansbach belonged to the American Zone. The American Military authorities established a displaced persons (DP) camp in what used to be a sanatorium in what is today the Strüth quarter.[ citation needed ]

Bachwoche Ansbach has been held in Ansbach since 1947. Since 1970, Ansbach has enlarged its municipal area by incorporating adjacent communities. Ansbach hosts several units of the U.S. armed forces, associated with German units under NATO. There are five separate U.S. installations: Shipton Kaserne, home to 412th Aviation Support Battalion, Katterbach Kaserne, formerly the home of the 1st Infantry Division's 4th Combat Aviation Brigade, which has been replaced by the 12th Combat Aviation Brigade as of 2006, as part of the 1st Infantry Division's return to Fort Riley, Kansas; Bismarck Kaserne, which functions as a satellite post to Katterbach, hosting their Post Theater, barracks, Von Steuben Community Center, Military Police, and other support agencies, Barton Barracks, home to the USAG Ansbach and Bleidorn Barracks, which has a library and housing, and Urlas, which hosts the Post Exchange as well as a housing area opened in 2010. Ansbach was also home to the headquarters of the 1st Armored Division (United States) from 1972 to the early 1990s. [13]

On 24 July 2016 a bomb was detonated in a restaurant in the city, killing only the bomber himself and injuring few people. The perpetrator was reported to be a Syrian refugee whose asylum application had been rejected but who had been given exceptional leave to remain until the security situation in Syria returned to a safe condition. Witnesses reported he had tried to enter a nearby music festival but had been turned away, before detonating his device outside a nearby wine bar. [14] [15]

Boroughs

Lord Mayors

Sights

Climate

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen climate classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate). [17]

Climate data for Ansbach
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)1
(33)
3
(37)
7
(45)
12
(53)
17
(62)
19
(67)
22
(71)
22
(71)
18
(65)
13
(55)
6
(42)
2
(36)
12
(53)
Daily mean °C (°F)−1
(30)
1
(33)
4
(39)
8
(46)
12
(54)
16
(60)
18
(64)
17
(63)
14
(57)
9
(49)
4
(39)
1
(33)
8
(47)
Average low °C (°F)−3
(27)
−2
(28)
1
(33)
3
(38)
8
(46)
11
(52)
13
(55)
13
(55)
9
(49)
6
(42)
1
(34)
−1
(30)
5
(41)
Average precipitation mm (inches)38
(1.5)
38
(1.5)
33
(1.3)
30
(1.2)
58
(2.3)
61
(2.4)
66
(2.6)
94
(3.7)
46
(1.8)
51
(2)
30
(1.2)
56
(2.2)
600
(23.6)
Source: Weatherbase [18]

Economy

Around the time of the unification of Germany in 1871, the chief manufactures of Ansbach were woollen, cotton, and half-silk goods; earthenware; tobacco; cutlery; and playing cards. A considerable trade in grain, wool, and flax was also supported. [7] By the onset of the First World War, it also produced machinery, toys, and embroidery. [19]

Today there is a large density of plastics industry in the city and rural districts around Ansbach. [20]

Transport

Ansbach lies on the Treuchtlingen-Würzburg railway.

Notable people

Kaspar Hauser 1828/1829 Kaspar hauser.jpg
Kaspar Hauser 1828/1829

Born in Ansbach

Theodor Escherich Theodor Escherich.jpg
Theodor Escherich

International relations

Ansbach is twinned with:

In the novel The Schirmer Inheritance (1953) by Eric Ambler (1909–1998), Sergeant Franz Schirmer of the Ansbach Dragoons is wounded in the battle of Preussisch-Eylau in 1807. He returns to Ansbach to settle but changes his name as he has been posted as a deserter. The bulk of the novel concerns efforts by an American law firm to trace his descendants to claim an inheritance.

See also

Notes

  1. "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). July 2019.
  2. Wolf-Armin von Reitzenstein: Lexikon fränkischer Ortsnamen (eng: "Lexicon to franconian toponymy"), Verlag C. H. Beck, Munich 2009, ISBN   978-3-406-59131-0. (in German)
  3. Heinz Bischof, Wilhelm Sturmfels: Unsere Ortsnamen. Im ABC erklärt nach Herkunft und Bedeutung (eng: "Names of our towns. A Guide to name origins and significance"), Dümmler Verlag, Rastatt 1961, (in German)
  4. "Anspach-Baireuth" (in German). Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2016-02-21.
  5. Werner Bürger: Heimatgeschichte der Stadt Ansbach (eng: "The history of Ansbach"), Oldenburg Verlag, Munich 1990, (in German)
  6. Spaltro, Kathleen; et al. (2005). Royals of England: A Guide for Readers, Travelers, and Genealogists. iUniverse. p. 262. ISBN   9780595373123 . Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 EB (1878).
  8. "Montgelas".
  9. Christine O'Keefe. Concentration Camps.
  10. "Factsheets : 354 Operations Group (PACAF)". Archived from the original on 2013-01-04.
  11. "Skylighters, The Web Site of the 225th AAA Searchlight Battalion: USAAF Airfields in the ETO".
  12. "AAF Airfields". Archived from the original on 2009-01-06.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  13. A Summary History of the 1st Armored Division
  14. Tannenberg, Robert (26 July 2016). "Seehofer fordert Überprüfung aller Flüchtlinge" via Welt Online.
  15. "Ansbach explosion: Syrian asylum seeker blows himself up in Germany". BBC News.
  16. de:Ernst-Günther Zumach
  17. "Ansbach, Germany Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)".
  18. "Weatherbase.com". Weatherbase. 2013. Retrieved on 6 July 2013.
  19. EB (1911).
  20. website of the Ansbach economic forum (in German)

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References