Anthony van Dyck

Last updated

Anthony van Dyck
Anthonyvandyckselfportrait.jpeg
Born
Antoon van Dyck

22 March 1599
Died9 December 1641(1641-12-09) (aged 42)
London
Nationality Flemish
Education Hendrick van Balen,
Peter Paul Rubens
Known forPainting
Movement Baroque

Sir Anthony van Dyck (Dutch pronunciation: [vɑn ˈdɛik] , many variant spellings; [1] 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) [2] was a Brabantian Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England after success in the Southern Netherlands and Italy.

Contents

The seventh child of Frans van Dyck, a wealthy Antwerp silk merchant, Anthony painted from an early age. He was successful as an independent painter in his late teens, and became a master in the Antwerp guild in 1618. By this time he was working in the studio of the leading northern painter of the day, Peter Paul Rubens, who became a major influence on his work. Van Dyck worked in London for some months in 1621, then returned to Flanders for a brief time, before travelling to Italy, where he stayed until 1627, mostly in Genoa. In the late 1620s he completed his greatly admired Iconography series of portrait etchings, mostly of other artists. He spent five years in Flanders after his return from Italy, and from 1630 was court painter for the archduchess Isabella, Habsburg Governor of Flanders. In 1632 he returned to London to be the main court painter, at the request of Charles I of England.

With the exception of Holbein, van Dyck and his contemporary Diego Velázquez were the first painters of pre-eminent talent to work mainly as court portraitists, revolutionising the genre. He is best known for his portraits of the aristocracy, most notably Charles I, and his family and associates. Van Dyck became the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted mythological and biblical subjects, including altarpieces, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching. His superb brushwork, apparently rather quickly painted, can usually be distinguished from the large areas painted by his many assistants. His portrait style changed considerably between the different countries he worked in, culminating in the relaxed elegance of his last English period. His influence extends into the modern period. The Van Dyke beard is named after him. During his lifetime, Charles I granted him a knighthood, and he was buried in St Paul's Cathedral, an indication of his standing at the time of his death.

Life and work

Self-portrait, 1613-14 Anthonis van Dyck 008b.jpg
Self-portrait, 1613–14

Education

Antoon van Dyck (his Flemish name) was born to prosperous parents in Antwerp and was the seventh of 12 children. [3] His father was Frans van Dyck, a silk merchant, and his mother was Maria Cupers, daughter of Dirk Cupers and Catharina Conincx. [4] He was baptised on 23 March 1599 (as Anthonio). [5] His talent was evident very early, and he was studying painting with Hendrick van Balen by 1609, and became an independent painter around 1615, setting up a workshop with his even younger friend Jan Brueghel the Younger. [6] By the age of fifteen he was already a highly accomplished artist, as his Self-portrait, 1613–14, shows. [7] He was admitted to the Antwerp painters' Guild of Saint Luke as a free master by February 1618. [8] Within a few years he was to be the chief assistant to the dominant master of Antwerp, and the whole of Northern Europe, Peter Paul Rubens, who made much use of sub-contracted artists as well as his own large workshop. His influence on the young artist was immense. Rubens referred to the nineteen-year-old van Dyck as "the best of my pupils". [9]

The origins and exact nature of their relationship are unclear. It has been speculated that van Dyck was a pupil of Rubens from about 1613, as even his early work shows little trace of van Balen's style, but there is no clear evidence for this. [10] At the same time the dominance of Rubens in the relatively small and declining city of Antwerp probably explains why, despite his periodic returns to the city, van Dyck spent most of his career abroad. [10] In 1620, in Rubens's contract for the major commission for the ceiling of the Carolus Borromeuskerk, the Jesuit church at Antwerp (lost to fire in 1718), van Dyck is specified as one of the "discipelen" who was to execute the paintings to Rubens' designs. [11] Unlike van Dyck, Rubens worked for most of the courts of Europe, but avoided exclusive attachment to any of them.

Italy

Genoan hauteur from the Lomellini family, 1623 Anthonis van Dyck 012.jpg
Genoan hauteur from the Lomellini family, 1623
Grisaille sketch of Magistrates of Brussels, in the Ecole nationale superieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris Van Dyck - Les Echevins de Bruxelles autour de la statue de la Justice, 1634.jpg
Grisaille sketch of Magistrates of Brussels, in the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris

In 1620, at the instigation of George Villiers, Marquess of Buckingham, van Dyck went to England for the first time where he worked for King James I of England, receiving £100. [10] It was in London in the collection of the Earl of Arundel that he first saw the work of Titian, whose use of colour and subtle modeling of form would prove transformational, offering a new stylistic language that would enrich the compositional lessons learned from Rubens. [12]

He returned to Flanders after about four months, and then left in late 1621 for Italy, where he remained for six years. There he studied the Italian masters while starting a successful career as a portraitist. He was already presenting himself as a figure of consequence, annoying the rather bohemian Northern artist's colony in Rome, says Giovan Pietro Bellori, by appearing with "the pomp of Zeuxis ... his behaviour was that of a nobleman rather than an ordinary person, and he shone in rich garments. Since he was accustomed in the circle of Rubens to noblemen, and being naturally of elevated mind, and anxious to make himself distinguished, he therefore wore—as well as silks—a hat with feathers and brooches, gold chains across his chest, and was accompanied by servants." [13]

Anthony van Dyck, by Peter Paul Rubens (1627-28) Anthony Van Dyck, by Peter Paul Rubens.jpg
Anthony van Dyck, by Peter Paul Rubens (1627–28)

He was mostly based in Genoa, although he also travelled extensively to other cities, and stayed for some time in Palermo in Sicily, where he was quarantined during the 1624 plague, one of the worst in Sicily's history. There he produced an important series of paintings of the city's plague saint Saint Rosalia. His depictions of a young woman with flowing blonde hair wearing a Franciscan cowl and reaching down toward the city of Palermo in its peril, became the standard iconography of the saint from that time onward and was extremely influential for Italian Baroque painters, from Luca Giordano to Pietro Novelli. Versions include those in Madrid, Houston, London, New York and Palermo, as well as Saint Rosalia Interceding for the City of Palermo in Puerto Rico, and Coronation of Saint Rosalia in Vienna. Van Dyck's series of St Rosalia paintings have been studied by Gauvin Alexander Bailey and Xavier F. Salomon, both of whom curated or co-curated exhibitions devoted to the theme of Italian art and the plague. [14] [15] [16] In 2020, the New York Times published an article about the Metropolitan Museum of Art's painting of Saint Rosalia by Van Dyck in the context of the COVID-19 virus. [17]

For the Genoese aristocracy, then in a final flush of prosperity, he developed a full-length portrait style, drawing on Veronese and Titian as well as Rubens' style from his own period in Genoa, where extremely tall but graceful figures look down on the viewer with great hauteur. In 1627, he went back to Antwerp where he remained for five years, painting more affable portraits which still made his Flemish patrons look as stylish as possible. A life-size group portrait of twenty-four City Councillors of Brussels he painted for the council-chamber was destroyed in 1695. [18] He was evidently very charming to his patrons, and, like Rubens, well able to mix in aristocratic and court circles, which added to his ability to obtain commissions. By 1630, he was described as the court painter of the Habsburg Governor of Flanders, the Archduchess Isabella. In this period he also produced many religious works, including large altarpieces, and began his printmaking.

London and death

Lord John Stuart and his Brother, Lord Bernard Stuart, c. 1638, exemplifies the more intimate, but still elegant style he developed in England Sir-Anthony-van-Dyck-Lord-John-Stuart-and-His-Brother-Lord-Bernard-Stuart.jpg
Lord John Stuart and his Brother, Lord Bernard Stuart , c. 1638, exemplifies the more intimate, but still elegant style he developed in England

King Charles I was the most passionate collector of art among the Stuart kings, and saw painting as a way of promoting his elevated view of the monarchy. In 1628, he bought the fabulous collection that the Duke of Mantua was forced to sell, and he had been trying since his accession in 1625 to bring leading foreign painters to England. In 1626, he was able to persuade Orazio Gentileschi to settle in England, later to be joined by his daughter Artemisia and some of his sons. Rubens was an especial target, who eventually in 1630 came on a diplomatic mission, which included painting, and he later sent Charles more paintings from Antwerp. Rubens was very well-treated during his nine-month visit, during which he was knighted. Charles's court portraitist, Daniel Mytens, was a somewhat pedestrian Dutchman. Charles was very short, less than 5 feet (1.5 m) tall, and presented challenges to a portrait artist.

Van Dyck remained in touch with the English court and helped King Charles's agents in their search for pictures. He sent some of his own works, including a self portrait (1623) with Endymion Porter, one of Charles's agents, his Rinaldo and Armida (1629), and a religious picture for the Queen. He had also painted Charles's sister, Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia, at The Hague in 1632. In April of that year, van Dyck returned to London and was taken under the wing of the court immediately, being knighted in July and at the same time receiving a pension of £200 a year, in the grant of which he was described as principalle Paynter in ordinary to their majesties . [19] [20] He was well paid for his paintings in addition to this, at least in theory, as King Charles did not actually pay over his pension for five years, and reduced the price of many paintings. He was provided with a house on the River Thames at Blackfriars, then just outside the City of London, thus avoiding the monopoly of the Worshipful Company of Painter-Stainers. A suite of rooms in Eltham Palace, no longer used by the royal family, was also put at his disposal as a country retreat. These residences were managed by his partner Margaret Lemon. [21] His Blackfriars studio was frequently visited by the King and Queen (later a special causeway was built to ease their access), who hardly sat for another painter while van Dyck lived. [10] [18]

Charles I and Henrietta Maria with their two eldest children, Prince Charles and Princess Mary April-August 1632 Henrietta Maria and Charles I.jpg
Charles I and Henrietta Maria with their two eldest children, Prince Charles and Princess Mary April-August 1632

He was an immediate success in England, where he painted large numbers of portraits of the King and Queen Henrietta Maria, as well as their children. Many portraits were done in several versions, to be sent as diplomatic gifts or given to supporters of the increasingly embattled king. Altogether van Dyck has been estimated to have painted forty portraits of King Charles himself, as well as about thirty of the Queen, nine of the Earl of Strafford, and multiple ones of other courtiers. [22] He painted many of the court, and also himself and his mistress, Margaret Lemon. [21]

In England he developed a version of his style which combined a relaxed elegance and ease with an understated authority in his subjects which was to dominate English portrait-painting to the end of the 18th century. Many of these portraits have a lush landscape background. His portraits of Charles on horseback updated the grandeur of Titian's Emperor Charles V, but even more effective and original is his portrait of Charles dismounted in the Louvre: "Charles is given a totally natural look of instinctive sovereignty, in a deliberately informal setting where he strolls so negligently that he seems at first glance nature's gentleman rather than England's King". [23] Although his portraits have created the classic idea of "Cavalier" style and dress, in fact a majority of his most important patrons in the nobility, such as Lord Wharton and the Earls of Bedford, Northumberland and Pembroke, took the Parliamentarian side in the English Civil War that broke out soon after his death. [18]

Lady Elizabeth Thimbelby and her Sister circa 1637 Anthonis van Dyck 014.jpg
Lady Elizabeth Thimbelby and her Sister circa 1637
An anonymous portrait of van Dyck's wife Mary Ruthven (second half of the 17th century), National Museum in Krakow Portrait of Mary Ruthven - MNK XII-A-482 (384961).jpg
An anonymous portrait of van Dyck's wife Mary Ruthven (second half of the 17th century), National Museum in Kraków

The King in Council by letters patent granted van Dyck denizenship in 1638, on 27 February 1640 he married Mary Ruthven, with whom he had one daughter. [24] [25] Mary was the daughter of Patrick Ruthven, who, although the title was forfeited, styled himself Lord Ruthven. [26] She was a Lady-in-waiting to the Queen in 1639–40; this may have been instigated by the King in an attempt to keep him in England. [10] He had spent most of 1634 in Antwerp, returning the following year, and in 1640–41, as the Civil War loomed, spent several months in Flanders and France. In 1640 he accompanied prince John Casimir of Poland after he was freed from French imprisonment. [27]

A letter dated 13 August 1641, from Lady Roxburghe in England to a correspondent in The Hague, reported that van Dyck was recuperating from a long illness. [28] In November, van Dyck's condition worsened, and he returned to England from Paris, where he had gone to paint Cardinal Richelieu. [28] He died in Blackfriars, London on 9 December 1641, the same day as the baptism of his daughter Justiniana. [29] He was buried on 11 December, in the choir of St Paul's Cathedral. His mortal remains and tomb (erected by the king) were destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. [30] [31]

Portraits and other works

Samson and Delilah, c. 1630, a history painting in the manner of Rubens. The use of saturated colours reveals van Dyck's study of Titian Anton van Dyck - Samson and Delilah - Google Art Project.jpg
Samson and Delilah, c. 1630, a history painting in the manner of Rubens. The use of saturated colours reveals van Dyck's study of Titian
Henrietta Maria and the dwarf, Sir Jeffrey Hudson, 1633 Anthonis van Dyck 013.jpg
Henrietta Maria and the dwarf, Sir Jeffrey Hudson , 1633

In the 17th century, demand for portraits was stronger than for other types of work. Van Dyck tried to persuade Charles to commission large-scale series on the history of the Order of the Garter for the Banqueting House, Whitehall, for which Rubens had earlier completed the large ceiling paintings (sending them from Antwerp). A sketch for one wall remains, but by 1638 Charles was too short of money to proceed. [10] This was a problem Velázquez did not have, but equally van Dyck's daily life was not encumbered by trivial court duties as faced by Velázquez. In his visits to Paris in his last years, van Dyck attempted to obtain the commission to paint the Grande Gallerie of the Louvre without success. [32]

A list of history paintings produced by van Dyck in England survives. It was compiled by van Dyck's biographer Bellori, based on information from Sir Kenelm Digby. None of these works appear to remain, except the Eros and Psyche done for the King (below). [10] But many other works, rather more religious than mythological, do survive, and though they are very fine, they do not reach the heights of Velázquez's history paintings. Earlier ones remain very much within the style of Rubens, although some of his Sicilian works are individualistic.

Van Dyck's portraits flattered more than Velázquez's. When Sophia, later Electoress of Hanover, first met Queen Henrietta Maria, in exile in Holland in 1641, she wrote: "Van Dyck's handsome portraits had given me so fine an idea of the beauty of all English ladies, that I was surprised to find that the Queen, who looked so fine in painting, was a small woman raised up on her chair, with long skinny arms and teeth like defence works projecting from her mouth..." [10]

The Cheeke Sisters, a late double portrait The Cheeke Sisters by Van Dyck.jpg
The Cheeke Sisters, a late double portrait

Some critics have blamed van Dyck for diverting a nascent, tougher English portrait tradition—of painters such as William Dobson, Robert Walker and Isaac Fuller—into what certainly became elegant blandness in the hands of many of van Dyck's successors, like Lely or Kneller. [10] The conventional view has always been more favourable: "When Van Dyck came hither he brought Face-Painting to us; ever since which time ... England has excel'd all the World in that great Branch of the Art" (Jonathan Richardson: An Essay on the Theory of Painting, 1715, 41). Thomas Gainsborough is reported to have said on his deathbed "We are all going to heaven, and Van Dyck is of the Company." [18]

A fairly small number of landscape pen and wash drawings or watercolours made in England played an important part in introducing the Flemish watercolour landscape tradition to England. Some are studies, which reappear in the background of paintings, but many are signed and dated and were probably regarded as finished works to be given as presents. Several of the most detailed are of Rye, a port for ships to the Continent, suggesting that van Dyck did them casually whilst waiting for wind or tide to improve. [33]

Printmaking

Pieter Brueghel the Younger from the Iconography; etching by van Dyck Van Dyck Pieter Brueghel the Younger.jpg
Pieter Brueghel the Younger from the Iconography; etching by van Dyck

Probably during his period in Antwerp after his return from Italy, van Dyck began his Iconography, which became a very large series of prints with half-length portraits of eminent contemporaries. He produced drawings, and for eighteen of the portraits he himself etched the heads and main outlines of the figure, for an engraver to work up: "Portrait etching had scarcely had an existence before his time, and in his work it suddenly appears at the highest point ever reached in the art". [34]

He left most of the printmaking to specialists, who engraved after his drawings. His etched plates appear not to have been published until after his death, and early states are very rare. [35] Most of his plates were printed after only his work had been done. Some exist in further states after engraving had been added, sometimes obscuring his etching. He continued to add to the series until at least his departure for England, and presumably added Inigo Jones whilst in London.

The series was a great success, but was his only venture into printmaking; portraiture probably paid better, and he was constantly in demand. At his death there were eighty plates by others, of which fifty-two were of artists, as well as his own eighteen. The plates were bought by a publisher; with the plates reworked periodically as they wore out they continued to be printed for centuries, and the series added to, so that it reached over two hundred portraits by the late 18th century. In 1851, the plates were bought by the Calcographie du Louvre . [35]

The Iconography was highly influential as a commercial model for reproductive printmaking; now forgotten series of portrait prints were enormously popular until the advent of photography: "the importance of this series was enormous, and it provided a repertory of images that were plundered by portrait painters throughout Europe over the next couple of centuries". [18] Van Dyck's brilliant etching style, which depended on open lines and dots, was in marked contrast to that of the other great portraitist in prints of the period, Rembrandt, and had little influence until the 19th century, when it had a great influence on artists such as Whistler in the last major phase of portrait etching. [34] Hyatt Mayor wrote:

Etchers have studied Van Dyck ever since, for they can hope to approximate his brilliant directness, whereas nobody can hope to approach the complexity of Rembrandt's portraits. [36]

Studio

Van Dyck's success led him to maintain a large workshop in London, which became "virtually a production line for portraits". According to a visitor he usually only made a drawing on paper, which was then enlarged onto canvas by an assistant; he then painted the head himself. The costume in which the client wished to be painted was left at the studio and often with the unfinished canvas sent out to artists specialised in rendering such clothing. [18] In his last years these studio collaborations accounted for some decline in the quality of work. [37]

In addition many copies untouched by him, or virtually so, were produced by the workshop, as well as by professional copyists and later painters. The number of paintings ascribed to him had by the 19th century become huge, as with Rembrandt, Titian and others. However, most of his assistants and copyists could not approach the refinement of his manner, so compared to many masters consensus among art historians on attributions to him is usually relatively easy to reach, and museum labelling is now mostly updated (country house attributions may be more dubious in some cases).

The relatively few names of his assistants that are known are Dutch or Flemish. He probably preferred to use trained Flemings, as no equivalent English training existed in this period. [10] Van Dyck's enormous influence on English art does not come from a tradition handed down through his pupils; in fact it is not possible to document a connection to his studio for any English painter of any significance. [10] Dutchman Adriaen Hanneman (1604–1671) returned to his native The Hague in 1638 to become the leading portraitist there. [38] Flemish painter Pieter Thijs studied in van Dyck's workshop as one of van Dyck's last pupils. He became a very successful portrait and history painter in his native Antwerp. [39]

Charles I in Three Positions (1635-36), a triple portrait of Charles I, was sent to Rome for Bernini to model a bust on. Royal Collection Sir Anthony Van Dyck - Charles I (1600-49) - Google Art Project.jpg
Charles I in Three Positions (1635–36), a triple portrait of Charles I, was sent to Rome for Bernini to model a bust on. Royal Collection

Legacy

Much later, the styles worn by his models provided the names of the Van Dyke beard for the sharply pointed and trimmed goatees popular for men in his day, and the van Dyke collar, "a wide collar across the shoulders edged copiously with lace". [40] During the reign of George III, a generic "Cavalier" fancy-dress costume called a Van Dyke was popular; Gainsborough's The Blue Boy is wearing such a Van Dyke outfit. In 1774 Derby porcelain advertised a figure, after a portrait by Johann Zoffany, of "the King in a Vandyck dress". [41]

A confusing number of different pigments used in painting have been called "Vandyke brown" (mostly in English-language sources). Some predate van Dyck, and it is not clear that he used any of them. [42] Van Dyke brown is an early photographic printing process using the same colour.

When van Dyck was knighted in 1632, he anglicized his name to Vandyke. [43]

Collections

Bewening van Christus, 1635, Royal Museum of Fine Arts Antwerp Bewening van Christus, Anthony van Dyck, (1635), Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten Antwerpen, 404.jpg
Bewening van Christus, 1635, Royal Museum of Fine Arts Antwerp

The British Royal Collection, which still contains many of his paintings, has a total of twenty-six paintings. [44] The National Gallery, London (fourteen works), The Museo del Prado (Spain) (twenty-five Works, such as: Self-portrait with Endymion Porter, The Metal Serpent, Christ Crowned with Thorns, The taking of Christ, Portrait of Mary Ruthven, the painter's Wife), [45] The Louvre in Paris (eighteen works), the Alte Pinakothek in Munich, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and the Frick Collection have examples of his portrait style. Wilton House still holds the works he did for one of his main patrons, the Earl of Pembroke, including his largest work, a huge family group portrait with ten main figures. Spanish museums own a rich presence of this artist in addition to The Prado's ensemble; The Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum preserves the Portrait of Jacques Le Roy, [46] property of The Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection but also on display at the Museum there's a Crucified Christ, [47] and The Bilbao Fine Arts Museum houses a great Lamentation before the dead Christ. [48] In 2008, Patrimonio Nacional of Spain recovered a Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian and returned it to The Escorial Monastery, two centuries after its removal and, subsequently, The Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando has revealed as its own a long-stored painting, added to another, The Virgin with the Child with the repentant sinners, [49] in addition the institution has an original sketch. In addition, in December 2017, a Virgin with Child, which is kept in The Museum Cerralbo and was previously considered the work of Mateo Cerezo, was revealed as the painter's original after an exhaustive study and restoration project. [50] Finally, The Museum of Fine Arts of Valencia owns an Equestrian Portrait of Don Francisco de Moncada (currently undergoing restoration, April 2020). [51]

Tate Britain held the exhibition Van Dyck & Britain in 2009. [52] In 2016 the Frick Collection in New York had an exhibition "Van Dyck: The Anatomy of Portraiture", the first major survey of the artist's work in the United States in over two decades. [53]

The estate of the Earl Spencer at Althorp houses a small collection of van Dycks including War and Peace (Portrait of Sir George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol, English Royalist politician with William Russell, 1st Duke of Bedford), which is the most valuable painting in the collection and the favourite of the earl. [54]

Nazi-looted art

In 2017 Van Dyke's Portrait of Adriaen Hendriksz Moens, a looted artwork acquired by the Nazi Hermann Göring, was restituted to the heirs of Jacques Goudstikker. After WWII the Monuments Men returned the portrait to the Netherlands which was supposed to return it to the surviving Jewish family but which instead sold it to an art dealer in London [55] who sold it to the Nazi food processing millionnaire and former Nazi party member Rudolf August Oetker. Oekter's heirs restituted the painting to Goudstikkers heirs. [56] [57]

See also

Notes

  1. ULAN entry. Originally "van Dijck", with the "IJ" digraph, (in Dutch). Anthony is the English for the Dutch Anthonis or Antoon, though Anthonie, Antonio or Anthonio was also used; in French he is often Antoine, in Italian Anthonio or Antonio. In English a capitalised "Van" in Van Dyck was more usual until recent decades (used by Waterhouse for example), and "Dyke" was often used during his lifetime and later (and is usual for the beard style).
  2. "Anthony van Dyck". Netherlands Institute of Art. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  3. Julius S. Held. "Anthony van Dyck" . Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  4. Cust, Lionel Henry (1899). "Van Dyck Anthony" . Retrieved 28 April 2018 via Wikisource.
  5. Antwerp, S.A.A., Parochieregisters, Doopakten, 30/03/1592 – 26/06/1606, fol. 147, 23-03-1599 Anthonio Van Dijck, retrieved by the Jordaens Van Dyck Panel Paintings Project (www.jordaensvandyck.org) on 6 April 2017.
  6. Brown, p. 15.
  7. Vlieghe, Hans. Flemish Art and Architecture, 1585–1700 , Yale University Press, 2004, p. 124. ISBN   0-300-10469-3
  8. Martin, Gregory. The Flemish School, 1600–1900, National Gallery Catalogues, p. 26, 1970, National Gallery, London, ISBN   0-901791-02-4
  9. Brown, p. 17.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Ellis Waterhouse, Painting in Britain, 1530–1790, 4th Edn, 1978, pp. 70–77, Penguin Books (now Yale History of Art series)
  11. Martin, op and page cit.
  12. Brown, page 19.
  13. Levey, Michael, Painting at Court, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1971, pp. 124–5
  14. Cotter, Holland (29 July 2005). "Desperately Painting the Plague". The New York Times.
  15. Bailey, Gauvin Alexander (1 March 2012). "Van Dyck in Sicily: while the plague held Palermo in its grip, Anthony van Dyck radically developed 12th-century iconography of Saint Rosalie through five paintings that imbued the saint with a sensual refinement. Van Dyck's Rosalie became one of Catholicism's most popular images of victory over pestilence, and represents a key period in the artist's development". Apollo. 175 (596): 116–122 via go.gale.com.
  16. "2012: Van Dyck in Sicily | Dulwich Picture Gallery". www.dulwichpicturegallery.org.uk.
  17. Farago, Jason (26 March 2020). "The Saint Who Stopped an Epidemic Is on Lockdown at the Met". The New York Times.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cust 1899.
  19. Sharpe, K.; Lake, P. (1993). Culture and Politics in Early Stuart England. Stanford University Press. p. 223. ISBN   978-0-8047-2261-2.
  20. 1 2 James, Susan E. (23 September 2004). "Lemon, Margaret (b. c. 1614–1643?), artist's model" . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/72128. ISBN   978-0-19-861412-8 . Retrieved 6 February 2022.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  21. Gaunt, William, English Court Painting
  22. Levey p. 128
  23. Wood (2010)
  24. "Sir Anthony van Dyck | Biography & Art". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  25. Cokayne, G. E., et al, The Complete Peerage, vol.iv, London, 1916, p. 385n
  26. "Portret królewicza". Treasures... (in Polish). Archived from the original on 27 June 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
  27. 1 2 Michael Jaffé. "Dyck, Anthony van". Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web.
  28. Wood (2010)
  29. Wood (2010)
  30. "Memorials of St Paul's Cathedral" Sinclair, W. p99: London; Chapman & Hall, Ltd; 1909
  31. Levey, op cit p. 136
  32. Royalton-Kisch, Martin. The Light of Nature, Landscape Drawings and Watercolours by Van Dyck and his Contemporaries, British Museum Press, 1999, ISBN   0-7141-2621-7
  33. 1 2 Arthur M. Hind, A History of Engraving and Etching , p. 165, Houghton Mifflin Co. 1923 (in USA), reprinted Dover Publications, 1963 ISBN   0-486-20954-7
  34. 1 2 Becker, D. P., in KL Spangeberg (ed), Six Centuries of Master Prints, Cincinnati Art Museum, 1993, no. 72, ISBN   0-931537-15-0
  35. Mayor, Alpheus Hyatt. Prints and People, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Princeton, 1971, no. 433-35, ISBN   0-691-00326-2
  36. Brown, pp. 84–6.
  37. Rudi Ekkart and Quentin Buvelot (eds), Dutch Portraits, The Age of Rembrandt and Frans Hals, Mauritshuis/National Gallery/Waanders Publishers, Zwolle, p. 138 QB, 2007, ISBN   978-1-85709-362-9
  38. Hans Vlieghe, "Thijs, Pieter." Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 22 August 2019
  39. Condra, Jill, ed. (2008). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Clothing through World History. Vol. 2 (1 ed.). United States: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 103. ISBN   978-0-313-33664-5. His style coined the names of the van Dyke beard, for the sharply pointed and trimmed goatees popular for men in the first half of the century, and the van Dyke collar, a wide collar across the shoulders edged copiously with lace.
  40. The painting, Royal Collection; Honey, W.B., Old English Porcelain, p, 147, 1977 (3rd edn.), Faber and Faber, ISBN   0571049028
  41. "Vandyke brown", Pigment Compendium, by Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Tracey Chaplin, Ruth Siddall, p. 388, 2008, Routledge, ISBN   1136373926, 9781136373923, google books
  42. Massie, Allan (2013). The Royal Stuarts: A History of the Family That Shaped Britain (paperback). St. Martin's Griffin (published 5 February 2013). p. 191. ISBN   978-1-250-02492-3. Van Dyck was knighted and anglicised his name to Vandyke.
  43. Royal Collection Archived 3 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine Paintings by Van Dyck
  44. "Dyck, Anthony van – The Collection – Museo Nacional del Prado". www.museodelprado.es. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  45. "Portrait of Jacques Le Roy". Museo Nacional Thyssen-Bornemisza. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  46. "Christ on the Cross". Museo Nacional Thyssen-Bornemisza. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  47. "Annotated works | The Bilbao Fine Arts Museum". www.museobilbao.com. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  48. Fernando, Real Academia de BBAA de San. "Dyck, Antonio van – La Virgen y el Niño con los pecadores arrepentidos". Academia Colecciones (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  49. "Anton Van Dyck". www.culturaydeporte.gob.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  50. "'Retrato ecuestre de Francisco de Moncada' de Van Dyck – Noticias – Generalitat Valenciana". www.museobellasartesvalencia.gva.es. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  51. Karen Hearn (ed.), Van Dyck & Britain , Tate Publishing, 2009. ISBN   978-1-85437-795-1.
  52. "Past Exhibition: Van Dyck". The Frick Collection.
  53. "As a child I loved the glamour of these men". The Daily Telegraph. 20 August 1999. ISSN   0307-1235. Archived from the original on 26 February 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  54. "Anthony van Dyck". rkd.nl. Archived from the original on 14 June 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  55. "Dr Oetker returns Van Dyck portrait looted by Göring". www.lootedart.com. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  56. "Dr. Oetker Restitutes Van Dyck Portrait to Its Rightful Heir | artnet News". 20 April 2017. Archived from the original on 20 April 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2021.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Daniël Mijtens</span> Dutch painter

Daniël Mijtens, known in England as Daniel Mytens the Elder, was a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter belonging to a family of Flemish painters who spent the central years of his career working in England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gonzales Coques</span> Flemish painter

Gonzales Coques was a Flemish painter of portraits and history paintings. Because of his artistic proximity to and emulation with Anthony van Dyck he received the nickname de kleine van Dyck. Coques also worked as an art dealer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cornelis de Vos</span> Flemish painter

Cornelis de Vos was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and art dealer. He was one of the leading portrait painters in Antwerp and is best known for his sensitive portraits, in particular of children and families. He was also successful in other genres including history, religious and genre painting. He was a regular collaborator with Rubens.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hendrick van Balen the Elder</span> Flemish painter

Hendrick van Balen or Hendrick van Balen I was a Flemish Baroque painter and stained glass designer. Hendrick van Balen specialised in small cabinet pictures often painted on a copper support. His favourite themes were mythological and allegorical scenes and, to a lesser extent, religious subjects. The artist played an important role in the renewal of Flemish painting in the early 17th century and was one of the teachers of Anthony van Dyck.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jan van den Hoecke</span>

Jan van den Hoecke was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and designer of wall tapestries. He was one of the principal assistants in Rubens' studio in the 1630s. He later traveled to Italy where he resided for a decade in Rome. He subsequently worked as a court painter in Vienna and Brussels. Jan van den Hoecke was a versatile artist who created portraits as well as history and allegorical paintings.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Flemish Baroque painting</span> Painting movement

Flemish Baroque painting refers to the art produced in the Southern Netherlands during Spanish control in the 16th and 17th centuries. The period roughly begins when the Dutch Republic was split from the Habsburg Spain regions to the south with the Spanish recapturing of Antwerp in 1585 and goes until about 1700, when Spanish Habsburg authority ended with the death of King Charles II. Antwerp, home to the prominent artists Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, and Jacob Jordaens, was the artistic nexus, while other notable cities include Brussels and Ghent.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jan Boeckhorst</span>

Jan Boeckhorst or Johann Bockhorst was a German-born Flemish Baroque painter and draughtsman. He was a versatile artist who produced history paintings, genre scenes and portraits in a style influenced by the trio of leading Baroque painters in Antwerp Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck and Jacob Jordaens. Boeckhorst also worked as a designer of cartoons for tapestries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pieter Thijs</span> Flemish painter

Pieter Thijs, Peter Thijs or Pieter Thys was a Flemish painter of portraits as well as religious and history paintings. He was a very successful artist who worked for the courts in Brussels and The Hague as well as for many religious institutions. His work was close to the courtly and elegant style of Anthony van Dyck and his followers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lucas Franchoys the Younger</span> Flemish painter (1616-1681)

Lucas Franchoys the Younger or Lucas Franchoys II was a Flemish Baroque painter from Mechelen, who painted numerous altarpieces and portraits in a style reminiscent of Anthony van Dyck.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Theodoor Boeyermans</span>

Theodoor Boeyermans, Theodor Boeyermans or Theodor Boeijermans was a Flemish painter active in Antwerp who painted Baroque history paintings and group portraits informed by the tradition of Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Daniel Seghers</span> Flemish painter

Daniël Seghers or Daniel Seghers was a Flemish Jesuit brother and painter who specialized in flower still lifes. He is particularly well known for his contributions to the genre of flower garland painting. His paintings were collected enthusiastically by aristocratic patrons and he had numerous followers and imitators.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Van Dyke beard</span> Style of beard comprising a moustache and a goatee with all hair on the cheeks shaven

A Van Dyke is a style of facial hair named after the 17th-century Flemish painter Anthony van Dyck (1599–1641). The artist's name is today normally spelt as “van Dyck", though there are many variants, but when the term for the beard became popular "Van Dyke" was more common in English. A Van Dyke specifically consists of any growth of both a moustache and goatee with all hair on the cheeks shaved. Even this particular style, though, has many variants, including a curled moustache versus a non-curled one and a soul patch versus none. The style is sometimes called a "Charlie" after King Charles I of England, who was painted with this type of beard by van Dyck. "Pike-devant" or "pickedevant" are other little-known synonyms for a Van Dyke beard.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Isabella Brant</span> First wife of painter Peter Paul Rubens (1591–1626)

Isabella Brant was the first wife of the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens, who painted several portraits of her.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Peter Paul Rubens</span> Flemish artist and diplomat (1577–1640)

Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish artist and diplomat from the Duchy of Brabant in the Southern Netherlands. He is considered the most influential artist of the Flemish Baroque tradition. Rubens's highly charged compositions reference erudite aspects of classical and Christian history. His unique and immensely popular Baroque style emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, which followed the immediate, dramatic artistic style promoted in the Counter-Reformation. Rubens was a painter producing altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects. He was also a prolific designer of cartoons for the Flemish tapestry workshops and of frontispieces for the publishers in Antwerp.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Justus van Egmont</span> Portrait painter (1601–1674)

Justus van Egmont or Joost van Egmont was a painter and a tapestry designer during the 17th century. After training in Antwerp with Gaspar van den Hoecke and working with Anthony van Dyck, van Egmont also worked in Peter Paul Rubens' workshop. He moved to France in 1628 where he was a court painter for the House of Orléans. In France he helped to found the Académie de peinture et de sculpture. He later returned to Flanders where he worked in Antwerp and Brussels. He is mainly known for his portrait paintings, although he also painted some history subjects, and produced designs for five different tapestry series.

<i>Isabella Brant</i> (drawing)

Isabella Brant,a portrait drawing, was executed in Antwerp around 1621, by Flemish artist and diplomat, Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640). Brant (1591–1626) was Rubens' first wife and modelled for some of his portraits until her untimely death in 1626. The portrait is drawn in black and red chalk with white heightening on brown wash paper.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">George Geldorp</span>

George Geldorp, Georg Geldorp or Jorge Geldorp was a Flemish painter who was mainly active in England where he was known for his portraits and history paintings. He was also active as an art dealer and impresario.

<i>Charles I with M. de St Antoine</i>

Charles I with M. de St Antoine is an oil painting on canvas by the Flemish painter Anthony van Dyck, depicting Charles I on horseback, accompanied by his riding master, Pierre Antoine Bourdon, Seigneur de St Antoine.

<i>Self-Portrait with a Sunflower</i> 1632–1633 painting by Anthony van Dyck

Self-Portrait with a Sunflower is a self-portrait by Anthony van Dyck, a Flemish Baroque artist from Antwerp, Spanish Netherlands. The oil on canvas is thought to have been painted between the years 1632-1633. Produced at the height of his fame, Anthony van Dyck served as "principal Paynter in order to their Majesties" in the court of Charles I of England whilst working on this self-portrait. The symbolism behind the sunflower and gold chain have been a point of contention amongst various art historians. His successful ventures in the southern part of the Netherlands and Italy propelled him into a career as court painter and made him a favourite of King Charles I and his court. Van Dyck's devotion for capturing the likeness of his models gave him authority over the world of portraiture long after his death in 1641. With such a long and storied career in art, his portrait technique evolved into what is referred to as his Late English period as seen in Self-Portrait with a Sunflower. This work is now in the private collection of the Duke of Westminster, housed at Eaton Hall in Cheshire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Peeter Symons</span>

Peeter Symons or Peeter Simons was a Flemish painter only known for his collaboration with Rubens in 1636 on the commission from the Spanish king Philip IV of Spain to create a series of mythological paintings to decorate the Torre de la Parada, a hunting lodge of the king near Madrid.

References

Court offices
Preceded by
Principal Painter in Ordinary to the King
–1641
Succeeded by