Antigonid dynasty

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Antigonids

Ἀντιγονίδαι
Antigonidai
306 BC–168 BC
Common languages Greek
Religion
Ancient Greek religion
GovernmentMonarchy
King 
 306 BC – 301 BC
Antigonus I Monophthalmus
 179 BC – 168 BC
Perseus of Macedon
Historical era Hellenistic
 Established
306 BC
 Defeat by Rome
168 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Vergina Sun - Golden Larnax.png Macedonian Empire
Standard of Cyrus the Great (Achaemenid Empire).svg Achaemenid Empire
Macedonia (Roman province) Spqrstone.jpg
Seleucid Empire Blank.png

The Antigonid dynasty ( /ænˈtɪɡnɪd/ ; Greek : Ἀντιγονίδαι) was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed").

Contents

History

Succeeding the Antipatrid dynasty in much of Macedonia, Antigonus ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria. His attempts to take control of the whole of Alexander's empire led to his defeat and death at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. Antigonus's son Demetrius I Poliorcetes survived the battle, and managed to seize control of Macedon itself a few years later, but eventually lost his throne, dying as a prisoner of Seleucus I Nicator. After a period of confusion, Demetrius's son Antigonus II Gonatas was able to establish the family's control over the old Kingdom of Macedon, as well as over most of the Greek city-states, by 276 BC. [1]

Legacy

It was one of four dynasties established by Alexander's successors, the others being the Seleucid dynasty, Ptolemaic dynasty and Attalid dynasty. The last scion of the dynasty, Perseus of Macedon, who reigned between 179-168 BC, proved unable to stop the advancing Roman legions and Macedon's defeat at the Battle of Pydna signaled the end of the dynasty. [2]

Dynasty

The ruling members of the Antigonid dynasty were:

Antigonid Rulers
KingReign (BC)Consort(s)Comments
Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Western Asian Antigonid kingdom)306–301 BC Stratonice One of Alexander the Great's top generals; a major participant in the so-called "funeral games" following that king's death.
Demetrius I Poliorcetes (Macedon, Cicilia)294–287 BCPhila
Ptolemais
Deïdameia
Lanassa
?Eurydice
?Unnamed Illyrian woman
Son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus. Demetrius' wife Phila was a daughter of Antipater, and ancestor of all subsequent Antigonid kings of Macedon, except Antigonus III Doson, through her son Antigonus II Gonatas. Antigonus III Doson was descended from the marriage of Demetrius and Ptolemais, who was a daughter of Ptolemy I Soter and mother of Doson's father, Demetrius the Fair, the ephemeral King of Cyrene. Deïdameia was a daughter of Aeacides of Epirus and sister of Pyrrhus, she had one son, Alexander, by Demetrius. Demetrius had a further two sons, Demetrius the Thin and Corrhagus, the former by an unnamed Illyrian woman, the latter by a woman named Eurydice. Demetrius I Poliorcetes was the first Antigonid king of Macedon.
Antigonus II Gonatas (Macedon)276–239 BC Phila Son of Demetrius Poliorcetes and Phila, grandson of Antigonus I Monophthalmus. His wife, Phila, was the daughter of his sister, Stratonice. Only one known legitimate child, Demetrius II Aetolicus.
Demetrius the Fair (Cyrene)c. 250 BCOlympias of Larissa
Berenice II
Son of Demetrius I Poliorcetes and Ptolemaïs. Father of Antigonus III Doson and, apparently, Echecrates by Olympias.
Demetrius II Aetolicus (Macedon)239–229 BC Stratonice of Macedon
Phthia of Epirus
Nicaea of Corinth
Chryseis
Son of Antigonus II and Phila. Stratonice of Macedon was a daughter of Antiochus I Soter and Stratonice. Phthia of Epirus was a daughter of Alexander II of Epirus and Olympias II of Epirus. Nicaea of Corinth was the widow of Demetrius' cousin, Alexander of Corinth. Chryseis was a former captive of Demetrius. [3] Only known son, Philip by Chryseis, also had a daughter by Stratonice of Macedon, Apama III.
Antigonus III Doson (Macedon)229–221 BCChryseisSon of Demetrius the Fair and Olympias of Larissa. Children unknown.
Philip V of Macedon BM.jpg
Philip V (Macedon)
221–179 BC Polycratia of Argos Son of Demetrius II and Chryseis. [3] At least four children: Perseus of Macedon, Apame, Demetrius and Philippus.
Perseus of Macedon BM.jpg
Perseus (Macedon)
179–168 BC
(died 166 BC)
Laodice V The last ruler of Macedon. Laodice V was a daughter of the Seleucid king, Seleucus IV Philopator. At least two sons, Philip and Alexander.

The Greek rebel against Rome and last King of Macedonia, Andriscus, claimed to be the son of Perseus.

Family tree of Antigonids

Derdas III
Derdas III
archon of Elimiotis
Machatas of Elimeia
satrap of India
Phila of Elimeia Philip II
king of Macedonia
359-336 BC
PhilipwifePeriandros of Pella
Demetrius Stratonice
daughter of Corrhaeus
Antigonus I Monophthalmus
king of Macedonia
306-301 BC
PtolemyMarsyas
1.Phila
daughter of Antipater
2.Eurydice of Athens
3.Deidamia I of Epirus
daughter of Aeacides of Epirus
Demetrius I Poliorketes
king of Macedon
294-288 BC
4.Lanassa
daughter of Agathocles of Syracuse
5.Ptolemais
daughter of Ptolemy I of Egypt
Philip
prince
(1) Stratonice of Syria
∞ 1.Seleucus I Nicator
2.Antiochus I Soter
(1) Antigonus II Gonatas
king of Macedon
277-274, 272-239 BC
Phila
daughter of
Seleucus I Nicator
(5) Demetrius the Fair
king of Cyrene
250-249 BC
1.Olympias of Larissa
2.Berenice II
daughter of Magas
king of Cyrene
(2) 1.Stratonice of Macedon Demetrius II Aetolicus
king of Macedonia
239-229 BC
2.Nicaea of Corinth
3.Phthia
daughter of
Alexander II of Epirus

4.Chryseis
(1) Antigonus III Doson
king of Macedon
229-221 BC
Echecrates
Prusias I of Bithynia (1) Apama III (4) Philip V
king of Macedon
221-179 BC
Polycratia of Argos Antigonos
Prusias II of Bithynia
king of Bithynia
Apame IV (illeg.) Perseus
king of Macedon
179-168 BC
Laodice V
daughter of
Seleucus IV Philopator
Demetrius
prince
Philippus
prince
Alexander
prince
Antigonid Dynasty Coins

See also

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References

  1. J. Spielvogel, Jackson (2005). Western Civilization: Volume I: To 1715. Thomson Wadsworth. pp. 89–90. ISBN   0-534-64603-4.
  2. Encyclopædia Britannica, Antigonid dynasty, 2008, O.Ed. But Perseus’ failure to deploy his full resources brought about his defeat (168) at Pydna in Macedonia and signaled the end of the dynasty."
  3. 1 2 Eusebius, Chronicle 1.237-8; Syncellus Chronicle 535.19

Further reading