Antiochus IX Cyzicenus

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Antiochus IX Eusebes
Antiochus IX Eusebes Cyzicenus
Antiochos IX Kyzikenos, Tetradrachm, 110-109 BC, HGC 3-1228i.jpg
Tetradrachm of Antiochos IX, with Athena Nike on the reverse, minted at Antioch circa 110-109 BC. [1]
King of the Seleucid Empire
(King of Syria)
Reign116 BC–96 BC (with his brother Antiochus VIII Grypus)
PredecessorAntiochus VIII Grypus
Successor Seleucus VI Epiphanes
BornUnknown
Died96 BC
Spouse
Issue Antiochus X Eusebes
Dynasty Seleucid
Father Antiochus VII Sidetes
Mother Cleopatra Thea

Antiochus IX Eusebes Cyzicenus (Greek : Ἀντίοχος Εὐσεβής Κυζικηνός, "Antiochus the Pious, the Cyzicene") was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom. He was the son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea. [2] He left the kingdom in 129 BC and went to the city of Cyzicus, but he returned in 116 BC to challenge his half-brother Antiochus VIII for power.

Contents

The siblings fought a twenty-year civil war. In 112 BC, Antiochus IX's wife, Cleopatra IV, was killed by her sister Tryphaena, the wife of Antiochus VIII. Tryphaena herself died shortly afterwards. Antiochus VIII was assassinated in 96 BC; he was succeeded by his sons Seleucus VI and Demetrius III. Antiochus IX then took the capital Antioch and married his deceased wife's sister Cleopatra Selene, who was herself the widow of Antiochus VIII. Seleucus VI continued the war against his uncle. Antiochus IX Eusebes Cyzicenus was killed in battle in 96 BC.

Biography

Bust probably depicting Antiochus IX. Antakya Archaeological Museum Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator head sept 2019 5835.jpg
Bust probably depicting Antiochus IX.

The son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea, [2] upon the death of his father in Parthia and his uncle Demetrius II Nicator's return to power (129 BC), his mother sent him to Cyzicus on the Bosporus, thus giving him his nickname.[ citation needed ]

Following the death of his mother c. 121 BC, [2] Antiochus IX Cyzicenus challenged his half-brother, Antiochus VIII Grypus, for power over Syria. [2]

He returned to Syria in 116 BC to claim the Seleucid throne from his half-brother/cousin Antiochus VIII Grypus, with whom he eventually divided Syria,[ citation needed ] that same year. [2]

Antiochus IX Cyzicenus was first married to Cleopatra IV, who was said to have been killed in 112 BC[ citation needed ] by her sister and rival Tryphaena, wife of King Grypus. [4] [5] [6] After the death of Grypus and Antiochus' capture of the capital, Antiochus married Cleopatra Selene of Syria, the sister of his former wife, Cleopatra IV.[ citation needed ]

He was subsequently killed in battle by the son of Grypus, Seleucus VI Epiphanes, later in 96 BC.

Legacy

Antiochus IX probably created the Iturean tetrarchy as an ally against Antiochus VIII. [7] Beginning his reign in 95 BC, Antiochus X Eusebes' first achievement was to defeat his double half-cousin/second cousin Seleucus VI Epiphanes, thus avenging the recent death of his father, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus. The epithets he took tell much of his story: Eusebes (being a title of his father) and also Philopator (father-loving) both honoured his father. After that, he ruled Antioch and its surroundings, fighting endlessly against the four brothers of Seleucus VI, the Nabataeans and the Parthian Empire.[ citation needed ]

See also

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Antiochus XI Epiphanes King of Syria

Antiochus XI Epiphanes Philadelphus was a Hellenistic Seleucid monarch who reigned as the King of Syria between 94 and 93 BC. He was the son of Antiochus VIII and his wife Tryphaena. Antiochus XI's early life was a time of constant civil war between his father and his uncle Antiochus IX. The conflict ended with the assassination of Antiochus VIII, followed by the establishment of Antiochus IX in Antioch, the capital of Syria. Antiochus VIII's eldest son Seleucus VI, in control of western Cilicia, marched against his uncle and had him killed, taking Antioch for himself, only to be expelled from it and driven to his death in 94 BC by Antiochus IX's son Antiochus X.

Seleucus VI Epiphanes King of Syria

Seleucus VI Epiphanes Nicator was a Hellenistic Seleucid monarch who ruled Syria between 96 and 94 BC. He was the son of Antiochus VIII and his Egyptian wife Tryphaena. Seleucus VI lived in a period of civil war between his father and his uncle Antiochus IX, which ended in 96 BC when Antiochus VIII was assassinated. Antiochus IX then occupied the capital Antioch while Seleucus VI established his power-base in western Cilicia and himself prepared for war. In 95 BC, Antiochus IX marched against his nephew, but lost the battle and was killed. Seleucus VI became the master of the capital but had to share Syria with his brother Demetrius III, based in Damascus, and his cousin, Antiochus IX's son Antiochus X.

Antiochus XIII Asiaticus Asiaticus

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Cleopatra Selene of Syria Monarch of Syria

Cleopatra II Selene was the monarch of Syria from 82 to 69 BC. The daughter of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III of Egypt, Cleopatra Selene was favoured by her mother and became a pawn in Cleopatra III's political manoeuvres. In 115 BC, Cleopatra III forced her son Ptolemy IX to divorce his sister-wife Cleopatra IV, and chose Cleopatra Selene as the new queen consort of Egypt. Tension between the king and his mother grew and ended with his expulsion from Egypt, leaving Cleopatra Selene behind; she probably then married the new king, her other brother Ptolemy X.

This article concerns the period 99 BC – 90 BC.

Tryphaena was a Ptolemaic princess. She married the Seleucid king Antiochus VIII Grypus and was queen of Syria.

References

  1. Oliver D. Hoover, Handbook of Syrian Coins: Royal and Civic Issues, Fourth to First Centuries BC [The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series, Volume 9], Lancaster/London, Classical Numismatic Group, 2009, pp. 250-251.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Antiochus IX Cyzicenus entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
  3. ARTHUR HOUGHTON, THE PORTRAIT OF ANTIOCHUS IX [ Antike Kunst, vol 27, issue 2], Vereinigung der Freunde Antiker Kunst, 1984, pp. 123-128.
  4. Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, 2004
  5. Cleopatra Thea by Chris Bennett
  6. Justin 39, 3, 3-11.
  7. Wright 2005, p. 80.

Sources

Antiochus IX Cyzicenus
Born: Unknown Died: 96 BC
Preceded by
Antiochus VIII Grypus
Seleucid King (King of Syria)
11496 BC
with Antiochus VIII Grypus (12596 BC)
Succeeded by
Seleucus VI Epiphanes
  1. Vermeule 1970, p. 205.