Antiochus XIII Asiaticus

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Antiochus XIII Philadelphus
Asiaticus
Antiochos XIII Asiatikos, Tetradrachm, 69-64 BC, HGC 9-1340.jpg
Tetradrachm of Antiochos XIII, with Zeus Nikephoros on the reverse, minted at Antioch. [1]
King of the Seleucid Empire
(King of Syria)
Reign69–64 BC (client king under Pompey)
Predecessor Cleopatra Selene of Syria and Seleucus VII Kybiosaktes
Successor Philip II Philoromaeus
BornUnknown
Died64 BC
Dynasty Seleucid
Father Antiochus X Eusebes
Mother Cleopatra Selene of Syria

Antiochus XIII Philadelphus, known as Asiaticus, was the penultimate ruler of the Seleucid kingdom.

Contents

Biography

Coin of Cleopatra Selene (front) and Antiochus XIII Cleopatra Selene of Syria.jpg
Coin of Cleopatra Selene (front) and Antiochus XIII

He was son of king Antiochus X Eusebes and the Ptolemaic princess Cleopatra Selene of Syria, who acted as regent for Antiochus XIII after his father's death sometime between 92 and 85 BC. [2] Some time after Tigranes had conquered Syria (83 BC), she traveled to Rome to have her sons recognized as kings of Egypt, but to no avail. However, between 75 BC and 73 BC, they were recognized as "Kings of Syria", and "maintained a royal state". [3] Selene was eventually captured and killed by Tigranes. However, after the latter's defeat by Lucius Licinius Lucullus at the Battle of Tigranocerta, the residents of Antioch hailed Antiochus XIII as king, and Lucullus approved his appointment as client ruler of Syria (69 BC). [4]

In 64 BC, Pompey had him deposed and killed by a Syrian chieftain, Sampsiceramus I. [5] Antiochus' death is traditionally said to have ended the Seleucid dynasty, but he was survived by Philip II Philoromaeus for a short time and Seleucus VII Philometor until 58 BC if the latter is identified with same prince who briefly married Berenice IV of Egypt.

See also

Notes

  1. Oliver D. Hoover, Handbook of Syrian Coins: Royal and Civic Issues, Fourth to First Centuries BC [The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series, Volume 9], Lancaster/London, Classical Numismatic Group, 2009, p. 279.
  2. Cicero, In C. Verrem II 4.61, Appian, Syriaca VIII 49, XI 70, Justin, Historiarum Philippicarum T. Pompeii Trogi XL 2.2 (says Antiochus IX was his father). See also: C.J. Bennett, art. Cleopatra Selene queen of Syria, in Egyptian Royal Genealogy, 2002-2008 (n. 28). Archived May 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  3. E.R. Bevan, The House of Seleucus, London, 1902, p. 263.
  4. Appian, Syriaca VIII 49, Justin, Historiarum Philippicarum T. Pompeii Trogi XL 2.2.
  5. Appian, Syriaca VIII 49, XI 70, Justin, Historiarum Philippicarum T. Pompeii Trogi XL 2.2, Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica XL 1a-b.

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References

Antiochus XIII Asiaticus
Born: Unknown Died: 64 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Tigranes, Cleopatra Selene of Syria, Seleucus VII Philometer
Seleucid King (King of Syria)
83 BC–64 BC
with Cleopatra Selene of Syria (83 BC–69 BC)
Succeeded by
Philip II Philoromaeus