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Department of Antioquia
Departamento de Antioquia
Liberty and Valour
(Spanish: Libertad y Valor)
|Anthem: Himno de Antioquia|
Antioquia shown in red
Topography of the department
|• Governor||Aníbal Gaviria Correa (2020–2023)|
|• Total||63,612 km2 (24,561 sq mi)|
|• Density||100/km2 (260/sq mi)|
|• Demonym||Antioqueño, -a|
|ISO 3166 code||CO-ANT|
|HDI (2017)||0.753 |
high · 10th
The Department of Antioquia (Spanish pronunciation: [anˈtjokja] (
The department covers an area of 63,612 km² (24,427 sq mi), and has a population of 5,819,358 (2006 estimate); 6.6 million (2010 estimate). Antioquia borders with the Córdoba Department and the Caribbean Sea to the north, Chocó to the west, the departments of Bolivar, Santander, and Boyaca to the east, and the departments of Caldas and Risaralda to the south.
Medellín is Antioquia's capital city, and the second-largest city in the country. Other important towns are Santa Fe de Antioquia, the old capital located on the Cauca river, and Puerto Berrío on the Magdalena.
Antioquia is the sixth-largest Department of Colombia. It is predominantly mountainous, crossed by the Cordillera Central and the Cordillera Occidental of the Andes. The Cordillera Central further divides to form the Aburrá valley, in which the capital, Medellín, is located. The Cordillera Central forms the plateaus of Santa Rosa de Osos and Rionegro.
Despite 80% of the department's territory being mountainous, Antioquia also has lowlands in Bajo Cauca, Magdalena Medio, and eastern Sonsón as well as a coast on the Caribbean Sea, in Urabá.This area has a tropical climate and is of high strategical importance due to its location.
Before Spanish colonization, different indigenous tribes inhabited this part of modern Colombia. There is still much uncertainty about the origin of the tribes.
Antioquia was primarily populated by Caribs, although some scattered groups of Muisca were present in the Darién region (in modern-day Panama), a coastal region in the far north of Antioquia. However, there are no historical records for these groups of Muisca in Antioquia.
The Caribs present in Antioquia were further classified into smaller groups, called families. Some of the most prominent native families in the region include the Catías, Nutabes and Tahamíes, which all inhabited the central region of Antioquia.
An important group that inhabited southern Antioquia was the Quimbaya.
There were other groups, but the Quimbaya, Carib and Muisca tribes were the most prominent groupings that were found by the conquistadors upon their arrival in Antioquia. The Quimbayas had little to do with the evolution of the department, because Jorge Robledo, the main conquistador of Antioquia, quickly subjected the few Quimbaya that he found and the rest disappeared.
The history was centered then in the turbulent relationships of the Spaniards with the Caribs. Despite the number of Caribs and their well-known warring culture, they would end up dominated or exterminated by the Spaniards in the process of conquest and colonization.
During these processes bloody confrontations were presented that caused the surviving natives to disperse, and even commit suicide, before they were subjected. Many of the survivors fled to the department of Chocó. Thus, in Antioquia, the natives disappeared almost completely. At present, the autochthon population of the department of Antioquia scarcely reaches 0.5% of the total population.
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A debate, centered around the apparently significant Jewish origin of Antioquians, took place from mid-nineteenth century to the twentieth century. Others, later pointed to Basque origins as a way to understand the population's idiosyncrasies. Prominent among these, were two American historians: Everett Hagen and Leonard Kasdan. Hagen looked at the telephone directory in Medellin in 1957 and found that 15% of the surnames were of Basque origin, finding then that employers in the percentage of surnames was up to 25%, which led him to conclude that Basque settlers were very important in explaining the increased industrial development of Antioquia in the Colombian context. These ideas were supported by representatives of developmental theories, who sought to justify business growth based on "the character of social groups."
The use of Basque language (Euskera) terminology in the present territory of Colombia goes back to the early exploration in 1499, during the third voyage of Columbus, it is said that from that time the territory experienced a strong presence of Basques including prominent figures such as the pilot and geographer Juan de la Cosa, nicknamed "El Vizcaino" (although some sources claim that he was not a native of the Basque Country, but was born in Santoña, Cantabria).
Thereafter, the Basques began to come regularly and are distributed throughout the region. Due to this presence, the Colombian department of Antioquia has been considered a major route of the Basque-Navarre emigration, mainly during the colonial era, when hundreds of Basques migrated to be linked to the Spanish colonization companies.
People who were interested in investigating the presence of the Basque people in the department of Antioquia and Colombia have been troubled by the question that relates to the use and retention of the Basque language in their current territories.
It is estimated, for example, for smaller Antioquia, a region where hundreds of Spaniards arrived, of which a good portion were Basque, some limited aspects of the culture and traditions were brought by Basque settlers, though without any mention of their particular language, thus tracking the use of Basque in the current Antioquia and Colombia. However, this is partly due to the Basque language always having been an outcast, which apparently left no written evidence in Antioquia.
In this regard, it is hardly likely that the Spanish crown—in order to maintain the monopoly of overseas companies, to maintain policies that restrict citizens not belonging to the then Spanish rule—would allow its colonies to speak languages other than Spanish. Those Basques invited to participate in the colonization companies, and foreigners in general, had to learn the official language, i.e., Spanish, hence the dominance of Spanish.
Despite these restrictions, it is still possible to trace the history of Colombia's present references to the ancient language of the Basques. A reference that has very ancient use of Euskara in Colombian territory, occurred in relation to Lope de Aguirre, a native of Gipuzkoa nicknamed "The Madman". Aguirre's rebellion defied the Spanish Empire, carrying out acts against the subjects of the Spanish crown. Pedro de Ursúa, a Navarrese faithful to the Spanish king, who was also the founder of Pamplona in eastern Colombia, said that he could persuade the soldiers to be told of Aguirre's revolt, if they spoke in Euskara.
After the Spanish Civil War, many Basque families migrated to Colombia. A number of these families were Basque-speakers and wrote works in Euskara and, likewise, translated from Spanish to Basque literary works of Colombian authors.[ citation needed ]
The current Spanish dialect in Antioquia, closely observed, has obvious influences from Basque. Basque influence is evident in words such as 'coscorria' (useless, inept) and 'tap' (tap), to name only a few cases.[ citation needed ] Basque also influenced the pronunciation of the letter 's' apico-alveolar (transitional between 's' and 'sh'), so in the Antioquia, and the letter "ll" (double L) pronounced as an affricative, not to overlook the inclusion of the letter "a" before certain initial Rs: arrecostarse instead of recostarse, arrecoger instead of recoger and arrecordarse instead of recordarse.[ citation needed ]
The first Spaniard known to have visited the territory now known as Antioquia was Rodrigo de Bastidas, who explored the area around the future site of Darién in 1500. Ten years later, Alonso de Ojeda founded San Sebastián de Urabá, 2 km from the present-day town of Necoclí, which would be destroyed later by the natives. The first Spanish military incursion into Antioquia, however, was not made until 1537, when an expedition commanded by Francisco César traveled the lands of the Native American chief Dabeiba, arriving at the Cauca River and taking an important treasure from the indigenous people's tombs. In response, the warriors of the chief Nutibara harassed the Spaniards continually, and forced them to return to Urabá.
In 1541, the conquistador Jorge Robledo departed from the site of the future (1542) Spanish town of Arma, a little below Aguadas in the North of Caldas, to lead an expedition north on the Cauca River.
Farther north, Robledo would found the city of Santa Fe de Antioquia, which in 1813 was declared the capital of the sovereign and independent state of Antioquia, and remained the seat of the governate until 1826, when Medellin was designated the capital.
Other Spaniards who settled Antioquia included Extremadurans, Catalans, Andalusians, and Canarians; the Extremadurans and Catalans also influenced the pronunciation of the letter 's' apico-alveolar, like Basques, and Andalusians and Canarians influenced seseo in the Spanish dialect.
The reason behind the chosen name for the department is not historically clear. The most accepted[ citation needed ] explanation is that the name for the, then Greek-Syrian (now Turkish), Hellenistic city of Antioch on the Orontes (Greek : Antiochia, Αντιοχεία, Arabic: Antākiyyah, today Antakya) was used since the region known as the Coffee Zone in Colombia, in which many towns and cities are named after cities in the Middle East, has a very strong Judeo-Arabic influence, both demographically and culturally. Additionally, the city in mention played a significant role in the development of early Christian communities thus religiously important for Roman Catholic Spaniard conquerors. Others state that it is named after some of the other many Hellenistic ancient cities in the Middle East named Antiochia, which were founded as well by some of the Antiochus Kings during the Seleucid Empire (312–63 BC).
Due to its geographical isolation (as it is located among mountains), Antioquia suffered supply problems. Its topography did not allow for much agriculture, so Antioquia became dependent upon trade, especially of gold and gin for the colonization of new land, although much of this trade was due to reforms passed after a visit from an inspector of the Spanish crown, Juan Antonio Mon y Velarde in 1785. The Antioquia became colonizers and traders, contributing to the Antioquian culture.
The Wall Street Journal and Citi announced in the year 2013 that Medellín, the capital of the Department of Antioquia, is the winner of the City of the Year competition, a global program developed in partnership with the Urban Land Institute to recognize the most innovative urban centers. Medellín beating out finalists Tel Aviv and New York City.
Antioquia is divided into nine subregionsto facilitate the Department's administration. These nine regions contain a total of 125 municipalities. The nine subregions with their municipalities are:
|Southwestern Antioquia||Eastern Antioquia||Northeastern Antioquia|
|Northern Antioquia||Western Antioquia||Bajo Cauca Antioquia|
|Magdalena Medio Antioquia||Urabá Antioquia||Metropolitan Aburrá Valley|
The population of Antioquia is 6,613,118 (2017 estimate), of which more than half live in the metropolitan area of Medellín. The racial composition is:
The local inhabitants of Antioquia are known as antioqueños. Of the five main regional groups in Colombia, the predominant group in Antioquia are known as paisa, referring to those living in the Paisa Region, which covers most of Antioquia, as well as the departments of Caldas, Risaralda and Quindío.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Antioquia Department .|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Antioquia .|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Antioquia .|
Boyacá is one of the thirty-two departments of Colombia, and the remnant of Boyacá State, one of the original nine states of the "United States of Colombia".
Quindío is a department of Colombia. It is in the western central region of the country, crossed by the Andes mountains. Its capital is Armenia. It is famous for the quality of the coffee plantations, colorful architecture, benign weather, variety of hotel accommodations and tourist landmarks. This department is located in a strategic area, in the center of the triangle formed by the three main cities of the country: Bogotá, Medellín and Cali. Quindío is the second-smallest Colombian department with 12 municipalities. Ethnographically and culturally it belongs to the Paisa region.
Risaralda is a department of Colombia. It is located in the western central region of the country and part of the Paisa Region. Its capital is Pereira.
Valle del Cauca, or Cauca Valley, is a department of Colombia. It is on the western side of the country, abutting the Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Santiago de Cali. Such other cities as Buenaventura, Buga, Valle del Cauca, Cartago, Palmira, Valle del Cauca and Tuluá have great economical, political, social and cultural influence on the department's life. Valle del Cauca has the largest number of independent towns with over 100,000 inhabitants in the country, counting six within its borders. Buenaventura has the largest and busiest seaport in Colombia, moving about 8,500,000 tons of merchandise annually.
A Paisa is someone from a region in the northwest of Colombia, including the part of the Andes in Colombia. The Paisa region is formed by the departments of Antioquia, Caldas, Risaralda and Quindío. Some regions of Valle del Cauca Department (north) and Tolima Department (west) culturally identify as paisas. The main cities of the Paisa region are Medellín, Pereira, Manizales and Armenia.
Amalfi is town and municipality of the Colombian Andes, northern part of the Central Mountain Range in the Antioquia Department and part of the subregion of Northeastern Antioquia. The territory of Amalfi is bordered by the municipalities of Anorí and Segovia at its north; Segovia, Remedios and Vegachí at the east; Vegachí, Yalí, Yolombó and Gómez Plata at the south and Anorí and Guadalupe at the west. The town is served by Amalfi Airport.
Santa Fe de Antioquia is a municipality in the Antioquia Department, Colombia. The city is located approximately 58 kilometres (36 mi) north of Medellín, the department capital. It has a population of approximately 23,000 inhabitants.
Indigenous peoples of Colombia, or Native Colombians, are the ethnic groups who have been in Colombia prior to the Europeans in the early 16th century. Known as pueblos indígenas in Spanish, they comprise 4.4% of the country's population and belong to 87 different tribes.
The Colombian coffee Region, also known as the Coffee Triangle is a part of the Colombian Paisa region in the rural area of Colombia. It is famous for growing and producing the majority of Colombian coffee, considered by many to be the best coffee in the world. There are four departments in the area: Caldas, Quindío, Risaralda and Tolima. The most visited cities are Manizales, Armenia, Pereira, and Ibagué.
The Cordillera Occidental is the lowest in elevation of the three branches of the Colombian Andes. The average altitude is 2,000 m (6,600 ft) and the highest peak is Cerro Tatamá at 4,100 m (13,500 ft). The range extends from south to north dividing from the Colombian Massif in Nariño Department, passes north through Cauca, Valle del Cauca, Risaralda, Chocó, and Caldas Departments to the Paramillo Massif in Antioquia and Córdoba Departments. From this massif the range divides further to form the Serranías de Ayapel, San Jerónimo and Abibe. Only to recede into the Caribbean plain and the Sinú River valley.
Tolima is one of the 32 departments of Colombia, located in the Andean region, in the center-west of the country. It is bordered on the north and the west by the department of Caldas; on the east by the department of Cundinamarca; on the south by the department of Huila, and on the west by the departments of Cauca, Valle del Cauca, Quindío and Risaralda. Tolima has a surface area of 23,562 km², and its capital is Ibagué. The department of Tolima was created in 1861 from a part of what was previously Cundinamarca.
Riosucio is a municipality and town in the Department of Chocó, Colombia. The municipality and town are located in the Atrato River basin, on the Chocoan side of Urabá, a region spanning the departments Chocó and Antioquia.
Pácora is a town and municipality in the Colombian Department of Caldas. It is located in northern Caldas-Department, on the slopes of the Andes Central Mountains of the Republic of Colombia. With an average annual temperature of 18 °C, the town is bordered to the northeast with Aguadas, Caldas, to the south with Salamina, Caldas and La Merced, and to the west separated by the Cauca River, Marmato-Caldas and Caramanta-Antioquia department. The villages in Pácora are San Bartolomé, Castilla, Las Coles, Los Morros, San Lorenzo and Buenos Aires.
Because of its natural structure, Colombia can be divided into six very distinct natural regions. These consist of the Andean Region, covering the three branches of the Andes mountains found in Colombia; the Caribbean Region, covering the area adjacent to the Caribbean Sea; the Pacific Region adjacent to the Pacific Ocean; the Orinoquía Region, part of the Llanos plains mainly in the Orinoco river basin along the border with Venezuela; the Amazon Region, part of the Amazon rainforest; and finally the Insular Region, comprising the islands in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Colombia is located in South America.
Immigration to Colombia during the early 19th and late 20th Century was relatively low when compared to other Latin American countries, due to economic, social, and security issues linked to the La Violencia and the Colombian armed conflict. Colombia inherited from the Spanish Empire harsh rules against immigration, first in the Viceroyalty of New Granada and later in the Colombian Republic. The Constituent Assembly of Colombia and the subsequent reforms to the national constitution were much more open to the immigrants and the economic aperture. However naturalization of foreigners, with the exception of those children of Colombians born abroad, is still difficult to acquire due to paperwork and bureaucracy. Immigration in Colombia is managed by the "Migración Colombia" agency.
The History of the Department of Antioquia began with the arrival of the first human settlers into what is now the Antioquia Department in Colombia. These first settlers are presumed to have arrived from mesoamerica in Central America, some 10,500 years BC, although there is some evidence of human vestiges that may date to 22,000 years BC.
Aburrá Valley, is the natural basin of the Medellín River and one of the most populous valleys of Colombia in its Andean Region with near 4 million inhabitants in its biggest urban agglomeration: The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley. The valley is located on the Central Range, over the Antioquian Mountain just between the Magdalena and Cauca valleys from east to west. The name "Aburrá" comes from an ancient language spoken in the place by the "Aburreans" (Aburraes) before the Spaniards settled the place during the 16th century.
San Andrés is a town and municipality in Antioquia Department, Colombia. Part of the subregion of Northern Antioquia.
A Basque Colombian is a person or resident born in Colombia of Basque descent. The term "Basque" may refer to ethnic Basques who immigrated to Colombia from the Basque Country. The majority of Basque Colombians live in Antioquia Department, Eje Cafetero, Bogotá, and Santander Department, with other important Basque communities in Valle del Cauca Department, Norte de Santander Department and the Caribbean region, especially Magdalena Department, Cesar Department and Atlántico Department. Basque Colombians are one of the largest Basque diaspora groups in the world, and have heavy cultural and linguistic influence in the country, especially in the Paisa Region.
The pre-Columbian cultures of Colombia refers to the Amerindian peoples that inhabited Colombia before the Spanish Conquest in the 16th century.