Antiphon

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The Liber responsorialis, showing on the right-hand page the antiphons for the first night office of Christmas. The associated psalm tones are indicated by number and ending pitch, and the pitches for the ending of the doxology are indicated by vowels:et in secula seculorum amen. Liber Responsorialis 1895 p054.jpg
The Liber responsorialis, showing on the right-hand page the antiphons for the first night office of Christmas. The associated psalm tones are indicated by number and ending pitch, and the pitches for the ending of the doxology are indicated by vowels:et in secula seculorum amen.

An antiphon (Greek ἀντίφωνον, ἀντί "opposite" and φωνή "voice") is a short chant in Christian ritual, sung as a refrain. The texts of antiphons are the Psalms. Their form was favored by St Ambrose and they feature prominently in Ambrosian chant, but they are used widely in Gregorian chant as well. They may be used during Mass, for the Introit, the Offertory or the Communion. They may also be used in the Liturgy of the Hours, typically for Lauds or Vespers.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Ambrosian chant is the liturgical plainchant repertory of the Ambrosian rite of the Roman Catholic Church, related to but distinct from Gregorian chant. It is primarily associated with the Archdiocese of Milan, and named after St. Ambrose much as Gregorian chant is named after Gregory the Great. It is the only surviving plainchant tradition besides the Gregorian to maintain the official sanction of the Roman Catholic Church.

Gregorian chant Form of song

Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. Gregorian chant developed mainly in western and central Europe during the 9th and 10th centuries, with later additions and redactions. Although popular legend credits Pope Gregory I with inventing Gregorian chant, scholars believe that it arose from a later Carolingian synthesis of Roman chant and Gallican chant.

Contents

They should not be confused with Marian antiphons or processional antiphons.

When a chant consists of alternating verses (usually sung by a cantor) and responds (usually sung by the congregation), a refrain is needed.

A response, or respond, is the second half of one of a set of preces, the said or sung answer by a congregation or choir to a versicle said or sung by an officiant or cantor. In the following opening of the Anglican service of Morning Prayer according to the Book of Common Prayer (BCP), the first line is the versicle and the second is the response.

The looser term antiphony is generally used for any call and response style of singing, such as the kirtan or the sea shanty and other work songs, and songs and worship in African and African-American culture. Antiphonal music is that performed by two choirs in interaction, often singing alternate musical phrases. [1] Antiphonal psalmody is the singing or musical playing of psalms by alternating groups of performers. [2] The term “antiphony” can also refer to a choir-book containing antiphons.

In music, a call and response is a succession of two distinct phrases usually written in different parts of the music, where the second phrase is heard as a direct commentary on or in response to the first. It corresponds to the call-and-response pattern in human communication and is found as a basic element of musical form, such as verse-chorus form, in many traditions.

Kirtan Musically recited story in Indian traditions, usually a "call and response" group form

Kirtan or Kirtana is a Sanskrit word that means "narrating, reciting, telling, describing" of an idea or story. It also refers to a genre of religious performance arts, connoting a musical form of narration or shared recitation, particularly of spiritual or religious ideas.

Sea shanty music genre

A sea shanty, chantey, or chanty is a type of work song that was once commonly sung to accompany labor on board large merchant sailing vessels. The term shanty most accurately refers to a specific style of work song belonging to this historical repertoire. However, in recent, popular usage, the scope of its definition is sometimes expanded to admit a wider range of repertoire and characteristics, or to refer to a "maritime work song" in general.

Origins

The chant of early Christianity through to the end of the 5th century had its root in the Synagogue, from whence early Christians borrowed the traditions of the chanting of psalms, singing of hymns and cantillation. There is some evidence from Acts of the Apostles that early Christians stayed close to contemporary Jewish traditions, for example Acts 2:46-47 states that "with one accord in the Temple, and breaking bread from house to house did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart, praising God, and having favour with all the people". [3] Socrates of Constantinople wrote that antiphony was introduced into Christian worship by Ignatius of Antioch (died 107) after he saw a vision of two choirs of angels. [4] Antiphonal singing was an element of Jewish liturgy believed to have entered the monasteries of Syria and Palestine in the 4th century from the Jewish communities such as the one in Antioch. [3]

Synagogue Jewish or Samaritan house of prayer

A synagogue is a Jewish or Samaritan house of worship.

Hymn type of song specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer

A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification. The word hymn derives from Greek ὕμνος (hymnos), which means "a song of praise". A writer of hymns is known as a hymnodist. The singing or composition of hymns is called hymnody. Collections of hymns are known as hymnals or hymn books. Hymns may or may not include instrumental accompaniment.

Cantillation is the ritual chanting of readings from the Hebrew Bible in synagogue services. The chants are written and notated in accordance with the special signs or marks printed in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible to complement the letters and vowel points.

Antiphons have remained an integral part of the worship in the Byzantine and Armenian Rite. [5] The practice did not become part of the Latin Church until more than two centuries later. Ambrose and Gregory the Great, who are known for their contributions to the formulation of Gregorian chant, are credited with 'antiphonaries', collections of works suitable for antiphon, which are still used in the Roman Catholic Church today. [6]

Byzantine Rite Whole of the worship life of the Eastern Catholic Churches

The Byzantine Rite, also known as the Greek Rite or Constantinopolitan Rite, is the liturgical rite used by the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek/Byzantine Catholic churches, and in a modified form, Byzantine Rite Lutheranism. Its development began during the fourth century in Constantinople and it is now the second most-used ecclesiastical rite in Christendom after the Roman Rite.

Armenian Rite

The Armenian Rite is an independent liturgy used by both the Armenian Apostolic and Armenian Catholic Churches. It is also the rite used by a significant number of Eastern Catholic Christians in Georgia.

Latin Church Automonous particular church making up of most of the Western world Catholics

The Latin Church, also known as the Western Church or the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest particular church of the Catholic Church, employing the Latin liturgical rites. It is one of 24 sui iuris churches, the 23 others forming the Eastern Catholic Churches. It is headed by the bishop of Rome, the pope – traditionally also called the Patriarch of the West – with cathedra in this role at the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in Rome, Italy. The Latin Church traces its history to the earliest days of Christianity, according to Catholic tradition, through its direct leadership under the Holy See.

Polyphonic votive antiphons

Polyphonic Marian antiphons emerged in England in the 14th century as settings of texts honouring the Virgin Mary, which were sung separately from the mass and office, often after Compline. [7] Towards the end of the 15th century, English composers produced expanded settings up to nine parts, with increasing complexity and vocal range. [7] The largest collection of such antiphons is the late-15th-century Eton Choirbook . [8] As a result, antiphony remains particularly common in the Anglican musical tradition: the singers often face each other, placed in the quire's Decani and Cantoris . [9]

Greater Advent antiphons

The Annunciation Meister der Braunschweig-Magdeburger Schule 001.jpg
The Annunciation

The Greater Advent or O Antiphons are antiphons used at daily prayer in the evenings of the last days of Advent in various liturgical Christian traditions. [10] Each antiphon is a name of Christ, one of his attributes mentioned in Scripture. In the Roman Catholic tradition, they are sung or recited at Vespers from December 17 to December 23. [11] In the Church of England they have traditionally been used as antiphons to the Magnificat at Evening Prayer. [12] More recently they have found a place in primary liturgical documents throughout the Anglican Communion, including the Church of England's Common Worship liturgy. Use of the O Antiphons was preserved in Lutheranism at the German Reformation, and they continue to be sung in Lutheran churches. [13]

Polychoral antiphony

When two or more groups of singers sing in alternation, the style of music can also be called polychoral. Specifically, this term is usually applied to music of the late Renaissance and early Baroque periods. Polychoral techniques are a definitive characteristic of the music of the Venetian school, exemplified by the works of Giovanni Gabrieli: this music is often known as the Venetian polychoral style. [14] The Venetian polychoral style was an important innovation of the late Renaissance. This style, with its variations as it spread across Europe after 1600, helped to define the beginning of the Baroque era. Polychoral music was not limited to Italy in the Renaissance; it was also popular in Spain and Germany. There are examples from the 19th and 20th centuries, from composers as diverse as Hector Berlioz, Igor Stravinsky, Béla Bartók, and Karlheinz Stockhausen. [15]

See also

Related Research Articles

Polyphony

In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work. In particular, polyphony consists of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice, monophony, or a texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords, which is called homophony.

Plainsong is a body of chants used in the liturgies of the Western Church. Though the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox churches did not split until long after the origin of plainsong, Byzantine chants are generally not classified as plainsong.

Vespers sunset evening prayer service in the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours

Vespers is a sunset evening prayer service in the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours. The word comes from the Greek ἑσπέρα ("hespera") and the Latin vesper, meaning "evening". It is also referred to in the Anglican tradition as evening prayer or evensong. The term is also used in some Protestant denominations to describe evening services.

Adrian Willaert French-Flemish composer

Adrian Willaert was a Netherlandish composer of the Renaissance and founder of the Venetian School. He was one of the most representative members of the generation of northern composers who moved to Italy and transplanted the polyphonic Franco-Flemish style there.

John Sheppard was an English composer of the Renaissance.

Anglican church music

Anglican church music is music that is written for Christian worship in Anglican religious services, forming part of the liturgy. It mostly consists of pieces written to be sung by a church choir, which may sing a cappella or accompanied by an organ.

The Introit is part of the opening of the liturgical celebration of the Eucharist for many Christian denominations. In its most complete version, it consists of an antiphon, psalm verse and Gloria Patri, which are spoken or sung at the beginning of the celebration. It is part of the Proper of the liturgy: that is, the part that changes over the liturgical year.

Church music music mainly written for performance in Christian service facilities

Church music is music written for performance in church, or any musical setting of ecclesiastical liturgy, or music set to words expressing propositions of a sacred nature, such as a hymn.

Christian worship

In Christianity, worship is the act of attributing reverent honor and homage to God. In the New Testament, various words are used to refer to the term worship. One is proskuneo which means to bow down to God or kings.

Hymns to Mary Christian hymn or antiphon focused on the Virgin Mary

Marian hymns are Christian songs focused on the Virgin Mary. They are used in both devotional and liturgical services, particularly by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran churches. They are often used in the month of May devotions. Some have also been adopted as Christmas hymns. Marian hymns are not popular among Protestants, as many Protestants see Marian veneration as idolatry. However, the practice is very common among Christians of Catholic traditions, and a key component of the Eastern Orthodox liturgy. There are many more hymns to Mary within the Eastern Orthodox yearly cycle of liturgy than in Roman Catholic liturgy.

Antiphonary Catholic liturgical book

An Antiphonary is one of the liturgical books intended for use in choro, and originally characterized, as its name implies, by the assignment to it principally of the antiphons used in various parts of the Roman liturgy.

Mozarabic chant is the liturgical plainchant repertory of the Visigothic/Mozarabic rite of the Catholic Church, related to the Gregorian chant. It is primarily associated with Hispania under Visigothic rule and with the Catholic Visigoths/Mozarabs living under Islamic rule, and was soon replaced by the chant of the Roman rite following the Christian Reconquest. Although its original medieval form is largely lost, a few chants have survived with readable musical notation, and the chanted rite was later revived in altered form and continues to be used in a few isolated locations in Spain, primarily in Toledo.

<i>Ave Regina caelorum</i>

Ave Regina caelorum is one of the Marian antiphons said or sung in the Liturgy of the Hours at the close of compline. In the Roman Breviary as revised by Pope Pius V in 1569 it was assigned for this use from compline of 2 February until compline of Wednesday of Holy Week. Since the revision of the Liturgy of the Hours in 1969, the only Marian antiphon for whose use a fixed period is laid down is the Easter season antiphon Regina caeli.

Early music of the British Isles

Early music of the British Isles, from the earliest recorded times until the beginnings of the Baroque in the 17th century, was a diverse and rich culture, including sacred and secular music and ranging from the popular to the elite. Each of the major nations of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales retained unique forms of music and of instrumentation, but British music was highly influenced by continental developments, while British composers made an important contribution to many of the major movements in early music in Europe, including the polyphony of the Ars Nova and laid some of the foundations of later national and international classical music. Musicians from the British Isles also developed some distinctive forms of music, including Celtic chant, the Contenance Angloise, the rota, polyphonic votive antiphons and the carol in the medieval era and English madrigals, lute ayres and masques in the Renaissance era, which would lead to the development of English language opera at the height of the Baroque in the 18th century.

Church music in Scotland

Church music in Scotland includes all musical composition and performance of music in the context of Christian worship in Scotland, from the beginnings of Christianisation in the fifth century, to the present day. The sources for Scottish Medieval music are extremely limited due to factors including a turbulent political history, the destructive practices of the Scottish Reformation, the climate and the relatively late arrival of music printing. In the early Middle Ages, ecclesiastical music was dominated by monophonic plainchant, which led to the development of a distinct form of liturgical Celtic chant. It was superseded from the eleventh century by more complex Gregorian chant. In the High Middle Ages, the need for large numbers of singing priests to fulfill the obligations of church services led to the foundation of a system of song schools, to train boys as choristers and priests. From the thirteenth century, Scottish church music was increasingly influenced by continental developments. Monophony was replaced from the fourteenth century by the Ars Nova consisting of complex polyphony. Survivals of works from the first half of the sixteenth century indicate the quality and scope of music that was undertaken at the end of the Medieval period. The outstanding Scottish composer of the first half of the sixteenth century was Robert Carver, who produced complex polyphonic music.

Evensong

Evensong is the common name for a Christian church service originating in the Anglican tradition as part of the reformed practice of the Daily Office or canonical hours. The service may also be referred to as Evening Prayer, but Evensong is the more common name when the service is musical.

Daily Office (Anglican)

Since the Reformation, the Daily Office of the Anglican church has been based around two daily services: Morning Prayer and Evening Prayer. These services are generally conducted according to set forms contained in the various local editions of the Book of Common Prayer. Services of the Daily Office may be led by an ordained clergyperson or by a lay person. In many Anglican provinces, ordained clergy are required to pray the two main services daily.

References

  1. E. Foley and M. Paul, Worship music: a concise dictionary (Liturgical Press, 2000), p. 18.
  2. J. McKinnon, Music in early Christian literature (Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 10.
  3. 1 2 Wellesz, Egon (1954). New Oxford History of Music Vol II: Early Medieval Music up to 1300. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  4. A.C. Zenos, ed., 'The Ecclesiastical History of Socrates Scholasticus,' book VI, chapter VIII, vol 2, p 144. In A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series, P. Schaff and H. Wace, eds (Grand Rapids: W. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1957).
  5. Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Antiphon (in Greek Liturgy)"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  6. G. Wainwright, K. B. W. Tucker. The Oxford History of Christian Worship (Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 244.
  7. 1 2 R. H. Fritze and W. Baxter Robison, Historical Dictionary of Late Medieval England, 1272–1485 (Greenwood, 2002), p. 363.
  8. H. Benham, John Taverner: His Life and Music (Ashgate, Aldershot, 2003), pp. 48–9.
  9. R. Bray, 'England i, 1485–1600' in J. Haar, European Music, 1520–1640 (Boydell, 2006), p. 498.
  10. A. Nocent and M. J. O'Connell, The Liturgical Year (Liturgical Press, 1977), p. 162.
  11. A. Nocent and M. J. O'Connell (1977), Liturgical Year, pp. 163-80.
  12. J. H. Blunt, The Annotated Book of Common Prayer: Being an Historical, Ritual, and Theological Commentary on the Devotional System of the Church of England (Rivingtons, 1866), p. 76.
  13. C. B. Brown, Singing the Gospel: Lutheran Hymns and the Success of the Reformation (Harvard University Press, 2005), p. 61.
  14. C. Parrish, A Treasury of Early Music: Masterworks of the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque Era (Courier Dover Publications, 2000), p. 138.
  15. Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Oxford University Press.