Antoine, Duke of Lorraine

Last updated
Antoine
Hans Holbein d. J. 036.jpg
Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1543
Duke of Lorraine
Reign10 December 1508 - 14 June 1544
Predecessor René II
Successor Francis I
Born4 June 1489
Bar-le-Duc
Died14 June 1544(1544-06-14) (aged 55)
Bar-le-Duc
Spouse Renée de Bourbon
Issue Francis I, Duke of Lorraine
Nicholas, Duke of Mercœur
Anna, Princess of Orange
House Lorraine
Father René II, Duke of Lorraine
Mother Philippa of Guelders

Antoine (4 June 1489 – 14 June 1544), known as the Good, was Duke of Lorraine from 1508 until his death in 1544.

Contents

Biography

Antoine was born at Bar-le-Duc, the son of René II, Duke of Lorraine and Philippa of Guelders. [1] He was raised at the court of King Louis XII together with his brother Claude, and also made friends with the Duke of Angoulême, the future King Francis I.

Bar-le-Duc Prefecture and commune in Grand Est, France

Bar-le-Duc, formerly known as Bar, is a commune in the Meuse département, of which it is the capital. The department is in Grand Est in northeastern France.

René II, Duke of Lorraine Duke of Lorraine

René II was Count of Vaudémont from 1470, Duke of Lorraine from 1473, and Duke of Bar from 1483 to 1508. He claimed the crown of the Kingdom of Naples and the County of Provence as the Duke of Calabria 1480–1493 and as King of Naples and Jerusalem 1493–1508. He succeeded his uncle John of Vaudémont as Count of Harcourt in 1473, exchanging it for the county of Aumale in 1495. He succeeded as Count of Guise in 1504.

Philippa of Guelders, was a Duchess consort of Lorraine. She served as regent of Lorraine during the absence of her son.

In 1509 he entrusted the reins of the Duchy to his mother and Hugues des Hazards, bishop of Toul, and followed Louis XII in his campaign in northern Italy, where he took part in the Battle of Agnadello of that year. [2] After Louis' death, he went again to Italy under Francis I, participating in the battle of Marignano (14/15 September 1515). [3] However, called back home by problems in Lorraine, he was absent at the decisive battle of Pavia (1525), in which Francis was taken prisoner and his brother François, comte de Lambesc, was killed. [3]

Italian Wars Wars in Italy from the 15th to 16th centuries

The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a series of Renaissance conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved most of the Italian states as well as France, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, England and the Ottoman Empire.

Battle of Agnadello

The Battle of Agnadello, also known as Vailà, was one of the most significant battles of the War of the League of Cambrai and one of the major battles of the Italian Wars.

Battle of Marignano battle in 1515 between Switzerland and France

The Battle of Marignano was fought during the phase of the Italian Wars (1494–1559) called the War of the League of Cambrai, between France and the Old Swiss Confederacy. It took place on 13–14 September 1515 near the town today called Melegnano, 16 km southeast of Milan. It resulted in a victory for the French forces.

In Lorraine, Antoine had to face the spreading of Protestant Reformation, against which he published an edict on 26 December 1523. [4] The situation worsened the following year, when a rebellion, known as German Peasants' War, broke out in Alsace. The insurrectionists captured Saverne and tried to conquer Saint-Dié, while the peasants of Bitscherland also rose in May 1525. Antoine launched an expedition which reconquered Saverne on 17 May and crushed a peasant army on 20 May near Sélestat. He subsequently promulgated other edicts against the Protestants.

German Peasants War conflict

The German Peasants' War, Great Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt was a widespread popular revolt in some German-speaking areas in Central Europe from 1524 to 1525. It failed because of the intense opposition by the aristocracy, who slaughtered up to 100,000 of the 300,000 poorly armed peasants and farmers. The survivors were fined and achieved few, if any, of their goals. The war consisted, like the preceding Bundschuh movement and the Hussite Wars, of a series of both economic and religious revolts in which peasants and farmers, often supported by Anabaptist clergy, took the lead. The German Peasants' War was Europe's largest and most widespread popular uprising prior to the French Revolution of 1789. The fighting was at its height in the middle of 1525.

Alsace Place in Grand Est, France

Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.

Saverne Subprefecture and commune in Grand Est, France

Saverne is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. It is situated on the Rhine-Marne canal at the foot of a pass over the Vosges Mountains, and 45 km (27 mi) N.W. of Strasbourg.

Antoine was able to enlarge his duchy through heritages and acquisitions. Starting from 1525, he preferred to remain neutral in the wars which ensued between Francis I and Emperor Charles V. With the Treaty of Nuremberg (26 August 1542), he obtained by Charles V the independence of the Duchy of Lorraine

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 16th-century Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor (1519–1556), King of Spain and ruler of the Spanish Empire, Archduke of Austria, and ruler of the Habsburg Netherlands (1506–1555). The Spanish conquest of Peru and Mexico, and the German colonisation of Venezuela both occurred during his reign. Charles V revitalized the medieval concept of the universal monarchy of Charlemagne and travelled from city to city, with no single fixed capital: overall he spent 28 years in the Habsburg Netherlands, 18 years in Spain and 9 years in Germany. After four decades of incessant warfare with the Kingdom of France, the Ottoman Empire, and the Protestants, Charles V abandoned his multi-kingdoms project with a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556 in favor of his son Philip II of Spain and brother Ferdinand I of Austria. The personal union of his European and American territories, spanning over nearly 4 million square kilometres, was the first collection of realms to be defined as "the empire on which the sun never sets".

In 1538, he claimed the titles of Duke of Guelders and Count of Zutphen upon the death of Charles of Egmond, but was unable to gain possession of them.

The title of Count of Zutphen historically belonged to the ruler of the Dutch province of Gelderland.

By 1539, Antoine suffered from gout and asked his niece, Mary of Guise, to send him a Scottish hackney horse which he hoped to find easier to ride with his condition. [5]

Family

On 26 June 1515, he married Renée of Bourbon, daughter of Gilbert de Bourbon, Count of Montpensier by Clara Gonzaga. [3]

He had six children:

Ancestry

8. Antoine, Count of Vaudémont
4. Frederick II, Count of Vaudémont
9. Marie d'Harcourt
2. René II, Duke of Lorraine
10. René of Anjou
5. Yolande, Duchess of Lorraine
11. Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine
1. Antoine, Duke of Lorraine
12. Arnold of Egmond, Duke of Gelderland
6. Adolf of Egmond, Duke of Guelders
13. Catherine of Cleves
3. Philippa of Guelders
14. Charles I, Duke of Bourbon
7. Catharine of Bourbon
15. Agnes of Valois-Burgundy

See also

Related Research Articles

House of Valois cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty

The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Anjou, Burgundy, and Alençon.

House of Guise noble family

The House of Guise was a French noble family, partly responsible for the French Wars of Religion.

Francis, Duke of Guise 16th-century French soldier and politician

Francis de Lorraine II, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Duke of Aumale, was a French soldier and politician. By religion, he practised Catholicism, at a time when France was being polarized between the Catholics and Huguenots. His sister, Mary of Guise, was Queen of Scotland as wife of King James V of Scotland and she was the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots.

Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine French duchess

Isabella was suo jure Duchess of Lorraine, from 25 January 1431 to her death in 1453. She was also Queen of Naples by marriage to René of Anjou. Isabella ruled the Kingdom of Naples and her husband's domains in France as regent during his imprisonment in Burgundy in 1435-1438.

House of Lorraine Royal house of Europe

The House of Lorraine originated as a cadet branch of the House of Metz. It inherited the Duchy of Lorraine in 1473 after the death of duke Nicholas I without a male heir. By the marriage of Francis of Lorraine to Maria Theresa in 1736, and with the success in the ensuing War of the Austrian Succession, the House of Lorraine was joined to the House of Habsburg, and was now known as Habsburg-Lorraine. Francis, his sons Joseph II and Leopold II, and grandson Francis II were the last four Holy Roman Emperors from 1745 to the dissolution of the empire in 1806. Habsburg-Lorraine inherited the Habsburg Empire, ruling the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1918.

Claude, Duke of Guise Duke of Guise

Claude de Lorraine, duc de Guise was a French aristocrat and general. He became the first Duke of Guise in 1528.

Count of Guise and Duke of Guise were titles in the French nobility.

Anna of Lorraine Dutch princess

Anna of Lorraine was a princess of the House of Lorraine. She was Princess of Orange by her first marriage to René of Châlon, and Duchess of Aarschot by her second marriage to Philippe II of Croÿ.

Charles, Duke of Vendôme French noble

Charles de Bourbon was a French prince du sang and military commander at the court of Francis I of France. He is notable as the paternal grandfather of King Henry IV of France.

Grand Master of France

The Grand Master of France was, during the Ancien Régime and Bourbon Restoration in France, one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France and head of the "Maison du Roi", the king's royal household. The position is similar to that of Lord Steward in England.

Francois de Lorraine (1506–1525) was the Lord of Lambesc, and a commander in the French army under Francis I of France. He was son of René II, Duke of Lorraine and Philippa of Guelders. He commanded the Black Band of renegade Landsknechts at the Battle of Pavia, and in the bitter combat that ensued between the Black Band and Frundsberg's Imperial Landsknechts, Lorraine was killed.

Françoise dAlençon Spouse of Charles, Duke of Vendôme

Françoise d'Alençon was the eldest daughter of René of Alençon and Margaret of Lorraine, and the younger sister and despoiled heiress of Charles IV, Duke of Alençon.

Béatrice Hiéronyme de Lorraine French princess and abbess

Béatrice Hiéronyme de Lorraine was a member of the House of Lorraine and was the Abbess of Remiremont. She was a member of the household of Le Grand Dauphin and was the supposed wife of her cousin the Chevalier de Lorraine. She died childless.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Carroll 2009, p. 310.
  2. Bogdan 2013, p. 108.
  3. 1 2 3 Bogdan 2013, p. 109.
  4. Bogdan 2013, p. 110.
  5. Wood 1923, p. 33-34.

Sources

Preceded by
René II
Duke of Lorraine and Bar
Marquis of Pont-à-Mousson

1508–1544
Succeeded by
Francis I