Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle

Last updated


Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle
Count of La Baume Saint-Amour
Cardinal, 1st Archbishop of Mechelen
Portrait of Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle by Willem Key.jpg
Portrait by Willem Key
See Mechelen-Brussels
Term ended1586
Successor Joannes Hauchin
Other post(s)Bishop of Arras
Orders
Created cardinal1561
Personal details
MottoDurate
Signature Signatur Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle.PNG
Coat of arms BlasonCardinaldeGranvelle.svg
Granvelle, portrait by Frans Floris Bemberg fondation Toulouse - Portrait of Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle - Frans Floris inv.1019.jpg
Granvelle, portrait by Frans Floris
Medal of the cardinal by Jacques Jonghelinck Jacques jonghenlick, antoine perrrenot, cardinal granvelle, post 1561.JPG
Medal of the cardinal by Jacques Jonghelinck
Tomb in Mechelen cathedral Tombae Funebris Mechliensis 03.JPG
Tomb in Mechelen cathedral

Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle (20 August 1517 21 September 1586), Comte de La Baume Saint Amour, was a Bisontin (Free Imperial City of Besançon) statesman, made a cardinal, who followed his father as a leading minister of the Spanish Habsburgs, and was one of the most influential European politicians during the time which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe; "the dominating Imperial statesman of the whole century". [1] He was also a notable art collector, the "greatest private collector of his time, the friend and patron of Titian and Leoni and many other artists". [1]

Contents

Biography

He was born in the Free Imperial City of Besançon, now in France, then a self-governing city surrounded by the Imperial territory of the County of Burgundy (Franche-Comté). His father, Nicholas Perrenot de Granvelle (1484–1550), afterwards became chancellor of the empire under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, held an influential position in the Netherlands, and from 1530 until his death he was one of the emperor's most trusted advisers in Germany. On the completion of his studies in law at Padua and in divinity at Leuven, [2] Antoine held a canonry at Besançon, nowadays in eastern France, then was promoted to the bishopric of Arras with a dispensation due to his age of barely twenty-three (1540). [3] He was ordained into the priesthood in 1540.[ citation needed ]

In his episcopal capacity he attended several diets of the empire, as well as the opening meetings of the Council of Trent, which he addressed on behalf of Charles V. The influence of his father, now chancellor, led to Granvelle being entrusted with many difficult and delicate pieces of public business. In the execution of these tasks he developed a talent for diplomacy, while at the same time acquiring an intimate acquaintance with most of the currents of European politics. He was involved in the settlement of the terms of peace after the defeat of the Schmalkaldic League at the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547, a settlement in which, to say the least, some particularly sharp practice was exhibited. In 1550, he succeeded his father in the office of secretary of state; in this capacity he attended Charles in the war with Maurice of Saxony, accompanied him in the flight from Innsbruck, and afterwards drew up the Peace of Passau (August 1552). [3]

In the following year he and Simon Renard, the ambassador of Charles V to the Queen Mary I of England, conducted the negotiations for the marriage of Mary and Philip II of Spain. It was to Philip in 1555, on the abdication of the emperor, that Granvelle transferred his services, and by whom he was employed in the Netherlands. In April 1559 Granvelle was one of the Spanish commissioners who arranged the Peace of Cateau Cambrésis, and on Philip's withdrawal from the Netherlands in August of the same year he was surreptitiously appointed chief councillor to the regent Margaret of Parma. [4] The policy of repression which in this capacity he pursued during the next five years secured for him many tangible rewards: in 1560 he was elevated to the archepiscopal see of Mechelen, and in 1561 he became a cardinal; but the growing hostility of a people whose religious convictions he had set himself to oppose ultimately made it impossible for him to continue in the Netherlands; and on the advice of his royal master he retired to Franche-Comté in March 1564. [3]

After a visit to Rome in 1565; in November 1566 he was appointed as member of the Congregation of "Principi", the centre of the Papal States' foreign policy, by Pope Pius V. [5] In 1570, Granvelle, at the request of Philip, helped to arrange the alliance between the Papacy, Venice and Spain against the Turks, an alliance which was responsible for the victory of Lepanto the next year. In the same year he became viceroy of Naples, a post of some difficulty and danger, which for five years he occupied with ability and success. He was summoned to Madrid in 1575 by Philip II to be president of the council for Italian affairs. Among the more delicate negotiations of his later years were those of 1580, which had for their object the ultimate union of the crowns of Spain and Portugal, and those of 1584, which resulted in a check to France by the marriage of the Spanish infanta Catherine to Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy. In the same year he was made archbishop of Besançon, but meanwhile he had been stricken with a lingering disease; he was never enthroned, but died at Madrid in 1586. His body was taken to Besançon Cathedral, where his father had been buried. His tomb is in Mechelen cathedral. [3]

Collector of art

Granvelle had a famous art collection, which partly featured the favourite artists of his Habsburg patrons, such as Titian and Leone Leoni, but also included a number of works by Pieter Bruegel, as well as a significant collection inherited from his father. Bruegel's friend, the sculptor Jacques Jonghelinck (brother of Bruegel's biggest patron) had a studio in Granvelle's palace in Brussels. Whilst in the Netherlands, he "discovered" Antonis Mor and introduced him to the Madrid court, and he also patronised Giambologna and arranged his first visit to Italy. At his death the collection was inherited by his nephew, who was pressured by Rudolf II, the very acquisitive Austrian Habsburg Emperor, to sell the finest pieces to him, which in 1597 he very reluctantly did, protesting that the price offered for thirty-three works was not enough even for six, and less than he had recently refused from Cardinal Farnese for Dürer's Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand alone. The arrangements were handled by Hans von Aachen. Most of these pieces are now in Vienna or Madrid, including Titian's Venus with an Organ-player , Giambologna's copy of the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, tapestries after cartoons by Hieronymus Bosch and a bust of Charles V by Leoni. [1]

Though he was painted by Titian [6] and Mor, more famous than any portrait of Granvelle himself is the portrait of his dwarf and his mastiff by Mor, now at the Musée du Louvre. [7] which perhaps initiated the Spanish tradition of portraits of court dwarfs. The Flemish Renaissance humanist Justus Lipsius was Granvelle's secretary for a period in Rome. He also corresponded with the composers Lassus and Adrian Willaert [8] He had a magnificent library, some of which remains at Besançon. [9]

Related Research Articles

Franche-Comté Region of France

Franche-Comté is a cultural and historical region of eastern France. It is composed of the modern departments of Doubs, Jura, Haute-Saône and the Territoire de Belfort. In 2016, its population was 1,180,397.

Besançon Prefecture and commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Besançon is the capital of the department of Doubs in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. The city is located in Eastern France, close to the Jura Mountains and the border with Switzerland.

Lamoral, Count of Egmont General and statesman in Flanders (1522–1568)

Lamoral, Count of Egmont, Prince of Gavere was a general and statesman in the Spanish Netherlands just before the start of the Eighty Years' War, whose execution helped spark the national uprising that eventually led to the independence of the Netherlands.

County of Burgundy Medieval county of the Holy Roman Empire (982-1678)

The Free County of Burgundy or Franche-Comté, was a medieval county of the Holy Roman Empire, predecessor to the modern region of Franche-Comté. The name franc(he) comté derives from the title of its count, franc comte, in German Freigraf 'free count', denoting imperial immediacy. It should not be confused with the more westerly Duchy of Burgundy, a fiefdom of France since 843.

Antonis Mor

Sir Anthonis Mor, also known as Anthonis Mor van Dashorst and Antonio Moro, was a Netherlandish portrait painter, much in demand by the courts of Europe. He has also been referred to as Antoon, Anthonius, Anthonis or Mor van Dashorst, and as Antonio Moro, António Mouro, Anthony More, etc., but signed most of his portraits as Anthonis Mor.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Besançon

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Besançon is a Latin Rite Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in France. It comprises the département of Doubs and the département of Haute-Saône.

Alonso Sánchez Coello Spanish painter (1531–1588)

Alonso Sánchez Coello was an Iberian portrait painter of the Spanish and Portuguese Renaissance. He is mainly known for his portrait paintings executed in a style which combines the objectivity of the Flemish tradition with the sensuality of Venetian painting. He was court painter to Philip II.

Burgundian Circle Imperial circle of the Holy Roman Empire

The Burgundian Circle was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire created in 1512 and significantly enlarged in 1548. In addition to the Free County of Burgundy, the Burgundian Circle roughly covered the Low Countries, i.e., the areas now known as the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg and adjacent parts in the French administrative region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. For most of its history, its lands were coterminous with the holdings of the Spanish Habsburgs in the Empire.

Court painter

A court painter was an artist who painted for the members of a royal or princely family, sometimes on a fixed salary and on an exclusive basis where the artist was not supposed to undertake other work. Painters were the most common, but the court artist might also be a court sculptor. In Western Europe, the role began to emerge in the mid-13th century. By the Renaissance, portraits, mainly of the family, made up an increasingly large part of their commissions, and in the Early Modern period one person might be appointed solely to do portraits, and another for other work, such as decorating new buildings.

Jacques Jonghelinck

Jacques Jonghelinck was a Flemish sculptor and medallist working in Brussels in the Mannerist style common to the Catholic courts of Western Europe.

Leone Leoni

Leone Leoni was an Italian sculptor of international outlook who travelled in Italy, Germany, Austria, France, Spain and the Netherlands. Leoni is regarded as the finest of the Cinquecento medallists. He made his reputation in commissions he received from the Habsburg monarchs Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and Philip II of Spain. His usual medium was bronze, although he also worked in marble and alabaster, carved gemstones and probably left some finished work in wax, as well as designing coins. He mainly produced portraits, and was repeatedly used by the Spanish, and also the Austrian, Habsburgs.

Ornans Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Ornans is a commune in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France. On January 1, 2016, the former commune Bonnevaux-le-Prieuré was merged into Ornans.

Nicolas Perrenot de Granvelle

Nicolas Perrenot de Granvelle (1486–1550) was a Franc-Comtois politician who served as a close trusted advisor to Emperor Charles V. He was made suzerain of the imperial city of Besançon and held an influential position in the Netherlands. From 1530 until his death he was one of the emperor's most trusted advisers in Germany. He was the father of the cardinal and politician Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, also a leading Habsburg minister, and built the Palace Granvelle in Besançon.

Jean Richardot

Jean Grusset dict Richardot, knight was a statesman and diplomat from the Franche-Comté, who held high political office during the Dutch Revolt and played an important role in restoring Habsburg rule in the Southern Netherlands.

Jean-Baptiste Boisot

Jean-Baptiste Boisot was a French abbot, bibliophile, and scholar notable for leaving his collection of manuscripts to the Benedictine monks of Saint-Vincent. He is also known for leaving his library to his birthplace of Besançon and for his correspondence with Madeleine de Scudéry.

Jean or Jehan Scheyfve,, Lord of Sint-Agatha-Rode, was Chancellor of Brabant, head of the civilian administration of the Duchy of Brabant, from 1557 to 1579. He had earlier served as the ambassador of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, to the English court.

The House of Granvelle is a protected French Historical Monument located in the village of Ornans, in the French department of Doubs.

<i>Landscape with the Flight into Egypt</i> (Bruegel) Painting by Pieter Bruegel the Elder

Landscape with the Flight into Egypt is a 1563 oil on wooden board painting by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, showing the biblical Flight into Egypt of Mary and Joseph with the infant Jesus. It measures 37.1 by 55.6 centimetres and is displayed at the Courtauld Gallery in London.

Frédéric Perrenot (1536–1600), lord of Champagney, baron of Renaix, was a soldier and diplomat in Habsburg service.

Spanish royal collection

The Spanish royal collection of art was almost entirely built up by the monarchs of the Habsburg family who ruled Spain from 1516 to 1700, and then the Bourbons. They included a number of kings with a serious interest in the arts, who were patrons of a series of major artists: Charles V and Philip II were patrons of Titian, Philip IV appointed Velázquez as court painter, and Goya had a similar role at the court of Charles IV.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Trevor-Roper, Hugh; Princes and Artists, Patronage and Ideology at Four Habsburg Courts 1517–1633, Thames & Hudson, London, 1976, p.112
  2. Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, Catholic Encyclopedia
  3. 1 2 3 4 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Granvella, Antoine Perrenot, Cardinal de". Encyclopædia Britannica . 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 361–362.
  4. Motley, John (1883) [Original release 1855]. The Rise of the Dutch Republic: A History Vol. 1. New York, New York: Harper and Brothers. pp. 202, 208–210.
  5. Enciclopedia dei Papi. Rome: Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana - Treccani. 2000.
  6. The portrait is at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City.
  7. Louvre On-line Catalog
  8. Fitch, Fabrice (1998). "Polyphony in the Low Countries". Early Music. 26 (3): 487–488. doi:10.1093/earlyj/xxvi.3.487. JSTOR   3128706.
  9. Exposition des livres du cardinal de Granvelle à la Bibliothèque municipale de Besançon, Besançon, 1986: liste dactylographiée des ouvrages exposés. Archived 24 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
new creation
1st Archbishop of Mechelen
until 1586
Succeeded by
Joannes Hauchin