|President of Czechoslovakia|
21 March 1953 –13 November 1957
|Preceded by||Klement Gottwald|
|Succeeded by||Antonín Novotný|
|Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia|
15 June 1948 –14 March 1953
|Preceded by||Klement Gottwald|
|Succeeded by||Viliam Široký|
|Born||19 December 1884|
|Died||13 November 1957 72) (aged|
(now Czech Republic)
|Political party||Communist Party of Czechoslovakia|
|Czechoslovak Social Democratic Workers' Party|
Antonín Zápotocký (19 December 1884 –13 November 1957) was a Czech communist politician and statesman who served as the prime minister of Czechoslovakia from 1948 to 1953 and the president of Czechoslovakia from 1953 to 1957.
He was born in Zákolany,Kladno District,Bohemia (then in Austria-Hungary,now in the Czech Republic). His father was Ladislav Zápotocký,one of the founders of the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD),together with Josef Boleslav Pecka-Strahovský and Josef Hybeš .
He was a delegate of the Left Wing of the ČSSD to the Second Comintern Congress,held in Petersburg,19 July –7 August 1920. Together with Bohumír Šmeral,he co-founded the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) when it broke away from the ČSSD in 1921. He was General Secretary of the KSČ from 1922 to 1925. In 1940,he was sent to Sachsenhausen concentration camp. He was released in 1945.
From 18 June to 18 July 1946 he was Chairman of the Constituent National Assembly.
Zápotockýbecame Prime Minister on 15 June 1948,replacing Klement Gottwald,who became president. On 14 March 1953,shortly after his return from Joseph Stalin's funeral,Gottwald died. As per the Ninth-of-May Constitution,Zápotockýtook over most presidential duties until he was elected president in his own right a week later.
Zápotockýfavoured a more humane way of governing,but was outflanked by the Stalinist first secretary,Antonín Novotný.
In May 1953,during the monetary reform,which effectively deprived the farmers and better-paid workers of all their savings,took place sporadic riots against the communist authorities. This occasion gave Novotnýa chance to seize the upper hand.At a meeting in Moscow,Zápotockýwas told to adhere to "collective leadership"—in effect,give up power to Novotný.
Zápotockýstayed in office until his death in Prague in 1957. He was also second Czechoslovakia president to die in office. His body was cremated at Strašnice Crematorium and interred.
Zápotockýpenned several novels,two of which were filmed (Rudázáře nad Kladnem and Vstanou novíbojovníci).
Klement Gottwald was a Czech communist politician,who was the leader of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from 1929 until his death in 1953–titled as general secretary until 1945 and as chairman from 1945 to 1953. He was the first leader of Communist Czechoslovakia from 1948 to 1953.
Alexander Dubček was a Slovak politician who served as the First Secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) from January 1968 to April 1969. He attempted to reform the communist government during the Prague Spring but was forced to resign following the Warsaw Pact invasion in August 1968.
During World War II,Czechoslovakia had largely disappeared from the map of Europe. The Third Czechoslovak Republic which emerged as a sovereign state after the end of the war was not only the result of the policies of the victorious Western allies,the French Fourth Republic,the United Kingdom and the United States,but also an indication of the strength of the Czechoslovak ideal embodied in the First Czechoslovak Republic. However,at the conclusion of World War II,Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence,and this circumstance dominated any plans or strategies for postwar reconstruction. Consequently,the political and economic organisation of Czechoslovakia became largely a matter of negotiations between Edvard Benešand Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) exiles living in Moscow.
From the Communist coup d'état in February 1948 to the Velvet Revolution in 1989,Czechoslovakia was ruled by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. The country belonged to the Eastern Bloc and was a member of the Warsaw Pact and of Comecon. During the era of Communist Party rule,thousands of Czechoslovaks faced political persecution for various offences,such as trying to emigrate across the Iron Curtain.
The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was a Communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. It was a member of the Comintern. Between 1929 and 1953,it was led by Klement Gottwald. The KSČwas the sole governing party in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic though it was a leading party alongside with the Slovak branch and four other legally permitted non-communist parties. After its election victory in 1946,it seized power in the 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état and established a one-party state allied with the Soviet Union. Nationalization of virtually all private enterprises followed.
Although political control of Communist Czechoslovakia was largely monopolized by the authoritarian Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ),the party technically shared political power with other parties of the National Front. Czechoslovakia's foreign policy was openly influenced by the foreign policy of the Soviet Union.
With the collapse of the Habsburg monarchy at the end of World War I,the independent country of Czechoslovakia was formed as a result of the critical intervention of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson,among others.
The Czech Social Democratic Party is a pro-European,social-democratic political party in the Czech Republic. Sitting on the centre-left of the political spectrum,it is a member of the Party of European Socialists,the Socialist International,and the Progressive Alliance.
Rudolf Slánský was a leading Czech Communist politician. Holding the post of the party's General Secretary after World War II,he was one of the leading creators and organizers of Communist rule in Czechoslovakia.
Antonín Josef Novotný was First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from 1953 to 1968,and also held the post of president of Czechoslovakia from 1957 to 1968. An ardent hardliner,Novotnýwas forced to yield the reins of power to Alexander Dubček during the short-lived reform movement of 1968.
The Czechoslovak Republic existed between 1948 and 1960. The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was the name of Czechoslovakia from 1960 to 23 April 1990,when the country was under Communist rule. It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Following the coup d'état of February 1948,when the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia seized power with the support of the Soviet Union,the country was declared a socialist republic after the Ninth-of-May Constitution became effective. The traditional name Československárepublika was changed on 11 July 1960 following the implementation of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia as a symbol of the "final victory of socialism" in the country,and remained so until the Velvet Revolution in November 1989. Several other state symbols were changed in 1960. Shortly after the Velvet Revolution,the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was renamed to the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic.
Jan Šejna,also Sejna in English,was,in the time of communist Czechoslovakia,a Major General of the Czechoslovak Army. After losing political power and influence at the beginning of the Prague Spring,he sought refuge in the US consulate in Trieste and defected to the United States. He is the second highest-ranked officer to ever defect to the West from the Eastern Bloc,behind Lieutenant General Ion Mihai Pacepa of the Romanian Securitate. Significant motive for escape were his economic crimes. Among others,he illegally supplied collective farms with clover seed,hence he got nickname The Seed General.
General Alexej Čepička was a Czechoslovak communist politician who served as defense minister from 1950 to 1956.
Bohumír Šmeral was a Czech politician,leader of the Czech Social Democratic Party,and one of the founders of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.
Viliam Široký was a prominent Communist politician of Czechoslovakia,the prime minister from 1953 to 1963. He also served as the leader of the Communist Party of Slovakia between 1945 and 1954.
Josef Smrkovský was a Czechoslovak politician and a member of the Communist Party reform wing during the 1968 Prague Spring.
Čestmír Císař was a Czech and Czechoslovak politician and diplomat. He served as the first Chairman of the Czech National Council from 1968 to 1969 when the Czech Republic was part of Czechoslovakia during the Communist era. A leading advocate for reforms of the Communist Party,Císařintroduced a series of liberal reforms to Communist Czechoslovakia,becoming a major figure in the Prague Spring as a result. He sought to create a new form of socialism with a "human face." His reforms were repealed following the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. He was removed from office and expelled from the Communist Party until the Velvet Revolution of 1989.
The 1948 Czechoslovak presidential election took place on 14 June 1953. It was held due to the death of Klement Gottwald. Prime Minister Antonín Zápotockýwas elected the new president.
Václav Kopecký was a Czechoslovak Communist politician,journalist and chief ideologue of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia during the leadership of Klement Gottwald. A high-ranking member of the party since the interwar era,he spent World War II in Moscow and served as minister of culture and information in the postwar government. Kopeckýwas noted for his antisemitic statements,criticizing Jews for Zionism and cosmopolitanism;he also stage-managed the Slánskýtrial.