|Born||17 September 1886|
Ruudiküla, Viljandi Parish, Viljandi County, Estonia
|Died||27 April 1919|
Egle railway station (near Strenči), Latvia
|Years of service||1914–1917 Imperial Russian Army |
1918–1919 Estonian Army
|Unit||Division of Armoured Trains|
|Battles/wars|| World War I |
Estonian War of Independence
Anton Irv VR I/2, VR II/2, VR II/3 (17 September 1886 – 27 April 1919) was a highly decorated Estonian combat soldier and military officer during World War I and in the Estonian War of Independence.
The Cross of Liberty was a medal established by then Prime Minister of Estonia, Konstantin Päts, on 24 February 1919 to honor people for their services during the Estonian War of Independence and conferred in three grades, each in three classes. Grade I was for military leadership, Grade II for personal courage, and Grade III for civilian service. Grade and class is attached to the name of recipient in the form of post-nominal letters. The 1st class of II grade was never conferred. Bestowal of the Cross of Liberty was terminated on 19 June 1925.
Military awards and decorations are a distinction given as a mark of honor for military heroism, meritorious or outstanding service or achievement. It is often a medal consisting of a ribbon and a medallion.
Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second most spoken Finnic language.
Along with captain Karl Parts, he was the leader of Estonian armored trains in the Estonian War of Independence. Anton Irv died in the Battle of Egle (near Strenči) in Latvia.
The army rank of captain is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers. The rank is also used by some air forces and marine forces. Today, a captain is typically either the commander or second-in-command of a company or artillery battery. In the Chinese People's Liberation Army, a captain may also command a company, or be the second-in-command of a battalion.
Karl Parts VR I/1, VR II/2, VR II/3 was an Estonian military commander during the Estonian War of Independence.
The Estonian War of Independence, also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army and its allies, most notably the White Russian Northwestern Army, Latvia, and the United Kingdom, against the Soviet Western Front offensive and the aggression of the Baltische Landeswehr. It was fought in connection with the Russian Civil War during 1918–1920. The campaign was the struggle of Estonia for its sovereignty in the aftermath of World War I. It resulted in a victory for the newly established state and was concluded in the Treaty of Tartu.
Anton Irv was born in Sillaotsa farmstead, Ruudi village, Viljandi Parish (now Viiratsi Parish), Viljandi County, Governorate of Livonia. Before World War I, Irv worked as a teacher.
Viiratsi Parish was a rural municipality of Estonia, in Viljandi County.
Viljandi County or Viljandimaa;, is one of 15 counties of Estonia. It is located in southern Estonia bordering Pärnu, Järva, Jõgeva, Tartu and Valga counties.
The Governorate of Livonia was one of the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire, now divided between the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia.
During the World War I, he served in the Imperial Russian Army. He showed his good leading abilities and courage which led him to be decorated with all four classes of the Cross of St. George (the set of a "Full Cavalier"), the Médaille militaire and the Gold Sword for Bravery. In 1915 Irv was promoted to commissioned officer.
World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.
The Imperial Russian Army was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the early 1850s, the Russian army consisted of more than 900,000 regular soldiers and nearly 250,000 irregulars.
The Cross of Saint George is a state decoration of the Russian Federation. It was initially established by Imperial Russia where it was officially known as the Decoration of the Military Order of Saint George between 1807 and 1913. The Cross of Saint George was reinstated into the Russian awards system in 1992.
In the end of 1917 he came to Estonia, and helped to organize the Estonian military forces in order to fight against the Red Army in the Estonian War of Independence. Irv helped to organize the Division of Armoured Trains and became a commander of that unit in January 1919.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, frequently shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution. The Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name of "Soviet Army", until its dissolution in December 1991.
After rushing the Red Army out of the Estonian territory in 1919, Estonian Southern front moved into the territory of Latvia and helped also to liberate the North of Latvia of the units of the Red Army. Irv was leading his unit in the battle near the railway station of Egle (near Strenči) in April 1919, when he was suddenly killed.
Latvia, officially the Republic of Latvia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. Since its independence, Latvia has been referred to as one of the Baltic states. It is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, and Belarus to the southeast, and shares a maritime border with Sweden to the west. Latvia has 1,957,200 inhabitants and a territory of 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi). The country has a temperate seasonal climate.
Strenči is a town in Latvia. The capital of Strenči Municipality, it is about 130 km northeast of Riga, about 20 km northeast of Valmiera and about 30 km southwest of Valka.
Republic of Estonia
The Médaille militaire is a military decoration of the French Republic for other ranks for meritorious service and acts of bravery in action against an enemy force. It is the third highest award of the French Republic, after the Légion d'honneur, a civil and military order, and the ordre de la Libération, a second world war-only order. The Médaille militaire is therefore the most senior entirely military active French decoration.
The fourragère is a military award, distinguishing military units as a whole, in the form of a braided cord. The award was first adopted by France, followed by other nations such as the Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal, and Luxembourg. Fourragères have been awarded to units of both national and foreign militaries, except for that of Luxembourg, which has not been awarded to any foreign units.
Bolesław Bronisław Duch (1885–1980) was a Polish Major General and General Inspector of the Armed Forces.
August Rei VR III/1 was an Estonian Social Democratic politician.
Julius Kuperjanov VR I/2, VR II/2 and VR II/3 was an Estonian military officer during the War of Independence and commander of the Tartumaa Partisan Battalion renamed after him posthumously.
Tadeusz Piskor (1889-1951) was a Polish Army general.
Viktor Puskar VR I/1 was an Estonian military commander (Colonel) during the Estonian War of Independence.
Nikolai Reek VR I/2, VR II/2, VR II/3 was the Estonian military commander during the Estonian War of Independence.
Jaan Soots was an outstanding Estonian military commander during the Estonian War of Independence.
Andres Larka VR I/1 was an Estonian military commander during the Estonian War of Independence and a politician.
Otto Heinze VR I/2, VR II/3 was an Estonian military commander during the Estonian War of Independence.
Ants Piip VR III/1 was an Estonian lawyer, diplomat and politician.
Jānis Balodis was an army general, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Latvia (1919–1921), Minister of War (1931–1940) and politician who was one of the principal figures during the Latvian War of Independence and the dictatorship of Kārlis Ulmanis, when he officially was the number two of the regime as the Minister of War, Deputy Prime Minister and Vice President.
Einar Lundborg was a Swedish aviator.
The Order of Bravery is a Bulgarian order during the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Republic of Bulgaria. It is the most esteemed Bulgarian order and the second highest in the Kingdom of Bulgaria and fourth highest in the Republic of Bulgaria. It exists since 1880 with interruption between 1946 and 2003.
Anton Õunapuu VR II/3 was an Estonian PE teacher and the founder of the Boy Scouts movement in Estonia.
Ants Kurvits or Hans Kurvits was an Estonian military commander, reaching rank of major general. He participated in the Estonian War of Independence and later became the founder and long-time leader of the Estonian Border Guard. Kurvits also served briefly as Minister of War.
Jaan Maide, VR II/3 was a senior Estonian Army officer who fought in World War I, the Estonian War of Independence and World War II. He was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Estonian Military by Otto Tief's government in 1944.