**Antonino Lo Surdo** (4 February 1880 in Syracuse – 7 June 1949 in Rome) was an Italian physicist. He was appointed as professor of physics at the Istituto di Fisica in Rome in 1919; upon the death of Orso Mario Corbino in 1937, he became the director. Lo Surdo studied terrestrial physics, including seismology and geophysics; the 1908 Messina earthquake caused the death of his parents and other close relatives, except his brother. He contributed to the foundation of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica under the auspices of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, when its president was Guglielmo Marconi.

His name is remembered for the discovery (made independently by Johannes Stark) in 1913 of the effect on an electric field on the emission spectrum of a gas. This physical phenomenon is called the Stark-Lo Surdo effect in Italy (and is generally known outside Italy simply as the *Stark effect*). The discovery of the effect was a remarkably important contribution to the development of the quantum theory. Lo Surdo's discovery of the effect led Antonio Garbasso to introduce quantum theory into the Italian universities.

**Bruno de Finetti** was an Italian probabilist statistician and actuary, noted for the "operational subjective" conception of probability. The classic exposition of his distinctive theory is the 1937 "La prévision: ses lois logiques, ses sources subjectives," which discussed probability founded on the coherence of betting odds and the consequences of exchangeability.

The **Stark effect** is the shifting and splitting of spectral lines of atoms and molecules due to the presence of an external electric field. It is the electric-field analogue of the Zeeman effect, where a spectral line is split into several components due to the presence of the magnetic field. Although initially coined for the static case, it is also used in the wider context to describe the effect of time-dependent electric fields. In particular, the Stark effect is responsible for the pressure broadening of spectral lines by charged particles in plasmas. For most spectral lines, the Stark effect is either linear or quadratic with a high accuracy.

**Giuseppe Paolo Stanislao "Beppo" Occhialini** ForMemRS was an Italian physicist, who contributed to the discovery of the pion or pi-meson decay in 1947, with César Lattes and Cecil Frank Powell. At the time of this discovery, they were all working at the H. H. Wills Laboratory of the University of Bristol.

**Guido Stampacchia** was a 20th-century Italian mathematician, known for his work on the theory of variational inequalities, the calculus of variation and the theory of elliptic partial differential equations.

**Mario Ageno** is considered one of Italy's most important biophysicists.

**Giorgio Parisi** is an Italian theoretical physicist, whose research has focused on quantum field theory, statistical mechanics and complex systems. His best known contributions are the QCD evolution equations for parton densities, obtained with Guido Altarelli, known as the Altarelli–Parisi or DGLAP equations, the exact solution of the Sherrington–Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses, the Kardar–Parisi–Zhang equation describing dynamic scaling of growing interfaces, and the study of whirling flocks of birds.

**Luigi Fantappiè** was an Italian mathematician, known for work in mathematical analysis and for creating the theory of analytic functionals: he was a student and follower of Vito Volterra. Later in life he proposed scientific theories of sweeping scope.

**PVLAS** aims to carry out a test of quantum electrodynamics and possibly detect dark matter at the Department of Physics and National Institute of Nuclear Physics in Ferrara, Italy. It searches for vacuum polarization causing nonlinear optical behavior in magnetic fields. Experiments began in 2001 at the INFN Laboratory in Legnaro and continue today with new equipment.

**Luciano Maiani** is a Sammarinese physicist best known for his prediction of the charm quark with Sheldon Lee Glashow and John Iliopoulos.

**Sergio Ferrara** is an Italian physicist working on theoretical physics of elementary particles and mathematical physics. He is renowned for the discovery of theories introducing supersymmetry as a symmetry of elementary particles and of supergravity, the first significant extension of Einstein's general relativity, based on the principle of "local supersymmetry". He is an emeritus staff member at CERN and a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles.

**Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo** was an Italian divisionist painter. He was born and died in Volpedo, in the Piedmont region of northern Italy.

**Giuseppe Arcidiacono** (1927–1998) was an Italian physicist. He was born in Acireale and graduated in physics in Catania in 1951. He began working with Luigi Fantappiè on what they called projective relativity at the Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica in Rome. In 1958 he won a scholarship to the Istituto H. Poincaré in Paris. He won the mathematics prize from the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. From 1969 until his death in 1998 he was Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Perugia.

**Gaetano Fichera** was an Italian mathematician, working in mathematical analysis, linear elasticity, partial differential equations and several complex variables. He was born in Acireale, and died in Rome.

**Franco Selleri** was an Italian theoretical physicist and professor at the Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro. He received his Doctorate / Ph.D. cum laude at the Università di Bologna in 1958, and was a fellow of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare beginning 1959. He was a member of the New York Academy of Sciences and the Fondation Louis de Broglie, and served on the Board of Directors of the Italian Physical Society.

**APE100** was a family of SIMD supercomputers developed by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy between 1989 and 1994. The systems were developed to study the structure of elementary particles by means of lattice gauge theories, especially quantum chromodynamics.

**Corrado de Concini** is an Italian mathematician and professor at the Sapienza University of Rome. He studies algebraic geometry, quantum groups, invariant theory, and mathematical physics.

**Lev Petrovich Pitaevskii** is a Russian theoretical physicist, who made contributions to the theory of quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, low-temperature physics, plasma physics, and condensed matter physics. Together with Evgeny Lifshitz and Vladimir Berestetskii, Lev Pitaevskii has also been the co-author of a few volumes of the influential Landau–Lifschitz *Course of Theoretical Physics* series. His academic status is professor.

**Dario Graffi** was an influential Italian mathematical physicist, known for his researches on the electromagnetic field, particularly for a mathematical explanation of the Luxemburg effect, for proving an important uniqueness theorem for the solutions of a class of fluid dynamics equations including the Navier-Stokes equation, for his researches in continuum mechanics and for his contribution to oscillation theory.

**Sergio Doplicher** is an Italian mathematical physicist, who mainly dealt with the mathematical foundations of quantum field theory and quantum gravity.

**Giorgio Benedek** is an Italian physicist, academic and researcher. He is an Emeritus Professor of Physics of Matter at University of Milano-Bicocca and Director of the International School of Solid State Physics at Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture.

This page is based on this Wikipedia article

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.