Antonio Cesti

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Pietro Marc'Antonio Cesti (Italian pronunciation:  [anˈtɔːnjo ˈtʃesti] ) (baptism 5 August 1623 14 October 1669), known today primarily as an Italian composer of the Baroque era, was also a singer (tenor), and organist. He was "the most celebrated Italian musician of his generation". [1]



He was born at Arezzo, and studied with various local musicians. In 1637 he joined the Order of Friars Minor, or Franciscans, a Roman Catholic religious group founded by Francis of Assisi. While he was in Volterra he turned more toward secular music, perhaps due to the patronage and influence of the powerful Medici family. Here he also came in contact with Salvator Rosa, who wrote libretti for a number of Cesti's cantatas. By 1650 Cesti's calling as a Franciscan friar and his success as a singer and composer for operas was coming into conflict, and he was officially reprimanded. In 1652 he became a member of the court at Innsbruck of Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Austria.[ citation needed ] After holding a post somewhere in Florence as maestro di cappella, he entered the papal chapel in 1660. In 1666 he became Vice-Kapellmeister at Vienna, and died at Venice in 1669. [2]


Scenography for Il pomo d'oro Pomodoro.jpg
Scenography for Il pomo d'oro

Cesti is known principally as a composer of operas. The most celebrated of these were La Dori (Innsbruck, 1657), Il pomo d'oro (Vienna, 1668) [2] and Orontea (1656). Il pomo d'oro (The Golden Apple) was written for the wedding in Vienna of Emperor Leopold I in 1666, and first performed in 1668, in a famously lavish production. It was far more elaborate than contemporary Venetian operas, including a large orchestra, numerous choruses, and various mechanical devices used to stage things like gods descending from heaven ( deus ex machina ), naval battles, and storms.

Orontea was revived seventeen times in the next thirty years, making it one of the most frequently performed operas on the continent in the mid-17th century. Even Samuel Pepys owned a copy of the score. [3] It includes a well-known soprano aria "Intorno all'idol mio" (English: "Around my idol").

Cesti was also a composer of chamber cantatas, and his operas are notable for the pure and delicate style of their airs, more suited to the chamber than to the stage. [2] He wrote in the bel canto style of the 17th century, and his compositions were heavily influenced by his career as a professional singer. His musical writing owes much to the emerging tonality of the time.


TitleLibrettoPremière datePlace, theatreNotes
Alessandro vincitor di se stesso Francesco Sbarra 1651 Venice, Teatro Santi Giovanni e Paolo  
Il Cesare amante Dario Varotari 1651Venice, Teatro Grimano 
CleopatraDario Varotari1654 Innsbruck revised version of Il Cesare amante
L'Argia Giovanni Filippo Apolloni 1655Innsbruck 
Marte placataGiovanni Filippo Apolloni1655Innsbruck 
Orontea Giacinto Andrea Cicognini, revised by Giovanni Filippo Apolloni19 February 1656Innsbruckrevived in Innsbruck in 1982 (René Jacobs) and recorded for HM; revived in Frankfurt in 2015 (Ivor Bolton)
La Dori Giovanni Filippo Apolloni1657Innsbruck 
Venere cacciatriceFrancesco Sbarra1659Innsbrucklost
La magnanimità d’AlessandroFrancesco Sbarra1662Innsbruck 
Il TitoNicolò Beregan13 February 1666Venice, Teatro Grimano 
Nettuno e Flora festeggiantiFrancesco Sbarra12 July 1666Vienna 
Le disgrazie d'AmoreFrancesco Sbarra19 February 1667Vienna 
La SemiramiGiovanni Andrea Moniglia9 July 1667 Vienna revised 1674 in Modena as La schiava fortunata
La Germania esultanteFrancesco Sbarra1667Vienna 
Il pomo d'oro Francesco Sbarra12–14 July 1668Vienna 
GensericoNicolò Beregan1669Venice 


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  1. Burrows, David L.; Schmidt, Carl B.; Brown, Jennifer Williams (2001). "Cesti, Antonio [Pietro]". Grove Music Online (8th ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.05335. ISBN   978-1-56159-263-0.
  2. 1 2 3 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cesti, Marc' Antonio". Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 768.
  3. Williams Brown, Jennifer (2000). "'Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen': Cesti, Orontea, and the Gelone problem". Cambridge Opera Journal. 12 (3): 179–217. doi:10.1017/s0954586700001798. S2CID   191524563.