Antonio García Gutiérrez

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Antonio Garcia Gutierrez. Museo Arqueologico Nacional - FD01107 - Antonio Garcia Gutierrez.jpg
Antonio García Gutiérrez.

Antonio García Gutiérrez (4 October 1813 in Chiclana de la Frontera, Cádiz  26 August 1884 in Madrid) was a Spanish Romantic dramatist. [1]

Chiclana de la Frontera Municipality in Andalusia, Spain

Chiclana de la Frontera is a town and municipality in southwestern Spain, in the province of Cádiz, Andalucía, near the Gulf of Cádiz. It belongs to the association of municipalities of the Bay of Cádiz, the provincial capital of Cádiz, Jerez de la Frontera, San Fernando, El Puerto de Santa María, Puerto Real and Rota which form the third largest metropolitan area in Andalusia, behind Seville and Málaga, and the twelfth largest in Spain. It is located 20 kilometres south-east from Cádiz, and borders the municipalities of San Fernando and Puerto Real to the north. In 1877, the municipality's population was 11,677; in 2012, it was 81,473. It has a surface area is 203 square kilometres (78 sq mi) and a population density of 401 inhabitants / km2. The average elevation is 11 metres (36 ft) above sea level. The economy depends largely upon modern industry, especially salt processing and tourism, and the municipality is known for its beaches such as the 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) long Playa de la Barrosa, hotels and golf courses in the resort of Novo Sancti Petri. The municipality contains the largest number of hotel beds in the Province of Cádiz and the Costa de la Luz. The town's newspaper, Chiclana Información, is distributed on Saturday mornings.

Madrid Capital of Spain

Madrid is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union (EU), surpassed only by London and Berlin, and its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris. The municipality covers 604.3 km2 (233.3 sq mi).

Romanticism period of artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that started in 18th century Europe

Romanticism was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, the social sciences, and the natural sciences. It had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism, conservatism and nationalism.

Contents

Biography

After having studied medicine in his native town, García Gutiérrez moved to Madrid in 1833 and earned a meager living by translating plays of Eugène Scribe and Alexandre Dumas, père. Lacking success, he was on the point of enlisting when he suddenly sprang into fame as the author of a play called El trovador (The Troubadour ), which was played for the first time on 1 March 1836. His next great success was Simón Bocanegra, in 1843. His Poesías (1840) and another volume of lyrics, Luz y tinieblas (1842), are comparatively minor, but the versification of his plays, and his power of analysing feminine emotions, have given García Gutiérrez a leading position among the Spanish dramatists of the 19th century. [2]

Eugène Scribe French dramatist and librettist

Augustin Eugène Scribe was a French dramatist and librettist. He is known for the perfection of the so-called "well-made play", a mainstay of popular theatre for over 100 years, and as the librettist of many of the most successful grand operas.

Troubadour Composer and performer of lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages

A troubadour was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350). Since the word troubadour is etymologically masculine, a female troubadour is usually called a trobairitz.

Although recognized as one of the leaders of the Romantic movement in Spain, his plays were not immediately lucrative, and García Gutiérrez emigrated to Spanish America, working as a journalist in Cuba and Mexico, until 1850, when he returned to Spain. [2]

Spanish colonization of the Americas Overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile

The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors. The Americas were incorporated into the Spanish Empire, with the exception of Brazil, Canada, the eastern United States and several other small countries in South America and The Caribbean. The crown created civil and religious structures to administer the region. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions.

Cuba Country in the Caribbean

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometers (42,800 sq mi). The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometers (40,543 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometers (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fourth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 129 million people, Mexico is the tenth most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states plus Mexico City (CDMX), which is the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the country include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, and León.

After his return to Spain in 1850, however, García Gutiérrez became known all over Europe through Giuseppe Verdi's opera Il trovatore (1853), adapted from El trovador . Verdi then adapted Simón Bocanegra into the opera Simon Boccanegra (1857).[ citation needed ]

Giuseppe Verdi 19th-century Italian opera composer

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian opera composer. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, and developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Gioachino Rossini, whose works significantly influenced him. By his 30s, he had become one of the pre-eminent opera composers in history.

<i>Il trovatore</i> opera by Giuseppe Verdi

Il trovatore is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto largely written by Salvadore Cammarano, based on the play El trovador (1836) by Antonio García Gutiérrez. It was Gutiérrez's most successful play, one which Verdi scholar Julian Budden describes as "a high flown, sprawling melodrama flamboyantly defiant of the Aristotelian unities, packed with all manner of fantastic and bizarre incident."

<i>Simon Boccanegra</i> opera by Giuseppe Verdi

Simon Boccanegra is an opera with a prologue and three acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave, based on the play Simón Bocanegra (1843) by Antonio García Gutiérrez, whose play El trovador had been the basis for Verdi's 1853 opera, Il trovatore.

The best works of his later period are a zarzuela titled El grumete (1853), La venganza catalana (1864), and Juan Lorenzo (1865). García Gutiérrez became head of the archaeological museum at Madrid, the city where he died. [2]

Zarzuela opera genre

Zarzuela is a Spanish lyric-dramatic genre that alternates between spoken and sung scenes, the latter incorporating operatic and popular songs, as well as dance. The etymology of the name is uncertain, but some propose it may derive from the name of a Royal hunting lodge, the Palacio de la Zarzuela near Madrid, where, allegedly, this type of entertainment was first presented to the court. The palace was named after the place called "La Zarzuela" because of the profusion of brambles (zarzas) that grew there, and so the festivities held within the walls became known as "Zarzuelas".

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References

  1. Antonio García Gutiérrez, Andalucía Comunidad Cultural
  2. 1 2 3 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "García Gutiérrez, Antonio". Encyclopædia Britannica . 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 458.
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