Antonio da Sangallo the Younger

Last updated

A model of the Apostolic Palace, which was the main project of Bramante during Sangallo's apprenticeship. Apostolic Palace model.jpg
A model of the Apostolic Palace, which was the main project of Bramante during Sangallo's apprenticeship.
The church of Santa Maria di Loreto near the Trajan's Market in Rome. RomaSMariaLoreto(Sangallo).jpg
The church of Santa Maria di Loreto near the Trajan's Market in Rome.
The Villa Farnese in Caprarola; the initial design was by Sangallo and Baldassare Peruzzi. Palazzo Farnese (Caprarola).jpg
The Villa Farnese in Caprarola; the initial design was by Sangallo and Baldassare Peruzzi.
San Giovanni dei Fiorentini; Sangallo was responsible for the foundation projecting out into the Tiber. Hendrik Frans van Lint - Rome, A View of San Giovanni dei Fiorentini.jpg
San Giovanni dei Fiorentini; Sangallo was responsible for the foundation projecting out into the Tiber.
View of St. Patrick's Well in Orvieto. Orvieto Pozzo San Patrizio 3.JPG
View of St. Patrick's Well in Orvieto.

Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (12 April 1484 3 August 1546), also known as Antonio da San Gallo, was an Italian architect active during the Renaissance, mainly in Rome and the Papal States.

Contents

Early Life and Apprenticeship

Sangallo was born Antonio Cordiani in Florence, the son of Bartolomeo Piccioni. His grandfather Francesco Giamberti was a woodworker, and his uncles Giuliano and Antonio da Sangallo were noted architects of the time. Vasari writes that the young Sangallo followed his uncles to Rome in order to pursue a career in architecture; he ended up taking the name ″Sangallo″ in their tracks. Instead of becoming an apprentice to an artist, as was the common path toward becoming an architect, [1] Sangallo apprenticed to a carpenter; nevertheless he quickly became an apprentice under Donato Bramante.

As an assistant to Bramante, Sangallo prepared a number of sketches due to the disability of his master, and was recognized for talent and attention to detail as a draftsman. [2] Due to his success, Bramante gave Sangallo a number of projects to complete with no more than an outline of the design and motifs. Eventually, Sangallo was put in charge of the Passetto di Borgo between the Papal apartments and the Castel Sant'Angelo. That particular project was left unfinished, but it left Sangallo with a working reputation as an architect. [3]

Independent Commissions

Now living in Rome, Sangallo quickly received a major commission for the church of Santa Maria di Loreto in 1507. His design called for a square first story and an octagonal second story built in travertine and brick; the dome and lantern were finished many years later. Sangallo also drew the attention of the Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (who would later become the Pope Paul III), from whom he received a number of commissions. First and foremost of these is the Farnese Palace on the Piazza Farnese, although it was not completed until after his death. Sangallo also received a number of further contracts from the Farnese family. For instance, he designed a palace (since destroyed) and the Church of Santa Maria Maddalena in the Farnese town of Gradoli. He also designed fortifications for Capo di Monte and Caprarola; the latter eventually became a country estate, the Villa Farnese.

In addition to the Farnese family, Sangallo had a number of patrons in Rome. He designed the Palazzo Baldassini near the Basilica of Sant'Agostino for Melchiore Baldassini; he designed a tomb for the Cardinal Jaume Serra i Cau in San Giacomo degli Spagnoli. Sangallo was also one of several artists hired to design the Villa Madama by Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, the future Clement VII; he was personally responsible for the final design of the building itself. Through these projects, Sangallo acquired the reputation of a master architect in the city of Rome; when Bramante died in 1514, Sangallo, along with Raphael and Giovanni Giocondo, was appointed to oversee the construction of St. Peter's Basilica by Pope Leo X. Sangallo was hired extensively by Leo X, not only as an architect, but also as an engineer tasked to restore and save a number of buildings.

Engineering Feats

Some time later, Sangallo was hired to build the foundation for the church of San Giovanni dei Fiorentini on the bank of the Tiber. Jacopo Sansovino's design called for the church to extend into the river, a difficult task given the unstable bank. Sangallo successfully completed the foundation, although at such great expense that there was no longer enough money to build the church. [4] Thus the model that Sangallo designed for the church was not built, and construction to the designs of Giacomo della Porta was not begun until 1583.

Another project was the Basilica della Santa Casa in Loreto. The church had not been built particularly well, with cracking vaults and an unstable foundation. Sangallo redesigned the church and shored up the foundations; Vasari claims the church to be ″the best that Antonio ever executed″ despite the challenges innate in rebuilding a church as opposed to building a new one from the ground up. [5] Sangallo was also hired to do similar work on the Vatican loggias, which had shown signs of weakness due to poor construction; his reinforcements stand today.

Sangallo was also a noted military architect, working on the fortifications of numerous cities such as Parma, Piacenza, Ancona and Orvieto. In Orvieto, he was also tasked by Pope Clement VII with building a well, called Saint Patrick's Well, noted as a marvel of engineering. Its double helix ramps around a central open shaft allowed oxen carrying water to go down via one of the ramps and up via the other without having to turn around; despite its 175-foot depth, the ramps are well lit through windows cut into the center section. Possibly an inspiration for the design was the Well of Joseph in the Cairo Citadel, also featuring a double spiral staircase.

His last project was the draining of the Rieti Valley, which had been commissioned to him by Pope Paul III; in the insalubrious marshy environment Sangallo contracted malaria and died before finishing his work.

Work on Vatican and Saint Peter's Basilica

Sangallo had maintained a good relationship with the popes, and thus was constantly involved in the designing and building process of St. Peter's Basilica from 1513 until at least 1536. [6] As "capomaestro", he was in charge of the day-to-day construction on the basilica for many years. He also created a design for the basilica, of which a wooden model exists today.

Sangallo also worked extensively on the Vatican apartments, building the Pauline Chapel, the Sala Regia which serves as the entryway to the Sistine Chapel, and the Scala Regia, the staircase that serves as the main entrance to the Apostolic Palace. Vasari also claims that Sangallo modified the Sistine Chapel by elevating the roof, although exactly what the modifications are is unclear. [7]

Selected works

Death and legacy

Sangallo had begun the design for the Palazzo Farnese in 1513; when Cardinal Alessandro Farnese became Pope Paul III in 1534, the design was expanded into its current size. According to Sir Banister Fletcher, it is "the most imposing Italian palace of the 16th Century." [8] In 1546, during the construction, Paul III became dissatisfied with the design for the cornice, and held a competition for a new cornice design. Michelangelo won the competition and oversaw the completion of the palace; Sangallo reportedly died, in Terni, Italy, from shame not long after. [9] He is buried in St. Peter's Basilica with the following epitaph:

ANTONIO SANCTI GALLI FLORENTINO, URBE MUNIENDA AC PUB.
OPERIBUS, PRAECIPUEQUE D. PETRI TEMPLO ORNAN. ARCHITECTORUM
FACILE PRINCIPI, DUM VELINI LACUS EMISSIONEM PARAT, PAULO PONT.
MAX. AUCTORE, INTERAMNAE INTEMPESTIVE EXTINCTO ISABELLA DETA
UXOR MOESTISS. POSUIT 1546, III. CALEND. OCTOBRIS.

His biographer Vasari writes, ″In truth Antonio, who was a most excellent architect, deserves to be celebrated and extolled, as his works clearly demonstrate, no less than any other architect, whether ancient or modern.″ [10]

Related Research Articles

Giorgio Vasari Italian painter, architect, writer and historian

Giorgio Vasari was an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian, best known for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing. He was also the first to use the term "Renaissance" in print.

Donato Bramante architect, sculptor, graphic artist, fresco painter, painter

Donato Bramante, born as Donato di Pascuccio d'Antonio and also known as Bramante Lazzari, was an Italian architect. He introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the basis of design executed by Michelangelo. His Tempietto marked the beginning of the High Renaissance in Rome (1502) when Pope Julius II appointed him to build a sanctuary over the spot where Peter was allegedly crucified.

Arnolfo di Cambio Italian artist and architect (1240-1302)

Arnolfo di Cambio was an Italian architect and sculptor.

Apostolic Palace official residence of the Pope in Vatican City

The Apostolic Palace is the official residence of the pope, the head of the Catholic Church, located in Vatican City. It is also known as the Papal Palace, the Palace of the Vatican and the Vatican Palace. The Vatican itself refers to the building as the Palace of Sixtus V, in honor of Pope Sixtus V, who built most of the present form of the palace.

Palazzo Farnese palazzo in Rome, Italy

Palazzo Farnese or Farnese Palace is one of the most important High Renaissance palaces in Rome. Owned by the Italian Republic, it was given to the French government in 1936 for a period of 99 years, and currently serves as the French embassy in Italy.

Villa Farnese mansion in the town of Caprarola, Italy

The Villa Farnese, also known as Villa Caprarola, is a mansion in the town of Caprarola in the province of Viterbo, Northern Lazio, Italy, approximately 50 kilometres north-west of Rome. This villa should not be confused with the Palazzo Farnese and the Villa Farnesina, both in Rome. A property of the Republic of Italy, Villa Farnese is run by the Polo Museale del Lazio.

Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola Italian architect

GiacomoBarozzida Vignola, often simply called Vignola, was one of the great Italian architects of 16th century Mannerism. His two great masterpieces are the Villa Farnese at Caprarola and the Jesuits' Church of the Gesù in Rome. The three architects who spread the Italian Renaissance style throughout Western Europe are Vignola, Serlio and Palladio.

Giuliano da Sangallo Italian artist (1445-1516)

Giuliano da Sangallo was an Italian sculptor, architect and military engineer active during the Italian Renaissance. He is known primarily for being the favored architect of Lorenzo de' Medici, his patron. In this role, Giuliano designed a villa for Lorenzo as well as a monastery for Augustinians and a church where a miracle was said to have taken place. Additionally, Giuliano was commissioned to build multiple structures for Pope Julius II and Pope Leo X. Leon Battista Alberti and Filippo Brunelleschi heavily influenced Sangallo and in turn, he influenced other important Renaissance figures such as Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, his brother Antonio da Sangallo the Elder, and his sons, Antonio da Sangallo the Younger and Francesco da Sangallo.

Antonio da Sangallo the Elder Italian architect

Antonio da Sangallo the Elder was an Italian Renaissance architect who specialized in the design of fortifications.

Palazzo della Cancelleria building in Ponte, Italy

The Palazzo della Cancelleria is a Renaissance palace in Rome, Italy, situated between the present Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and the Campo de' Fiori, in the rione of Parione. It was built 1489–1513 by Donato Bramante (1444–1514) as a palace for Cardinal Raffaele Riario, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, and is regarded as the earliest Renaissance palace in Rome. The Palazzo houses the Papal Chancellery, is an extraterritorial property of the Holy See, and is designated as a World Heritage Site.

San Lorenzo in Damaso basilica church in Rome, Italy

The Minor Basilica of St. Lawrence in Damaso or simply San Lorenzo in Damaso is a parish and titular church in central Rome, Italy that is dedicated to St. Lawrence, deacon and martyr. It is incorporated into the Palazzo della Cancelleria, which enjoys the extraterritoriality of the Holy See.

Via Giulia thoroughfare in Rome, Italy

Via Giulia is a street in Rome, Italy, important for historical and architectural reasons. The road, one of the first important urban planning projects in papal Rome, became soon one of the main centers of the Renaissance, and until the mid of 18th century was one of the favorite streets of the Roman nobility, which enlivened it with feasts and games. After a two-century eclipse, from the mid-twentieth century the road has been living a rebirth, and now it is again one of the city's most prestigious addresses.

Sala Regia (Vatican) state hall in the Apostolic Palace, Vatican City.

The Sala Regia is a state hall in the Apostolic Palace in Vatican City.

Scala Regia (Vatican) staircase in the Apostolic Palace, Vatican City

Scala Regia is a flight of steps in the Vatican City and is part of the formal entrance to the Vatican. It was designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

Art patronage of Julius II commissioned works by Julius II

Pope Julius II, commissioned a series of highly influential art and architecture projects in the Vatican. The painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo and of various rooms by Raphael in the Apostolic Palace are considered among the masterworks that mark the High Renaissance in Rome. His decision to rebuild St Peter's led to the construction of the massive basilica we see now.

Tiberio Crispo Catholic cardinal

Tiberio Crispo, the son of Giovanni Battista Crispo and Silvia Ruffini, who, after her husband's death, was the mistress of Alessandro Farnese. It was believed that Tiberio was an illegitimate son of Farnese, who became Pope Paul III. He was certainly a natural brother of Costanza Farnese and Ranuccio Farnese, the two undisputed legitimate children of Paul III, were born before his election as pope in 1534.

Giovanni Mangone Italian architect

Giovanni Mangone was an Italian artist active almost exclusively in Rome during the Renaissance. Mangone's skills were manifold: he worked as sculptor, architect, stonecutter and building estimator. Moreover, he was a keen antiquarian and among the founders of the Academy dei Virtuosi al Pantheon. As military engineer, he was renowned among his contemporaries.

Borgo Nuovo (Rome) Destroyed road in Rome

Borgo Nuovo, originally known as via Alessandrina, also named via Recta or via Pontificum, was a road in the city of Rome, Italy, important for historical and architectural reasons. Built by Pope Alexander VI Borgia for the holy year of 1500, the road became one of the main centers of the high Renaissance in Rome. Borgo Nuovo was demolished together with the surrounding quarter in 1936-37 due to the construction of Via della Conciliazione.

References

  1. Ackerman, James S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 13, No. 3 (Oct. 1954).
  2. Vasari, Giorgio, "Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects", volume VI, London, Philip Lee Warner, 1912-1914, 124
  3. Vasari, "Lives", 124.
  4. Vasari, "Lives", volume VI, 127.
  5. Vasari, "Lives", volume VI, 131.
  6. Ackerman, "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance."
  7. Vasari, "Lives", volume VI, 135.
  8. D. Cruikshank, ed, "Sir Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture, 20th edition", New York:Princeton Architectural Press, 1996, page 873.
  9. Ackerman, "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance."
  10. Vasari, "Lives", 141.