Antonio de Leyva, Duke of Terranova

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Antonio de Leyva.
From "Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum" Antonio de Leva.jpg
From "Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum"

Antonio de Leyva, Duke of Terranova, Prince of Ascoli (1480–1536) was a Spanish general during the Italian Wars. During the Italian War of 1521, he commanded Pavia during the siege of the city by Francis I of France, and took part in the Battle of Pavia in 1525. After the death of Fernando d'Ávalos, Marquis of Pescara, he held further commands in Italy during the War of the League of Cognac and afterwards, finally dying shortly after attempting an invasion of Provence.

Habsburg Spain reigning dynasty in Spain in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

Habsburg Spain refers to Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg. The Habsburg rulers reached the zenith of their influence and power. They controlled territory that included the Americas, the East Indies, the Low Countries and territories now in France and Germany in Europe, the Portuguese Empire from 1580 to 1640, and various other territories such as small enclaves like Ceuta and Oran in North Africa. This period of Spanish history has also been referred to as the "Age of Expansion".

Italian Wars Wars in Italy from the 15th to 16th centuries

The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a series of Renaissance conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved most of the Italian states as well as France, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, England and the Ottoman Empire.

Pavia Comune in Lombardy, Italy

Pavia is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 kilometres south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po. It has a population of c. 73,000. The city was the capital of the Kingdom of the Lombards from 572 to 774.

Contents

Biography

Belonging to a family from Navarre he made his military debut in the Alpujarras (1502) during the struggle against the revolting Mudéjares from Granada and later served in Italy under the Gran Capitán (1503–1504). He had a prominent part in the Italian Wars and was wounded at the battle of Ravenna (1512). Later on, under the Marquis of Pescara, he fought near Milan and in the unlucky campaign of Provence in 1524.

Alpujarras mountain range

The Alpujarra is a natural and historical region in Andalusia, Spain, on the south slopes of the Sierra Nevada and the adjacent valley. The average elevation is 1,200 metres (4,000 ft) above sea level. It extends over two provinces, Granada and Almería; it is sometimes referred to in the plural as "Las Alpujarras". There are several interpretations of this Arabic name: the most convincing is that it derives from al-basharāt (البَشَرَات), meaning something like "sierra of pastures". The administrative centre is Órgiva.

Mudéjar Muslim people living in Christian territories in the Iberian Peninsula

Mudéjar refers to an architecture and decoration style in (post-Moorish) Christian Iberia that was strongly influenced by Moorish taste and workmanship, reaching its greatest expression in medieval Aragon, Andalusia and the city of Toledo. Mudéjar also refers to the large group of Muslims in Spain who remained in Christian Iberia despite their territories being reconquered. The distinctive Mudéjar style is still evident in regional architecture, as well as in music, art, and crafts, especially Hispano-Moresque ware, lustreware pottery that was widely exported across Europe. The Mudéjar style was first characterized as a specific aesthetic trend by Spanish art historian Pedro de Madrazo in 1888. This important distinction clarified that the specific qualities were not just signature of specific artisans or craftsmen but it was the collective aesthetic style of Mudéjar Muslims in the Iberian peninsula.

Granada Municipality in Andalusia, Spain

Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of four rivers, the Darro, the Genil, the Monachil and the Beiro. It sits at an average elevation of 738 m (2,421 ft) above sea level, yet is only one hour by car from the Mediterranean coast, the Costa Tropical. Nearby is the Sierra Nevada Ski Station, where the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1996 were held.

After this failure he had the post of commander of the garrison of Pavia and here sustained the long siege from the French army led by King Francis I (October 1524 – February 1525) which gave time to the Spanish and Imperial forces to reorganize and to win the famous battle of Pavia.

Francis I of France King of France

Francis I was King of France from 1515 until his death in 1547. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and Louise of Savoy. He succeeded his cousin and father-in-law Louis XII, who died without a son. Francis was the ninth king from the House of Valois, the second from the Valois-Orléans branch, and the first from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch.

In 1525 he succeeded to the Marquis of Pescara as commander-in-chief of the Imperial army in the Duchy of Milan. When the last Sforza Duke of Milan Francesco II died in 1535, he was appointed Governor of Milan by Emperor Charles V.

Francesco II Sforza Duke of Milan, 1521-24, 1525-35

Francesco II Sforza was Duke of Milan from 1521 until his death. He was the last member of the Sforza family to rule Milan.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor (1519–1556), King of Spain and ruler of the Spanish Empire, Archduke of Austria, and ruler of the Habsburg Netherlands (1506–1555). The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs and Incas, and the German colonisation of Venezuela both occurred during his reign. Charles V revitalized the medieval concept of the universal monarchy of Charlemagne and travelled from city to city, with no single fixed capital: overall he spent 28 years in the Habsburg Netherlands, 18 years in Spain and 9 years in Germany. After four decades of incessant warfare with the Kingdom of France, the Ottoman Empire, and the Protestants, Charles V abandoned his multi-national project with a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556 in favor of his son Philip II of Spain and brother Ferdinand I of Austria. The personal union of his European and American territories, spanning over nearly 4 million square kilometres, was the first collection of realms to be defined as "the empire on which the sun never sets".

During a review in honor of de Leyva, Emperor Charles V appeared dressed as a common pikeman and asked to be recorded in the rolls of the Tercio as 'Carlos de Gante, soldier of the gallant Tercio of Antonio de Leyva'.

He died of gout during the campaign of Provence in 1536 but was buried in Milan in the now destroyed church of San Dionigi.

Gout condition characterized by painful swelling of the joints, which is caused by deposition of urate crystals

Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint. Pain typically comes on rapidly, reaching maximal intensity in less than twelve hours. The joint at the base of the big toe is affected in about half of cases. It may also result in tophi, kidney stones, or urate nephropathy.

His descendants lived in Milan where they became one of the most prominent families. One of his descendants was the infamous Nun of Monza.

The Nun of Monza Italian nun

Sister Virginia Maria was an Italian nun.

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References

Political offices
Preceded by
none
Governors of the Duchy of Milan
1535–1536
Succeeded by
Cardinal Marino Caracciolo