Antpitta

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Antpitta
Grallaria ruficapilla -near Manizales, Caldas, Colombia-8.jpg
Chestnut-crowned antpitta (Grallaria ruficapilla)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Infraorder: Tyrannides
Parvorder: Furnariida
Family: Grallariidae
P.L. Sclater and Salvin , 1873
Genera

Grallariidae is a family of smallish passerine birds of subtropical and tropical Central and South America known as antpittas. They are between 10 and 20 cm (4–8 in) in length, and are related to the antbirds, Thamnophilidae, and gnateaters, Conopophagidae. They were also formerly placed in the Formicariidae, but studies by Rice (2005) indicated a distinct family was supported. Both the North American and South American committees of the AOU recognized the family soon after. This family contains probably (see below) some 50 species in 1 large and four fairly small genera.

Contents

These are forest birds that tend to feed at or near the ground since many are specialist ant eaters. Most are drab in appearance with shades of (rusty) brown, black, and white being their dominant tones. Compared to other birds that specialize in following ants, this family is the most tied to the ground. The long, powerful legs (which lend the birds a distinctive upright posture) and an essentially vestigial tail aid this lifestyle.

They lay 1 to 6 [1] eggs in a nest in a tree, both sexes incubating.

Systematics

The antpittas are sexually monomorphic; they resemble the true pittas in that they are virtually tailless; they hop like some thrushes, and are much easier to hear than see—although their vocalizations may be rather atypical for perching birds.

Species

Typical antpittas – tribe Grallariini/subfamily Grallariinae

Lesser antpittas – possibly tribe Myrmotherini/subfamily Myrmotherinae

Related Research Articles

Gnateater Family of birds

The gnateaters are a bird family, Conopophagidae, consisting of ten small passerine species in two genera, which occur in South and Central America. The family was formerly restricted to the gnateater genus Conopophaga; analysis of mtDNA cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 sequences indicates that the "antpittas" of the genus Pittasoma also belong in this family. The association between this genus and Conopophaga is also supported by traits in their natural history, morphology, and vocalizations. The members of this family are very closely related to the antbirds and less closely to the antpittas and tapaculos. Due to their remote and dim habitat, gnateaters are a little-studied and poorly known family of birds, though they are often sought after by birdwatchers.

Tapaculo Family of birds

The tapaculos are a family, Rhinocryptidae, of small suboscine passerine birds, found mainly in South America and with the highest diversity in the Andean regions. Three species are found in southern Central America.

Formicariidae Family of birds

Formicariidae is a family of smallish passerine birds of subtropical and tropical Central and South America known as formicariids. They are between 10 and 20 cm in length, and are related to the antbirds, Thamnophilidae, and gnateaters, Conopophagidae. This family contains probably some 12 species in two fairly small genera.

<i>Conopophaga</i> Genus of birds

Conopophaga is a genus of birds in the gnateater family. Its members are found in forest and woodland in South America.

<i>Pittasoma</i> Genus of birds

Pittasoma is a genus of birds in the gnateater family. Its two members breed in subtropical or tropical moist forest in South and Central America, specifically the Chocó, and Panama and Costa Rica. Formerly placed in the family Formicariidae, they were reclassified to Conopophagidae following analysis of mtDNA cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 sequences. The association between the genus Pittasoma and the 'traditional' gnateaters is also supported by traits in their natural history, morphology, vocalizations.

Jocotoco antpitta Species of bird

The jocotoco antpitta is an endangered antpitta, a bird from Ecuador and Peru. It was discovered in 1997, and scientifically described in 1999.

<i>Grallaria</i> Genus of birds

Grallaria is a large genus of Neotropical birds in the antpitta family Grallariidae.

Chestnut antpitta Species of bird

The chestnut antpitta is a species of bird in the family Grallariidae. It is endemic to Peru. In 2020, two new species previously believed to be populations of chestnut pitta were described: the Oxapampa antpitta and the Ayacucho antpitta; this has left the chestnut antpitta with a much reduced range.

Giant antpitta Species of bird

The giant antpitta is a perching bird species in the antpitta family (Grallariidae).

Rufous antpitta Species of bird

The rufous antpitta was a species of bird in the family Grallaridae that, in 2020, was found to be a species complex made up of 13 visually similar, but distinct species.

The Chamí antpitta is a species of bird in the family Grallariidae. It is endemic to Colombia. It is a member of the rufous antpitta species complex and was first described by Andrés M. Cuervo, Carlos Daniel Cadena, Morton L. Isler and R. Terry Chesser in 2020.

Cajamarca antpitta Species of bird

The Cajamarca antpitta is a species of bird in the family Grallariidae. It is endemic to Peru. It is a member of the rufous antpitta species complex and was formally elevated from subspecies to species in 2020.

The Equatorial antpitta is a species of bird in the family, Grallariidae. It is a member of the rufous antpitta species complex and in 2020, was found to be a species and not just a subspecies. It is found is southern Colombia, Ecuador, and northern Peru.

Sierra Nevada antpitta Species of bird

The Sierra Nevada antpitta is a species of bird in the family Grallariidae. It is endemic to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in northern Colombia. It is a member of the rufous antpitta species complex and was recently elevated from subspecies to species based on differences in plumage and vocalizations and genetic evidence.

The Graves's antpitta is a species of bird in the family Grallariidae. It is endemic to Peru. It is a member of the rufous antpitta species complex and was first described by Morton L. Isler, R. Terry Chesser, Mark B. Robbins and Peter A. Hosner in 2020.

The O'Neill's antpitta is a species of bird in the family Grallariidae. It is endemic to Peru. It is a member of the rufous antpitta species complex and was formally described in 2020 by R. Terry Chesser and Morton L. Isler.

The Junín antpitta is a species of bird in the family Grallariidae. It is endemic to the Peruvian department, Junín. It is a member of the rufous antpitta species complex and was formally elevated from subspecies to species in 2020.

The Bolivian antpitta is a bird in the family Grallariidae. The species was first described by James Bond and Rodolphe Meyer de Schauensee in 1940. It is endemic to Bolivia. It is a member of the rufous antpitta species complex and was elevated from subspecies to species in 2020 on the basis of differences in plumage and vocalizations.

The Muisca antpitta is a bird in the family Grallariidae. The species was first described by Frédéric de Lafresnaye in 1843. It was formerly considered to be the rufous antpitta, which in 2020 was found to be a species complex composed of 13 species, including the bicolored antpitta. It is endemic to the eastern Andes in northern Colombia and western Venezuela.

The Oxapampa antpitta is a species of bird in the family Grallariidae. It is endemic to Peru. The Oxapampa antpitta was formerly believed to be a population of the chestnut antpitta, but in 2020 was described as its own species by Peter A. Hosner, Mark B. Robbins, Morton L. Isler and R. Terry Chesser.

References

  1. Cornell University (July 31, 2020). "Grallaria Antpittas".