|Elevation||2,979 m (9,774 ft)|
|Volcanic arc/belt||South Volcanic Zone|
|First ascent||1829 by Eduard Poeppig|
Antuco Volcano is a stratovolcano located in the Bío Bío Region of Chile, near Sierra Velluda and on the shore of Laguna del Laja.
The first registered eruption occurred in 1624 but its is known that the volcano experienced some activity in the 16th century.The 1624 eruption was strombolian forming a lava flow and resulting the ejection of pyroclasts. Beginning with this eruption many more were recorded as the volcano lied near an Andean mountain pass transited by the Spanish.
In April 2013, there were reported signs of activity sighted by nearby inhabitants - a pilot even reported ash spewing from the volcano. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Center in Buenos Aires, Argentina, investigated and determined that only trace gases and steam had emerged from Antuco.
Popocatépetl is an active stratovolcano, located in the states of Puebla, Morelos and Mexico, in central Mexico, and lies in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. At 5,426 m (17,802 ft) it is the second highest peak in Mexico, after Citlaltépetl at 5,636 m (18,491 ft).
The 1960 Valdivia earthquake or the Great Chilean earthquake on 22 May 1960 is the most powerful earthquake ever recorded. Various studies have placed it at 9.4–9.6 on the moment magnitude scale. It occurred in the afternoon, and lasted approximately 10 minutes. The resulting tsunami affected southern Chile, Hawaii, Japan, the Philippines, eastern New Zealand, southeast Australia, and the Aleutian Islands.
The Volcán de Colima, 3,820 m (12,533 ft), also known as Volcán de Fuego, is part of the Colima Volcanic Complex (CVC) consisting of Volcán de Colima, Nevado de Colima and the eroded El Cántaro. It is the youngest of the three and as of 2015 is one of the most active volcanos in Mexico and in North America. It has erupted more than 40 times since 1576. One of the largest eruptions was on January 20–24, 1913. Nevado de Colima, also known as Tzapotépetl, lies 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) north of its more active neighbor and is the taller of the two at 4,271 meters (14,015 ft). It is the 26th-most prominent peak in North America.
Volcán de Agua is a stratovolcano located in the departments of Sacatepéquez and Escuintla in Guatemala. At 3,760 m (12,340 ft), Agua Volcano towers more than 3,500 m (11,500 ft) above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2,000 m (6,600 ft) above the Guatemalan Highlands to the north. It dominates the local landscape except when hidden by cloud cover. The volcano is within 5 to 10 km of the city of Antigua Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla to the south. Coffee is grown on the volcano's lower slopes.
Galeras is an Andean stratovolcano in the Colombian department of Nariño, near the departmental capital Pasto. Its summit rises 4,276 metres (14,029 ft) above sea level. It has erupted frequently since the Spanish conquest, with its first historical eruption being recorded on December 7, 1580. A 1993 eruption killed nine people, including six scientists who had descended into the volcano's crater to sample gases and take gravity measurements in an attempt to be able to predict future eruptions. It is currently the most active volcano in Colombia.
Copahue is a stratovolcano in the Andes on the border of Bío Bío Region, Chile and Neuquén Province, Argentina. There are nine volcanic craters along a 2 km (1.2 mi) line, the easternmost of which is historically the most active, and contains a 300 m (1000 ft) wide crater lake with a pH ranging between 0.18 and 0.30. Eruptions from this crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments. Although the lake emptied during the 2000 eruption, it later returned to its previous levels. Copahue means "sulphur waters" in Mapuche.
Cerro Azul, sometimes referred to as Quizapu, is an active stratovolcano in the Maule Region of central Chile, immediately south of Descabezado Grande. Part of the South Volcanic Zone of the Andes, its summit is 3,788 meters (12,428 ft) above sea level, and is capped by a summit crater that is 500 meters (1,600 ft) wide and opens to the north. Beneath the summit, the volcano features numerous scoria cones and flank vents.
Villarrica is one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rising above the lake and town of the same name, 750 km (470 mi) south of Santiago. It is also known as Rucapillán, a Mapuche word meaning "devil's house". It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend NW-SW obliquely perpendicular to the Andean chain along the Mocha-Villarrica Fault Zone, along with Quetrupillán and the Chilean portion of Lanín, are protected within Villarrica National Park. Guided ascents are popular during summer months.
Villarrica is a city and commune in southern Chile located on the western shore of Villarrica Lake in the Province of Cautín, Araucanía Region 746 km (464 mi) south of Santiago and close to the Villarrica Volcano ski center to the south east. Residents of Villarrica are known as Villarriquences.
Turrialba Volcano is an active volcano in central Costa Rica that has been explosively eruptive in recent years including 2016 and in January, March and April 2017. Visitors used to be able to hike down into the main crater, but increased volcanic activity in 2014-17, resulting in large clouds of volcanic ash, has caused the surrounding Turrialba Volcano National Park to close.
Calbuco is a stratovolcano in southern Chile, located southeast of Llanquihue Lake and northwest of Chapo Lake, in the Los Lagos Region, and close to the cities of Puerto Varas and Puerto Montt. With an elevation of 2,015 meters above sea level, the volcano and the surrounding area are protected within the Llanquihue National Reserve.
Pucón is a Chilean city and commune administered by the municipality of Pucón. It is located in the Province of Cautín, Araucanía Region, 100 km to the southeast of Temuco and 780 km to the south of Santiago. It is on the eastern shore of Lake Villarrica, and Villarrica volcano is located roughly 17 km to the south.
The Llaima Volcano is one of the largest and most active volcanoes in Chile. It is situated 82 km northeast of Temuco and 663 km southeast of Santiago, within the borders of Conguillío National Park.
Quetrupillán is a stratovolcano located in the La Araucanía Region of Chile. It is situated between Villarrica and Lanín volcanoes, within Villarrica National Park. Geologically, Quetrupillán is located in a tectonic basement block between the main traces of Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault and Reigolil-Pirihueico Fault.
Callaqui is a stratovolcano located in the Bío Bío Region of Chile. It is a large ice-capped, basaltic andesite volcano which is elongated in the northeast-southwest direction, due to its construction along an 11 km (7 mi) long fissure. Numerous cinder cones and lava flows have erupted from vents along this linear fissure. Most of the activity at Callaqui has been fumarolic. Minor eruptions were reported 1751, 1864, and 1937, and the latest eruption was a small phreatic eruption in 1980.
A Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) is a group of experts responsible for coordinating and disseminating information on atmospheric volcanic ash clouds that may endanger aviation. As at 2019, there are nine Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers located around the world, each one focusing on a particular geographical region. Their analyses are made public in the form of Volcanic Ash Advisories (VAA), involving expertise analysis of satellite observations, ground and pilot observations and interpretation of ash dispersion models.
In late October 2010, Mount Merapi in Central Java, Indonesia, began an increasingly violent series of eruptions that continued into November. Seismic activity around the volcano increased from mid-September onwards, culminating in repeated outbursts of lava and ashes. Large eruption columns formed, causing numerous pyroclastic flows down the heavily populated slopes of the volcano. Merapi's eruption was said by authorities to be the largest since the 1870s.
The 2011 Nabro eruption was an eruption of the Nabro stratovolcano in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea, which began on 12 June 2011 after a series of earthquakes. The eruption killed seven and possibly a further 31 people and is estimated to be the highest altitude injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) ever observed by satellite. The Mount Pinatubo eruption 20 years earlier emitted ten times more SO2. The ash cloud from the eruption reached altitudes which disrupted airline traffic in the region. Until the eruption began, the volcano had no records of historical eruptions.
The Parliament of Quillín was a diplomatic meeting held in 1641 between various Mapuche groups and Spanish authorities held in the fields of Quillín. With the ensuing treaty the Spanish sought an end to the hostilities of the Arauco War in order to concentrate the empire's resources in fighting the Catalans in Europe. This way the Mapuche obtained a peace treaty and a recognition on behalf of the crown in a case unique for any indigenous group in the Americas. Another contributing factor for parties to wanting to end warfare may have been the 1640 eruption of Llaima volcano in the middle of the conflict zone. possibly Mapuches interpreted the eruption as a signal sent from the pillanes.
Ticsani is a volcano in Peru. It consists of two volcanoes that form a complex: "old Ticsani", which is a compound volcano that underwent a large collapse in the past and shed 15–30 cubic kilometres (3.6–7.2 cu mi) of mass down the Rio Tambo valley; the other is a complex of three lava domes which were emplaced during the Holocene. The last eruption occurred after the 1600 eruption of neighbouring Huaynaputina.
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