Antwerp

Last updated

Antwerp
Antwerpen (Dutch)
Anvers (French)
Flag of Antwerp (City).svg
Coat of arms of Antwerp (City).svg
Nicknames: 
Sinjoren and Pagadders
Motto: 
Atypisch Antwerpen (Atypical Antwerp)
Antwerp
Antwerp
Antwerp
Coordinates: 51°13′04″N04°24′01″E / 51.21778°N 4.40028°E / 51.21778; 4.40028
CountryFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Region Flanders
Province Antwerp
Boroughs
Government
   Mayor Bart De Wever (N-VA)
  Governing parties N-VA, Vooruit, Open Vld
Area
   Municipality 204.32 km2 (78.89 sq mi)
Elevation
8 m (26 ft)
Population
 (2023-01-01)
   Municipality 536,079
  Density2,600/km2 (7,000/sq mi)
   Metro
1,230,000
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postcode
2000–2660
Area code 03
Website antwerpen.be

Antwerp ( /ˈæntwɜːrp/ ; Dutch : Antwerpen [ˈɑntʋɛrpə(n)] ; French : Anvers [ɑ̃vɛʁs] ) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is the capital and largest city of Antwerp Province, and the third largest city in Belgium by area at 204.51 km2 (78.96 sq mi) after Tournai and Couvin. With a population of 536,079, [1] it is the most populous municipality in Belgium, and with a metropolitan population of over 1,200,000 people, the country's second-largest metropolitan region after Brussels. [lower-alpha 1] [3]

Contents

Flowing through Antwerp is the river Scheldt. Antwerp is linked to the North Sea by the river's Westerschelde estuary. It is about 40 km (25 mi) north of Brussels, and about 15 km (9 mi) south of the Dutch border. The Port of Antwerp is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in Europe after Rotterdam [4] [5] and within the top 20 globally. The city is also known as the hub of the world's diamond trade. In 2020, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network rated Antwerp as a Gamma + (third level/top tier) Global City. [6]

Both economically and culturally, Antwerp is and has long been an important city in the Low Countries, especially before and during the Spanish Fury (1576) and throughout and after the subsequent Dutch Revolt. The Bourse at Antwerp, originally built in 1531 and re-built in 1872, was the world's first purpose-built commodity exchange. [lower-alpha 2] In 1920, the city hosted the Summer Olympics.

The inhabitants of Antwerp are nicknamed Sinjoren (Dutch pronunciation: [sɪˈɲoːrə(n)] ), after the Spanish honorific señor or French seigneur, "lord", referring to the Spanish noblemen who ruled the city in the 17th century. [9] The city's population is very diverse, including about 180 nationalities; as of 2019, more than 50% of its population had a parent that was not a Belgian citizen at birth. [10] A notable community is the Jewish one, as Antwerp is one of the only two cities in Europe (together with London and its Stamford Hill neighbourhood) that is home to a considerable Haredi population in the 21st century.

Toponymy

Etymology

Scaldis ("the Scheldt") and Antverpia ("Antwerp"), Abraham Janssens, 1609, oil on panel, Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp Scaldis en Antverpia, Abraham Janssens I, (1609), Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten Antwerpen, 212.jpg
Scaldis ("the Scheldt") and Antverpia ("Antwerp"), Abraham Janssens, 1609, oil on panel, Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp

Early recorded versions of the name include Ando Verpia on Roman coins found in the city centre, [11] Germanic Andhunerbo from around the time Austrasia became a separate kingdom (that is, about 567 CE), [12] and (possibly originally Celtic) Andoverpis in Dado's Life of St. Eligius (Vita Eligii) from about 700 CE. The form Antverpia is Neo-Latin. [13]

A Germanic (Frankish or Frisian) origin could contain prefix anda ("against") and a noun derived from the verb werpen ("to throw") and denote, for example: land thrown up at the riverbank; an alluvial deposit; a mound (like a terp) thrown up (as a defence) against (something or someone); or a wharf. [14] [15] [16] If Andoverpis is Celtic in origin, it could mean "those who live on both banks". [17]

There is a folklore tradition that the name Antwerpen is from Dutch handwerpen ("hand-throwing"). A giant called Antigoon is said to have lived near the Scheldt river and extracted a toll from passing boatmen. He severed the hand of anyone who did not pay, and threw it in the river. Eventually the giant was killed by a young hero named Silvius Brabo, who cut off the giant's own hand and flung that into the river. This is unlikely to be the true origin, but it is celebrated by a statue (illustrated further below) in the city's main market square, the Grote Markt . [18] [11]

History

Pre-1500

Historical Antwerp allegedly had its origins in a Gallo-Roman vicus . Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt in 1952–1961 (ref. Princeton), produced pottery shards and fragments of glass from mid-2nd century to the end of the 3rd century. In the 4th century, Antwerp was first named, having been settled by the Germanic Franks. [16]

The Merovingian Antwerp was evangelized by Saint Amand in the 7th century. Het Steen Castle has its origins in the Carolingian period in the 9th century. The castle may have been built after the Viking incursions in the early Middle Ages; in 879 the Normans invaded Flanders. The surviving structure was built between 1200 and 1225 as a gateway to a larger castle of the Dukes of Brabant which was demolished in the 19th century. It is Antwerp's oldest building. [19] At the end of the 10th century, the Scheldt became the boundary of the Holy Roman Empire. Antwerp became a margraviate in 980, by the German emperor Otto II, a border province facing the County of Flanders.

In the 11th century, the best-known leader of the First Crusade (1096–1099), Godfrey of Bouillon, was originally Margrave of Antwerp, from 1076 until his death in 1100, though he was later also Duke of Lower Lorraine (1087–1100) and Defender of the Holy Sepulchre (1099–1100). In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten established a community of his Premonstratensian canons at St. Michael's Abbey at Caloes. Antwerp was also the headquarters of Edward III during his early negotiations with Jacob van Artevelde, and his son Lionel, the Duke of Clarence, was born there in 1338. [12]

Grote Markt
(main square) Grote Markt (Antwerpen).jpg
Grote Markt (main square)

16th century

After the silting-up of the Zwin and the consequent decline of Bruges, Antwerp, then part of the Duchy of Brabant, grew in importance, with the city doubling its population between 1500 and 1569. [20] At the end of the 15th century, the foreign trading houses were transferred from Bruges to Antwerp, and the building assigned to the association of English merchants active in the city is specifically mentioned in 1510. [12] During this time, the old Mediterranean trade routes were gradually losing importance and the discovery of new sea routes via Africa to Asia and via the Atlantic to America helped push Antwerp to a position of prominence. [20]

By 1504, the Portuguese had established Antwerp as one of their main shipping bases, bringing in spices from Asia and trading them for textiles and metal goods. The city's trade expanded to include cloth from England, Italy and Germany, wines from Germany, France and Spain, salt from France, and wheat from the Baltic. The city's skilled workers processed soap, fish, sugar, and especially cloth. Banks helped finance the trade, the merchants, and the manufacturers. The city was a cosmopolitan center; its bourse opened in 1531, "To the merchants of all nations." [21]

View of Antwerp by Jan Wildens Jan Wildens - View of the city of Antwerp.jpg
View of Antwerp by Jan Wildens

Antwerp became the sugar capital of Europe, importing the raw commodity from Portuguese and Spanish plantations on both sides of the Atlantic, where it was grown by a mixture of free and forced labour, increasingly with enslaved Africans as the century progressed. [22] The city attracted Italian and German sugar refiners by 1550, and shipped their refined product to Germany, especially Cologne. [23] Antwerp also had an unusually high number of painters, around 360 in 1560, in a city with a population of roughly 89,000 in 1569 (250 people per painter), it was the most important artistic centre north of the Alps, serving notable painters such as Pieter Bruegel. [20] Moneylenders and financiers developed a large business lending money all over Europe including the English government in 1544–1574. London bankers were too small to operate on that scale, and Antwerp had a highly efficient bourse that itself attracted rich bankers from around Europe. After the 1570s, the city's banking business declined: England ceased its borrowing in Antwerp in 1574. [24]

Fernand Braudel states that Antwerp became "the centre of the entire international economy, something Bruges had never been even at its height." [25] Antwerp had the highest growth rate and was the richest city in Europe at the time. [26] [20] Antwerp's Golden Age is tightly linked to the "Age of Exploration". During the first half of the 16th century, Antwerp grew to become the second-largest European city north of the Alps. Many foreign merchants were resident in the city. Francesco Guicciardini, the Florentine envoy, stated that hundreds of ships would pass in a day, and 2,000 carts entered the city each week. Portuguese ships laden with pepper and cinnamon would unload their cargo. According to Luc-Normand Tellier "It is estimated that the port of Antwerp was earning the Spanish crown seven times more revenues than the Spanish colonization of the Americas". [27]

Sack of Antwerp in 1576, in which about 7,000 people died. Wolf-Dietrich-Klebeband Stadtebilder G 111 III.jpg
Sack of Antwerp in 1576, in which about 7,000 people died.

Without a long-distance merchant fleet, and governed by an oligarchy of banker-aristocrats forbidden to engage in trade, the economy of Antwerp was foreign-controlled, which made the city very cosmopolitan, with merchants and traders from Venice, Genoa, Ragusa, Spain and Portugal. Antwerp had a policy of toleration, which attracted a large crypto-Jewish community composed of migrants from Spain and Portugal. [29]

Antwerp experienced three booms during its golden age: the first based on the pepper market, a second launched by American silver coming from Seville (ending with the bankruptcy of Spain in 1557), and a third boom, after the stabilizing Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559, based on the textiles industry. At the beginning of the 16th century, Antwerp accounted for 40% of world trade. [27] The boom-and-bust cycles and inflationary cost-of-living squeezed less-skilled workers. In the century after 1541, the city's economy and population declined dramatically. The Portuguese merchants left in 1549, and there was much less trade in English cloth. Numerous financial bankruptcies began around 1557. Amsterdam replaced Antwerp as the major trading center for the region. [30]

Reformation era

The religious revolution of the Reformation erupted in violent riots in August 1566, as in other parts of the Low Countries. The regent Margaret, Duchess of Parma, was swept aside when Philip II sent the Duke of Alba at the head of an army the following summer. When the Dutch revolt against Spain broke out in 1568, commercial trading between Antwerp and the Spanish port of Bilbao collapsed and became impossible. On 4 November 1576, Spanish soldiers sacked the city during the so-called Spanish Fury: 8,000 citizens were massacred, several houses burnt down, and over £2 million sterling of damage was done.

Dutch revolt

View of Antwerp with the frozen Scheldt (1590) by Lucas van Valckenborch 1593 Valckenborch Ansicht von Antwerpen mit zugefrorener Schelde anagoria.JPG
View of Antwerp with the frozen Scheldt (1590) by Lucas van Valckenborch

Subsequently, the city joined the Union of Utrecht in 1579 and became the capital of the Dutch Revolt. In 1585, Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza, captured it after a long siege and as part of the terms of surrender its Protestant citizens were given two years to settle their affairs before quitting the city. [31] Most went to the United Provinces in the north, starting the Dutch Golden Age. Antwerp's banking was controlled for a generation by Genoa, and Amsterdam became the new trading centre.

17th–19th centuries

Map of Antwerp (1624) Marchionatus Sacri Romani Imperii - Antwerpen, het markgraafschap en de belangrijkste gebouwen (Claes Jansz. Visscher, 1624).jpg
Map of Antwerp (1624)
Antwerp and the river Scheldt, photochrom, c. 1890-1900 Antwerp and the river Scheldt, photochrom.png
Antwerp and the river Scheldt, photochrom, c.1890–1900
Antwerp from the left bank of the Scheldt, c. 1890-1900 Antwerp, Belgium, from the left bank of the Scheldt (ca. 1890-1900).jpg
Antwerp from the left bank of the Scheldt, c.1890–1900

The recognition of the independence of the United Provinces by the Treaty of Münster in 1648 stipulated that the Scheldt should be closed to navigation, which destroyed Antwerp's trading activities. This impediment remained in force until 1863, although the provisions were relaxed during French rule from 1795 to 1814, and also during the time Belgium formed part of the Kingdom of the United Netherlands (1815 to 1830). [12] Antwerp had reached the lowest point in its fortunes in 1800, and its population had sunk to under 40,000, when Napoleon, realizing its strategic importance, assigned funds to enlarge the harbour by constructing a new dock (still named the Bonaparte Dock), an access-lock and mole, and deepening the Scheldt to allow larger ships to approach Antwerp. [26] Napoleon hoped that by making Antwerp's harbour the finest in Europe he would be able to counter the Port of London and hamper British growth. However, he was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo before he could see the plan through. [32] In 1830, the city was captured by the Belgian insurgents, but the citadel continued to be held by a Dutch garrison under General David Hendrik Chassé. For a time, Chassé subjected the town to periodic bombardment which inflicted much damage, and at the end of 1832, the citadel itself was besieged by the French Northern Army commanded by Marechal Gerard. During this attack, the town was further damaged. In December 1832, after a gallant defence, Chassé made an honourable surrender, ending the Siege of Antwerp (1832). [12]

Later that century, a double ring of Brialmont Fortresses was constructed some 10 km (6 mi) from the city centre, as Antwerp was considered vital for the survival of the young Belgian state. And in 1894 Antwerp presented itself to the world via a World's Fair attended by 3 million. [33]

20th century

The German bombardment of Antwerp, October 1914, by Willy Stower Willy Stower - Antwerpen 1914.JPG
The German bombardment of Antwerp, October 1914, by Willy Stöwer

Antwerp was the first city to host the World Gymnastics Championships, in 1903. During World War I, the city became the fallback point of the Belgian Army after the defeat at Liège. The Siege of Antwerp lasted for 11 days, but the city was taken after heavy fighting by the German Army, and the Belgians were forced to retreat westwards. Antwerp remained under German occupation until the Armistice. A few years later, Antwerp hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics.

During World War II, the city was an important strategic target because of its port. It was occupied by Germany on 18 May 1940 and liberated by the British 11th Armoured Division on 4 September 1944. After this, the Germans attempted to destroy the Port of Antwerp, which was used by the Allies to bring new material ashore. Thousands of Rheinbote, V-1 and V-2 missiles were fired (more V-2s than used on all other targets during the entire war combined), causing severe damage to the city but failed to destroy the port due to poor accuracy. After the war, Antwerp, which had already had a sizeable Jewish population before the war, once again became a major European centre of Haredi (and particularly Hasidic) Orthodox Judaism.

A Ten-Year Plan for the port of Antwerp (1956–1965) expanded and modernized the port's infrastructure with national funding to build a set of canal docks. The broader aim was to facilitate the growth of the north-eastern Antwerp metropolitan region, which attracted new industry based on a flexible and strategic implementation of the project as a co-production between various authorities and private parties. The plan succeeded in extending the linear layout along the Scheldt river by connecting new satellite communities to the main strip. [34]

Starting in the 1990s, Antwerp rebranded itself as a world-class fashion centre. Emphasizing the avant-garde, it tried to compete with London, Milan, New York and Paris. It emerged from organized tourism and mega-cultural events. [35]

Districts

The municipality comprises the city of Antwerp proper and several towns. It is divided into nine entities (districts):

#namesurface

(km2)

inhabitantspopulation densitypopulation density

in residential areas

Flag
1 Antwerp 83,18198,7842,39011,959 Flag of Antwerp (district).svg
2 Berchem 5,7043,3257,60310,717 Flag of Berchem, Antwerp.svg
3 Berendrecht-Zandvliet-Lillo 52,439,9621903,315 Berendrecht-Zandvliet-Lillo vlag.jpg
4 Borgerhout 3,9046,42411,90417,026 Flag of Borgerhout (district).svg
5 Deurne 13,0382,2706,31511,932 Flag of Deurne.svg
6 Ekeren 13,4828,7202,1314,614 Ekeren vlag.jpg
7 Hoboken 10,5241,3523,9328,451 Hoboken vlag.jpg
8 Merksem 8,4245,9295,45710,691 Flag of Merksem (district).svg
9 Wilrijk 13,7141,9163,0577,026 Wilrijk vlag.jpg
Antwerpen Districts.png

In 1958, in preparation of the 10-year development plan for the Port of Antwerp, the municipalities of Berendrecht-Zandvliet-Lillo were integrated into the city territory and lost their administrative independence. During the 1983 merger of municipalities, conducted by the Belgian government as an administrative simplification, the municipalities of Berchem, Borgerhout, Deurne, Ekeren, Hoboken, Merksem and Wilrijk were merged into the city. At that time the city was also divided into the districts mentioned above. Simultaneously, districts received an appointed district council; later district councils became elected bodies. [36]

The neighboring municipality of Borsbeek has declared the intention to become the tenth district of the city of Antwerp. However, the final decision has not been made and a non-binding citizens vote on the matter is scheduled for September 2023.

With the exception of Ekeren and Berendrecht-Zandvliet-Lillo, all the districts form together one contiguous inhabited area. The former town halls have been converted into district halls and the former town centers are now local main streets within the larger urban agglomeration.

Neighborhoods

In the district of Antwerp

The historical city of Antwerp consists nowadays of the following neighborhoods. For a few of them, the postal code has become a cultural reference.

The inner city - 2000

Encompassing the area between the river and the Spanish fortification walls, this is the historical heart of Antwerp. On the place of the Spanish walls is now an avenue called de Leien in Dutch or den Boulevard in the local dialect. Tourist sights such as the Cathedral are located here, but also more mundane places.

Quarters in the inner city are:

  • Historical centre
  • Meir
  • Schipperskwartier
  • Quartier Latin
  • University quarter
  • het Zuid
  • nieuw Zuid
  • het Eilandje

Antwerpen-Noord - 2060

Antwerpen-Noord or synonymously 2060 is a densely populated part of the city, and the most diverse one as well.

  • Seefhoek
  • Stuivenberg
  • Amandus-Atheneum
  • Dam

Antwerpen intra-muros - 2018

This is not a neighborhood by itself, but is the postal code for the remaining quarters of the district that lie between de Leien and the ringway.

  • Statiekwartier
  • Diamond square
  • Groen Kwartier
  • Haringrode
  • Zurenborg
  • Brederode
  • Klein-Antwerpen
  • Kievit quarter
  • Harmonie

Antwerpen extra-muros - 2020

  • Kiel
  • Tentoonstellingswijk
  • Middelheim (the border with the district of Wilrijk runs rights through this quarter)

Antwerpen 2030

  • Luchtbal
  • Not a quarter, but a significant amount of territory here are industrial and uninhabited port terrains.

Linkeroever - 2050

United with the city in 1923, Linkeroever ("Left bank") consists of the former polders of Zwijndrecht and Burcht.

Berchem - 2600

Antwerp-Berchem: Vibrant district, rich history, lively streets, major transportation hub.

Cityscape and architecture

Antwerp's architecture is a blend of old and new, with a cultural heritage spanning from the Gothic and Renaissance periods to contemporary designs. In the 16th century, the city was noted for the wealth of its citizens (Antwerpia nummis).[ citation needed ] The houses of these wealthy merchants and manufacturers have been preserved throughout the city. However, fire has destroyed several old buildings, such as the house of the Hanseatic League on the northern quays, in 1891. During World War II, the city also suffered considerable damage from V-bombs. Here are some of the most notable examples of Antwerp's diverse architecture:

Antwerp is also home to a wealth of historic Gothic, Baroque and Renaissance-style buildings, such as the Antwerp City Hall, the Cathedral of Our Lady, the St. James' Church, the Vleeshuis Museum and the St. Charles Borromeo Church.

Parks and recreational areas

Antwerp offers a diverse range of parks and recreational areas for locals and tourists to explore. One of the most popular attractions is the Antwerp Zoo. It opened on 21 July 1843, making it one of the oldest and most famous zoos in the world. The zoo covers an area of 10 hectares and is home to more than 5,000 animals from over 950 species. The zoo is located right next to Antwerp Central Station on the Koningin Astridplein. Antwerp Zoo has played its role in preservation and breeding programmes for several endangered species, including the okapi, the Przewalski horse, the Congo peafowl, the bonobo, the golden-headed lion tamarin, the European otter, and the Knysna seahorse. They take part in the European Endangered Species Programme. On 1 January 1983 the entire park (architecture and garden) was listed as a monument. Other well-known parks include:

Climate

Antwerp has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), with cool winters, warm summers and frequent, though light, precipitation throughout the year. Due to the influence of the Gulf Stream, Antwerp has a relatively mild climate throughout the year, with the average temperature fluctuating between 4 °C (39 °F) and 19 °C (66 °F) throughout the year.

Climate data for Antwerp (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1949−present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)15.6
(60.1)
19.3
(66.7)
24.6
(76.3)
28.7
(83.7)
32.9
(91.2)
34.5
(94.1)
40.4
(104.7)
36.1
(97.0)
35.0
(95.0)
26.2
(79.2)
20.3
(68.5)
17.2
(63.0)
40.4
(104.7)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)6.8
(44.2)
7.7
(45.9)
11.2
(52.2)
15.3
(59.5)
18.9
(66.0)
21.6
(70.9)
23.6
(74.5)
23.6
(74.5)
20.1
(68.2)
15.4
(59.7)
10.5
(50.9)
7.2
(45.0)
15.2
(59.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)4.0
(39.2)
4.4
(39.9)
7.1
(44.8)
10.3
(50.5)
14.0
(57.2)
16.9
(62.4)
18.9
(66.0)
18.6
(65.5)
15.5
(59.9)
11.5
(52.7)
7.4
(45.3)
4.6
(40.3)
11.1
(52.0)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)1.3
(34.3)
1.2
(34.2)
3.0
(37.4)
5.2
(41.4)
9.1
(48.4)
12.2
(54.0)
14.2
(57.6)
13.7
(56.7)
10.8
(51.4)
7.6
(45.7)
4.4
(39.9)
2.0
(35.6)
7.1
(44.8)
Record low °C (°F)−18.5
(−1.3)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−10.8
(12.6)
−4.9
(23.2)
−2.6
(27.3)
1.7
(35.1)
5.0
(41.0)
4.6
(40.3)
1.1
(34.0)
−6.1
(21.0)
−9.5
(14.9)
−16.1
(3.0)
−18.5
(−1.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)70.0
(2.76)
62.8
(2.47)
54.2
(2.13)
43.1
(1.70)
59.8
(2.35)
76.9
(3.03)
82.3
(3.24)
84.0
(3.31)
75.6
(2.98)
72.6
(2.86)
80.7
(3.18)
90.9
(3.58)
852.9
(33.58)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)12.611.610.58.89.810.210.510.810.111.112.914.1132.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 627813619222122022521216411766511,743
Source 1: Royal Meteorological Institute [40]
Source 2: Temperature estreme in Toscoma (extremes) [41]

Fortifications

Het Steen (literally: 'The Stone') 0 Het Steen - Antwerpen (1).JPG
Het Steen (literally: 'The Stone')

Although Antwerp was formerly a fortified city, hardly anything remains of the former enceinte, only some remains of the city wall can be seen near the Vleeshuis museum at the corner of Bloedberg and Burchtgracht. Steen castle on the Scheldt-quai is the gate wing of the demolished castle of the Dukes of Brabant. It was partly reconstructed in the 19th century.

Antwerp's development as a fortified city is documented between the 10th and the 20th century. The fortifications were developed in different phases:

Demographics

Antwerp population pyramid in 2022 Antwerp population pyramid in 2022.svg
Antwerp population pyramid in 2022

Historical population

Population timeline of Antwerp Population-antwerp.png
Population timeline of Antwerp

This is the population of the city of Antwerp only, not of the larger current municipality of the same name.

  • 1374: 18,000 [42]
  • 1486: 40,000 [43]
  • 1500: around 44/49,000 inhabitants [44]
  • 1526: 50,000 [45]
  • 1567: 105,000 (90,000 permanent residents and 15,000 "floating population", including foreign merchants and soldiers. At the time only 10 cities in Europe reached this size.) [45] [46] [47] [48]
  • 1584: 84,000 (after the Spanish Fury, the French Fury [49] and the Calvinist republic)
  • 1586 (May): 60,000 (after siege)
  • 1586 (October): 50,000
  • 1591: 46,000
  • 1612: 54,000 [50]
  • 1620: 66,000 (Twelve Years' Truce)
  • 1640: 54,000 (after the Black Death epidemics)
  • 1700: 66,000 [51]
  • 1765: 40,000
  • 1784: 51,000
  • 1800: 45,500
  • 1815: 54,000 [52]
  • 1830: 73,500
  • 1856: 111,700
  • 1880: 179,000
  • 1900: 275,100
  • 1925: 308,000
  • 1959: 260,000 [53]

Ethnicities and religions

Largest groups of foreign residents in Antwerp
Country of originPopulation 2019 [54]
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 76,593
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 28,582
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 25,419
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 12,430
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 9,644
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 6,841
Flag of India.svg  India 6,229
Flag of the Taliban.svg  Afghanistan 6,223
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 4,915
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 4,862

In 2010, 36% to 39% of the inhabitants of Antwerp had foreign origins. A study projected that in 2020, 55% of the population would be of immigrant background, either first, second, or third generation. [55] [56]

Group of originYear
2001 [57] 2006 [57] 2011 [57] 2016 [57] 2023 [57]
Number%Number%Number%Number%Number%
Belgians with Belgian background340,13076.3%316,99368.7%291,49959.1%268,31751.9%235,37443.7%
Belgians with foreign background [lower-alpha 3] 50,37811.3%85,17118.5%115,23623.3%143,00927.6%178,47633.1%
Neighboring country [lower-alpha 4] 10,3442.3%11,91113,38714,82017,1323.2%
EU27 (excluding neighboring country)5,1791.2%6,3287,5189,18112,5142.3%
Outside EU 2734,8557.8%66,93294,331119,008148,83027.6%
Non-Belgians55,06212.3%59,33212.9%86,78217.6%105,71620.4%125,06023.2%
Neighboring country [lower-alpha 5] 11,5152.6%13,38518,81022,58823,2534.3%
EU27 (excluding neighboring country)7,1301.6%9,21518,55728,19733,1096.1%
Outside EU 2736,4178.2%36,73249,41554,93168,69812.7%
Total445,570100%461,496100%493,517100%517,042100%538,910100%

Jewish community

Hollandse Synagoge Antwerpen Synagoge Bouwmeestersstraat2.JPG
Hollandse Synagoge

After the Holocaust and the murder of its many Jews, Antwerp became a major centre for Orthodox Jews. At present, about 15,000 Haredi Jews, many of them Hasidic, live in Antwerp. The city has three official Jewish Congregations: Shomrei Hadass, headed by Rabbi Dovid Moishe Lieberman, Machsike Hadass, headed by Rabbi Aron Schiff (formerly by Chief Rabbi Chaim Kreiswirth) and the Portuguese Community Ben Moshe. Antwerp has an extensive network of synagogues, shops, schools and organizations. Significant Hasidic movements in Antwerp include Pshevorsk, based in Antwerp, as well as branches of Satmar, Belz, Bobov, Ger, Skver, Klausenburg, Vizhnitz and several others. Rabbi Chaim Kreiswirth, chief rabbi of the Machsike Hadas community, who died in 2001, was arguably one of the better known personalities to have been based in Antwerp. An attempt to have a street named after him has received the support of the Town Hall and is in the process of being implemented.[ citation needed ]

Jain community

Jain temple in Wilrijk Wilrijk Jain-tempel4.JPG
Jain temple in Wilrijk

The Jains in Belgium are estimated to be around about 1,500 people. The majority live in Antwerp, mostly involved in the very lucrative diamond business. [58] Belgian Indian Jains control two-thirds of the rough diamonds trade and supplied India with roughly 36% of their rough diamonds. [59] A major temple, with a cultural centre, has been built in Antwerp (Wilrijk). Mr Ramesh Mehta, a Jain, is a full-fledged member of the Belgian Council of Religious Leaders, put up on 17 December 2009.[ citation needed ]

Armenian community

There are significant Armenian communities that reside in Antwerp, many of whom are descendants of traders who settled during the 19th century. Most Armenian Belgians are adherents of the Armenian Apostolic Church, while a smaller number are adherents of the Armenian Catholic Church and Armenian Evangelical Church.

One of the important sectors that Armenian communities in Antwerp excel at and are involved in is the diamond trade business, [60] [61] [62] [63] that based primarily in the diamond district. [64] [65] [66] Some of the famous Armenian families involved in the diamond business in the city are the Artinians, Arslanians, Aslanians, Barsamians and the Osganians. [67]

Economy

Port Authority Building Antwerpen Havenhuis 15.jpg
Port Authority Building
Bevrijdingsdok [nl] terminal at the Port of Antwerp Zicht op het Delwaidedok.jpg
Bevrijdingsdok  [ nl ] terminal at the Port of Antwerp

Port

According to the American Association of Port Authorities, the port of Antwerp was the seventeenth largest (by tonnage) port in the world in 2005 and second only to Rotterdam in Europe. It handled 235.2 million tons of cargo in 2018. Importantly it handles high volumes of economically attractive general and project cargo, as well as bulk cargo. Antwerp's docklands, with five oil refineries, are home to a massive concentration of petrochemical industries, second only to the petrochemical cluster in Houston, Texas. [ citation needed ] Electricity generation is also an important activity, with four nuclear power plants at Doel, a conventional power station in Kallo, as well as several smaller combined cycle plants. There is a wind farm in the northern part of the port area. There are plans to extend this in the period 2014–2020. [68] The old Belgian bluestone quays bordering the Scheldt for a distance of 5.6 km (3.5 mi) to the north and south of the city centre have been retained for their sentimental value and are used mainly by cruise ships and short sea shipping.[ citation needed ]

Diamonds

Antwerp's other great mainstay is the diamond trade that takes place largely within the diamond district. [69] 85 percent of the world's rough diamonds pass through the district annually, [70] and in 2011 turnover in the industry was $56 billion. [71] The city has four diamond bourses: the Diamond Club of Antwerp, the Beurs voor Diamanthandel, the Antwerpsche Diamantkring and the Vrije Diamanthandel. [72] Antwerp's history in the diamond trade dates back to as early as the sixteenth century, [70] with the first diamond cutters guild being introduced in 1584. The industry never disappeared from Antwerp, and even experienced a second boom in the early twentieth century. By the year 1924, Antwerp had over 13,000 diamond finishers. [73] Since World War II families of the large Hasidic Jewish community have dominated Antwerp's diamond trading industry, although the last two decades have seen Indian [74] and Maronite Christians from Lebanon and Armenian, [64] traders become increasingly important. [74] Antwerp World Diamond Centre, (AWDC) the successor to the Hoge Raad voor Diamant, plays an important role in setting standards, regulating professional ethics, training and promoting the interests of Antwerp as the capital of the diamond industry.[ citation needed ] However, in recent years Antwerp has seen a downturn in the diamond business, with the industry shifting to cheaper labor markets such as Dubai or India. [75] The industry has avoided the 2022 European sanctions against Russia although the imports from Alrosa have diminished. If banned, the AWDC claims 10,000 jobs would be at risk. [76]

Transportation

Rail

Antwerp is the focus of lines to the north to Essen and the Netherlands, east to Turnhout, south to Mechelen, Brussels and Charleroi, and southwest to Ghent and Ostend. It is served by international and Thalys trains to Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Paris, and national trains to Ghent, Bruges, Ostend, Brussels, Charleroi, Hasselt, Liège, Leuven and Turnhout. Antwerp Central station is an architectural monument in itself, and is mentioned in W G Sebald's novel Austerlitz. Prior to the completion in 2007 of a tunnel that runs northwards under the city centre to emerge at the old Antwerp Dam station, Central was a terminus. Trains from Brussels to the Netherlands had to either reverse at Central or call only at Berchem station, 2 km (1 mi) to the south, and then describe a semicircle to the east, round the Singel. Now, they call at the new lower level of the station before continuing in the same direction.

Antwerp is also home to Antwerpen-Noord, the largest classification yard for freight in Belgium and second largest in Europe. The majority of freight trains in Belgium depart from or arrive here. It has two classification humps and over a hundred tracks.

Local public transport

The city has a web of tram and bus lines operated by De Lijn and providing access to the city centre, suburbs and the Left Bank. The tram network has 14 lines, of which the underground section is called the "premetro" and includes a tunnel under the river. The Franklin Rooseveltplaats functions as the city's main hub for local and regional bus lines. However, there has been an evolution to end regional lines at transportation hubs more outward of the city center, such as Zuid and Luchtbal.

Antwerp

Road

A six-lane motorway bypass encircles much of the city centre and runs through the urban residential area of Antwerp. Known locally as the "Ring" it offers motorway connections to Brussels, Hasselt and Liège, Ghent, Lille and Bruges and Breda and Bergen op Zoom (Netherlands). The banks of the Scheldt are linked by three road tunnels (in order of construction): the Waasland Tunnel (1934), the Kennedy Tunnel (1967) and the Liefkenshoek Tunnel (1991).

Daily congestion on the Ring led to a fourth high-volume highway link called the "Oosterweelconnection" being proposed. It would have entailed the construction of a long viaduct and bridge (the Lange Wapper) over the docks on the north side of the city in combination with the widening of the existing motorway into a 14-lane motorway; these plans were eventually rejected in a 2009 public referendum. [ citation needed ]

In September 2010 the Flemish Government decided to replace the bridge by a series of tunnels. There are ideas to cover the Ring in a similar way as happened around Paris, Hamburg, Madrid and other cities. This would reconnect the city with its suburbs and would provide development opportunities to accommodate part of the foreseen population growth in Antwerp which currently are not possible because of the pollution and noise generated by the traffic on the Ring. An old plan to build an R2 outer ring road outside the built up urban area around the Antwerp agglomeration for port related traffic and transit traffic never materialized. [ citation needed ]

In 2017 it was finally decided to complete the ringway of Antwerp with a new tunnel crossing the Scheldt. In a compromise with civil society, it has equally been decided that the ringway will in the long term completely be covered. This compromise is called the Toekomstverbond ("Agreement for the future"). Part of the same agreement is that highways further away from the city center will be further developed and that the amount of motorized trips in all transportation should be reduced to 50%.

Many FlixBus es have a stop at the central Franklin Rooseveltplaats.

Air

Antwerp International Airport Antwerp International Airport- Deurne Tower.JPG
Antwerp International Airport

A small airport, Antwerp International Airport, is located in the district of Deurne. The airport is mainly used for business travel. Flying Group, the largest business jet service in Benelux and France, has its headquarters there and several maintenance sheds and hangars for their private jets. There are also some regular scheduled flights by TUI fly with direct connectivity to Spain, Croatia, Italy, Austria and Morocco. Luxair will fly again to London City airport from 2023. A bus service connects the airport to the city centre. The runway has increased in length, and there is now direct connectivity to Spain, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, and Greece from the city of Antwerp.

Belgium's major international airport, Brussels Airport, is about 45 km (28 mi) from the city of Antwerp, and connects the city worldwide. It is connected to the city centre by bus, and also by train. The new Diabolo rail connection provides a direct fast train connection between Antwerp and Brussels Airport as of the summer of 2012.

There is also a direct rail service between Antwerp (calling at Central and Berchem stations) and Charleroi South station, with a connecting buslink to Brussels South Charleroi Airport, which runs twice per hour on working days.

Water

Since 2017 there has been a regular water ferry halting at the city center, connecting it with towns up and down the river Scheldt from Kruibeke to Lillo. This service is called DeWaterbus. It is popular with both commuting port laborers and cyclist making a day trip.

Politics

City council

The current city council was elected in the October 2018 elections.

The current majority consists of N-VA, Vooruit and Open Vld, led by mayor Bart De Wever (N-VA).

PartySeats
New Flemish Alliance (N-VA)23
Green 11
Vooruit 6
Flemish Interest 6
Workers' Party of Belgium (PVDA)4
Christian Democratic and Flemish (CD&V)3
Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats (Open Vld)2
Total55

Former mayors

In the 16th and 17th century important mayors include Philips of Marnix, Lord of Saint-Aldegonde, Anthony van Stralen, Lord of Merksem and Nicolaas II Rockox. In the early years after Belgian independence, Antwerp was governed by Catholic-Unionist mayors. Between 1848 and 1921, all mayors were from the Liberal Party (except for the so-called Meeting-intermezzo between 1863 and 1872). Between 1921 and 1932, the city had a Catholic mayor again: Frans Van Cauwelaert. From 1932 onwards and up until 2013, all mayors belonged to the Social Democrat party: Camille Huysmans, Lode Craeybeckx, Frans Detiège and Mathilde Schroyens, and after the municipality fusion: Bob Cools  [ nl ], Leona Detiège and Patrick Janssens. Since 2013, the mayor is the Flemish nationalist Bart De Wever, belonging to the Flemish separatist party N-VA (New Flemish Alliance).

Culture

Antwerp had an artistic reputation in the 17th century, based on its school of painting, which included Rubens, Van Dyck, Jordaens, the Teniers and many others. [12]

Museums

Music and festivals

Vlaamse Opera Opera Antwerpen (september 2021).jpg
Vlaamse Opera

Antwerp is the home of the Antwerp Jazz Club (AJC), founded in 1938 and located on the square Grote Markt since 1994. [81] Antwerp also has various concert halls, such as the Stadsschouwburg, the Bourlaschouwburg, the Flemish Opera, the Arenbergschouwburg and the Koningin Elisabethzaal; the latter being the home of the Antwerp Symphony Orchestra. Large (pop) performances are often held in the Sportpaleis or in the Lotto Arena. These event halls are located in Merksem. In addition, there are other well-known venues like De Roma and Trix, both of which are located in Borgerhout.

The band Deus was formed in 1991 in Antwerp. Deus began their career as a covers band, but soon began writing their own material. Their musical influences range from folk and punk to jazz and progressive rock. black wave. (also known as blackwavedot) is an Antwerp hip-hop duo composed of producer Willem Ardui and rapper Jay Walker. Their influences include The Roots, Prince, Parliament-Funkadelic and Brockhampton. Confetti's were a new beat band at the end of the 80's. Their name stems from the name of a nightclub in the Antwerps affluent suburb of Brasschaat. Their 1st video for 'The Sound of C' was shot on the main Antwerp shopping street. Pump Up the Jam the eurobeat/dance song that reached top positions in charts worldwide in 1989 was produced in Antwerp. Belgian-Congolese singer Ya Kid K had Antwerp as her Belgian home base.

Some well known festivals around the city are: Linkerwoofer, a pop-rock music festival located at the left bank of the Scheldt. This music festival starts in August and mostly local Belgian musicians play and perform in this event. [82] [83] [84] Jazz Middelheim is an annual summer jazz festival in the Middelheim Park. Tomorrowland is probably the most famous festival to arise from Antwerp. Though the festival is effectively located 15 km (10 mi) south of the city in Boom, its founders in the past organised a festival ('Antwerp is burning') within city limits. The office of the company behind Tomorrowland (weareone.world bvba) is located in the heart of the city. The company founders are involved in conceptualising urban planning concepts for specific Antwerp areas and are known to invite their favourite Antwerp food places to set up a pop-up at the festival. Sfinks festival is a global pop festival that takes place annually in Boechout, a village southeast of Antwerp. The first edition dates from 1976. Other popular festivals are Fire Is Gold, Ampere Open Air and Vaag Outdoor focusing more on hip-hop music, house and techno.

Nightlife

Antwerp is a city that boasts a diverse and vibrant nightlife, with many cafés and nightclubs situated throughout its various neighborhoods. The old center and Grote Markt offer a cozy atmosphere surrounded by authentic city buildings and plenty of cafes like the well known jazzcafé De Muze. The Belgians are well-known for their beer, and visitors can savor a wide range of local brews while enjoying the nightlife.

Other popular areas include het Mechelseplein, home to various cafés like the Boer Van Tienen, Kapitein Zeppos, Korsakov, Hypotalamus, and Pallieter, as well as the bustling Dageraadplaats in the belle-époque neighborhood of Zurenborg.

The neighborhood of het Zuid is also a popular nightlife destination, with many bars, restaurants, and cafés. This district is named after its nearby museums, including the Royal Museum of Fine Arts, the Museum of Contemporary Art Antwerp (M HKA), and the Photo Museum.

Het groen kwartier (the green quarter) is also a hub of cultural and artistic activity.. Het Eilandje is a neighborhood in Antwerp, with many cafés and restaurants situated around the MAS Museum.

Antwerp is known for a diverse range of nightclubs that cater to different tastes. Among these clubs are some of the most famous and notorious in Belgium. Cinderella's Ballroom was famous in the 1980's.

Fashion

Antwerp is a rising fashion city, and has produced designers such as the Antwerp Six. The city has a cult status in the fashion world, due to the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, one of the most important fashion academies in the world. It has served as the learning centre for many Belgian fashion designers. Since the 1980s, several graduates of the Belgian Royal Academy of Fine Arts have become internationally successful fashion designers in Antwerp. The city has had a huge influence on other Belgian fashion designers such as Raf Simons, Veronique Branquinho, Olivier Theyskens and Kris Van Assche. [85] In 2019, Arte won the Fashion brand of the Year award at the Belgian Fashion Awards. The Antwerp label was founded by Bertony Da Silva in 2009. [86]

Local products

Antwerp is famous for its local products. In August every year the Bollekesfeest takes place. The Bollekesfeest is a showcase for such local products as Bolleke, an amber beer from the De Koninck Brewery. The city's historical ale, Seefbier, [87] dating back to the 16th century and brewed at the Antwerpse Brouw Compagnie is a testament to the city's long brewing history and one of Belgium's oldest existing beerstyles. The Mokatine sweets made by Confiserie Roodthooft, Elixir D'Anvers, a locally made liquor, locally roasted coffee from Koffie Verheyen, sugar from Candico, Poolster pickled herring and Equinox horse meat, are other examples of local specialities. One of the most known products of the city are its biscuits, the Antwerpse Handjes, literally "Antwerp Hands". Usually made from a short pastry with almonds or milk chocolate, they symbolize the Antwerp trademark and folklore. The local products are represented by a non-profit organization, Streekproducten Provincie Antwerpen vzw. [88]

Restaurants and cuisine

Antwerp has grown into the culinary capital of Flanders and Belgium. It has no fewer than eleven restaurants with at least one MICHELIN star. Zilte by Viki Geunes located in the MAS museum even received the ultimate award of three stars. [89]

World Choir Games

The city of Antwerp was co-host for the 2021 World Choir Games together with the city of Ghent. [90] Organised by the Interkultur Foundation, the World Choir Games is the biggest choral competition and festival in the world.

Missions to Seafarers

A number of Christian missions to seafarers are based in Antwerp. These include the Mission to Seafarers, British & International Sailors' Society, the Finnish Seamen's Mission, the Norwegian Sjømannskirken and the Apostleship of the Sea. They provide cultural and social activities as well as religious services. The iconic Italiëlei premises have been closed down and all activities have been moved to the Antwerp Harbour Hotel on Noorderlaan.

Sport

Official poster of the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp 1920 olympics poster.jpg
Official poster of the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp

Events

Antwerp held the 1920 Summer Olympics, which were the first games after the First World War and also the only ones to be held in Belgium. [91] [92] Antwerp hosted the World Artistic Gymnastics Championships in 2013 and 2023 in the Sportpaleis. Annually Antwerp hosts the European Open ATP Tour 250 tennis tournament that takes place in Antwerp's Sport Palace. It was introduced for the 2016 ATP World Tour. Another annually event is the Antwerp 10 miles and the Antwerp marathon.

For the year 2013, Antwerp was awarded the title of European Capital of Sport.

Football

Antwerp is home of two professional football clubs being, Royal Antwerp F.C., currently playing in the Belgian First Division, founded in 1880 and is known as 'The Great Old' for being the first club registered to the Royal Belgian Football Association in 1895. [93] Over the course of the club's history, Royal Antwerp have won five Belgian league titles as well as four Belgian Cups. Antwerp F.C. is also a member of the Club of Pioneers. Another club in the city is K Beerschot VA, founded in 1899 by former Royal Antwerp players. They play at the Olympisch Stadion, the main venue of the 1920 Olympics. Between these two football teams there has always been a big rivalry. When the two play against each other the stadiums are packed and the passioned fans give a great display of their passion, but this has also led to fights, hooliganism and vandalism.

Basketball

The Antwerp Giants play in the BNXT league, the league is the first tier in both the Dutch and Belgian system. Their home ground is the Lotto Arena. Antwerp has won the Belgian championship once, in 2000. The team has also won five Belgian Cups, in 2000, 2007, 2019, 2020 and 2023.

The city's Groenplaats hosted the official 2022 FIBA 3x3 World Cup. [94]

Education

University of Antwerp Universiteit Antwerpen Stadcampus from Preciosa reading room of the library.JPG
University of Antwerp

Antwerp has a university and several colleges. The University of Antwerp (Universiteit Antwerpen) was established in 2003, following the merger of the RUCA, UFSIA and UIA institutes. Their roots go back to 1852. The university has approximately 23,000 registered students, making it the third-largest university in Flanders, as well as 1,800 foreign students. It has 7 faculties, spread over four campus locations in the city centre and in the south of the city. The university is part of Young Universities for the Future of Europe (YUFE) and Young European Research Universities Network (YERUN).

The KU Leuven has a presence in Antwerp too.

The city has several colleges, including Antwerp Management School (AMS), the Antwerp Maritime Academy, the Karel de Grote Hogeschool and AP Hogeschool Antwerpen. AP Hogeschool has about 15,000 students and 1,600 staff, and the Karel de Grote Hogeschool has about 13,500 students and 1,300 staff.

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

The following places are twinned with or are sister cities to Antwerp:

Sister ports

Partnerships

Within the context of development cooperation, Antwerp is also linked to

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. The Brussels-Capital Region, whose metropolitan area comprises the City of Brussels itself plus 18 independent municipal entities, counts over 1,700,000 inhabitants, but these communities are counted separately by the Belgian Statistics Office. [2]
  2. It was founded before stocks and shares existed, so was not strictly a stock exchange. [7] [8]
  3. The number includes Belgian nationals who either previously were foreign nationals themselves or at least one of their parents was a foreign national.
  4. Countries included within this are:
    • Germany;
    • France;
    • Luxembourg;
    • the Netherlands;
    • the United Kingdom;
  5. Countries included within this are:
    • Germany;
    • France;
    • Luxembourg;
    • the Netherlands;
    • the United Kingdom;

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Flanders</span> Dutch-speaking northern region of Belgium

Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities, regions and language areas of Belgium. However, there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics, and history, and sometimes involving neighbouring countries. The demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish, which can also refer to the collective of Dutch dialects spoken in that area, or more generally the Belgian variant of Standard Dutch. The official capital of Flanders is the City of Brussels, although the Brussels-Capital Region that includes it has an independent regional government. The powers of the government of Flanders consist, among others, of economic affairs in the Flemish Region and the community aspects of Flanders life in Brussels, such as Flemish culture and education.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ghent</span> Capital of East Flanders province, Belgium

Ghent is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is the capital and largest city of the East Flanders province, and the third largest in the country, after Brussels and Antwerp. It is a port and university city.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antwerp Province</span> Province of Belgium

Antwerp Province, between 1815 and 1830 known as Central Brabant, is the northernmost province both of the Flemish Region, also called Flanders, and of Belgium. It borders on the North Brabant province of the Netherlands to the north and the Belgian provinces of Limburg, Flemish Brabant and East Flanders. Its capital is Antwerp, which includes the Port of Antwerp, the second-largest seaport in Europe. It has an area of 2,876 km2 (1,110 sq mi), and with over 1.85 million inhabitants as of January 2019, is the country's most populous province. The province consists of three arrondissements: Antwerp, Mechelen and Turnhout. The eastern part of the province comprises the main part of the Campine region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Scheldt</span> River in France, Belgium and the Netherlands

The Scheldt is a 435-kilometre-long (270 mi) river that flows through northern France, western Belgium, and the southwestern part of the Netherlands, with its mouth at the North Sea. Its name is derived from an adjective corresponding to Old English sċeald ("shallow"), Modern English shoal, Low German schol, West Frisian skol, and obsolete Swedish skäll ("thin").

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Het Steen</span>

Het Steen is a medieval fortress in the old city centre of Antwerp, Belgium, one of Europe's biggest ports. The surviving structure was built between 1200 and 1225 as a gateway to a larger castle of the Dukes of Brabant which was demolished in the 19th century. As the first stone fortification of Antwerp, Het Steen is Antwerp's oldest building and used to be part of its oldest urban centre. The words "Het Steen", translated from Dutch mean "the rock" in English, although that is not the equivalent etymological meaning.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deurne, Belgium</span> District of Antwerp in Flemish Community, Belgium

Deurne is the second largest district of the municipality of Antwerp, Belgium, and has 82,270 inhabitants (2023).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antwerp Zoo</span> Zoo in Antwerp, Belgium

Antwerp Zoo is a zoo in the centre of Antwerp, Belgium, located next to the Antwerpen-Centraal railway station. It is the oldest animal park in the country, and one of the oldest in the world, established on 21 July 1843.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Merksem</span> District of Antwerp in Flanders, Belgium

Merksem is a district of the municipality and city of Antwerp in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It has 44,808 inhabitants as of 2021.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Port of Antwerp</span> Maritime commercial facility in Antwerp, Belgium

The Port of Antwerp is the port of the city of Antwerp, Belgium. It is located in Flanders, mainly in the province of Antwerp, but also partially in East Flanders. It is a seaport in the heart of Europe accessible to capesize ships. It is Europe's second-largest seaport, after that of Rotterdam. Antwerp stands at the upper end of the tidal estuary of the Scheldt. The estuary is navigable by ships of more than 100,000 Gross Tons as far as 80 km inland. Like the Port of Hamburg, the Port of Antwerp's inland location provides a more central location in Europe than the majority of North Sea ports. Antwerp's docks are connected to the hinterland by rail, road, and river and canal waterways. As a result, the port of Antwerp has become one of Europe's largest seaports, ranking second behind Rotterdam by total freight shipped. Its international rankings vary from 11th to 20th (AAPA). In 2012, the Port of Antwerp handled 14,220 sea trade ships, 57,044 inland barges, and offered liner services to 800 different maritime destinations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antwerp City Hall</span> Town hall in Antwerp, Belgium

The City Hall of Antwerp, Belgium, stands on the western side of that city's Grote Markt. Erected between 1561 and 1565, after designs made by Cornelis Floris de Vriendt and several other architects and artists, this Renaissance building incorporates both Flemish and Italian influences. The building is listed as one of the Belfries of Belgium and France, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Zuid is a southern neighborhood in the city center of Antwerp, abutting the Scheldt River. The Zuid had a revival in the mid-1980s and is now composed of buildings in the Art Nouveau and Modern architecture styles. Zuid contains numerous cafés, restaurants and shops, as well as three museums, two art centres, and many commercial art galleries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of the Jews in Antwerp</span> Jewish history in Antwerp, Belgium

The history of the Jews in Antwerp, a major city in the modern country of Belgium, goes back at least eight hundred years. Jewish life was first recorded in the city in the High Middle Ages. While the Jewish population grew and waned over the centuries, by the beginning of World War II Antwerp had a thriving Jewish community comprising some 35,000, with many Jews connected to the city's diamond industry. The Nazi occupation of Antwerp from 1940 and The Holocaust decimated the city’s Jewish population. By the time of Antwerp's liberation in September 1944, the Jewish population had fallen to around 1,200.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Antwerp)</span> Art academy in Antwerp

The Royal Academy of Fine Arts Antwerp is an art academy located in Antwerp, Belgium. It is one of the oldest of its kind in Europe. It was founded in 1663 by David Teniers the Younger, painter to the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm and Don Juan of Austria. Teniers was master of the Guild of St Luke—which embraced arts and some handicrafts—and petitioned Philip IV of Spain, then master of the Spanish Netherlands, to grant a royal charter to establish a Fine Arts Academy in Antwerp. It houses the Antwerp Fashion Academy.

The development of urban centres in the Low Countries shows the process by which the Low Countries, a region in Western Europe, evolved from a highly rural outpost of the Roman Empire into the largest urbanised area north of the Alps by the 15th century CE. As such, this article covers the development of Dutch and Flemish cities beginning at the end of the migration period till the end of the Dutch Golden Age.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Museum aan de Stroom</span> Museum in Antwerp, Belgium

The Museum aan de Stroom is a museum located along the river Scheldt in the Eilandje district of Antwerp, Belgium. It opened in May 2011 and is the largest museum in Antwerp.

The following is a timeline of the history of the municipality of Antwerp, Belgium.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bruges</span> Capital of West Flanders province, Belgium

Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country. It is the sixth most populous city in the country.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sterckshof silver museum</span> Museum in Deurne, Antwerp, Belgium

The Sterckshof silver museum of the province of Antwerp was a museum located in Sterckshof castle in Deurne, Province of Antwerp, Belgium, from 1994 to 2014. It then merged with the Antwerp Diamond Museum to form DIVA Museum for Diamonds, Jewellery and Silver, based in Antwerp city centre.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sterckshof</span>

The Sterckshof castle is in Deurne, Antwerp, Belgium. From 1994 to 2014 it housed the Sterckshof silver museum of the Province of Antwerp. Built on the site of a much older castle, or great house, the present building is a reconstruction erected in the 1920s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Port Authority Building (Antwerp)</span> Building in Antwerp, Belgium

The Port Authority Building, or the Port House, is a government building located in Antwerp, Belgium, built between 2009 and 2016. It is located in the area of Eilandje, in the Port of Antwerp, and acts as the new headquarters of the Antwerp Port Authority, housing various departments. Designed by Iraqi-British architect Zaha Hadid, the building opened in 2016, the year of her death. It is the sole government building designed by Hadid. The design of the building incorporates the use of a fire station, integrating it into the building. Attached above and connected to the fire station is a contemporary diamond-shaped structure marked by straight edges, with an additional column providing support from the floor.

References

  1. On January 1st 2023. Statistics of the Federal Public Service of the Interior: https://www.ibz.rrn.fgov.be/fileadmin/user_upload/fr/pop/statistiques/population-bevolking-20230101.pdf Archived 23 August 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  2. "Statbel the Belgian statistics office". Archived from the original on 16 May 2021. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  3. "De Belgische Stadsgewesten 2001" (PDF). Statistics Belgium. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium.
  4. "Annual Report 2014" (PDF). Port of Antwerp. 2014. p. 14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  5. "Antwerp is Europe's second largest port". 9 November 2016. Archived from the original on 1 February 2023. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  6. "The World According to GaWC 2020". GaWC - Research Network. Globalization and World Cities. Archived from the original on 24 August 2020. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  7. "Antwerp Bourse—World's Oldest—Closes". Los Angeles Times. 31 December 1997. ISSN   0458-3035. Archived from the original on 1 February 2023. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  8. "A look inside one of the world's oldest stock exchange buildings". Barcroft TV. Archived from the original on 28 November 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  9. Geert Cole; Leanne Logan, Belgium & Luxembourg p.218 Lonely Planet Publishing (2007) ISBN   1-74104-237-2
  10. "Waarom is Antwerpen een majority-minoritystad?". Archived from the original on 1 February 2023. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  11. 1 2 Brabo Antwerpen 1 (centrum) / Antwerpen Archived 4 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine (in Dutch)
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Boulger, Demetrius Charles (1911). "Antwerp (city)"  . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 02 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 155–156.
  13. Archived 5 June 2020 at the Wayback Machine German Wiktionary. Retrieved 5 June 2020
  14. "Kroniek Antwerpen". AVBG (in Dutch). Antwerp Society for Architectural History. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  15. Room, Adrian (1 August 1997). Placenames of the World . McFarland & Company. p.  32. ISBN   0-7864-0172-9.
  16. 1 2 "Antwerp" Archived 1 February 2023 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopædia Britannica
  17. "Naam Antwerpen heeft keltische oorsprong". Gazet van Antwerpen (in Dutch). 13 September 2007. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 18 August 2017. For the relevant passage in the Vita Eligii, see the Monumenta Germaniae Historica on the Digital MGH (page 700) Archived 4 June 2020 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 4 June 2020 (in Latin). Fordham University has published an English translation of the Vita Eligii by Jo Ann McNamara Archived 1 February 2023 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 18 August 2017
  18. Legenden en Mythen Legende van Brabo en de reus Antigoon. Archived 1 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine (in Dutch)
  19. "Het Steen, Antwerp, Belgium - SpottingHistory.com". www.spottinghistory.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2022. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  20. 1 2 3 4 Hagen, Rainer; Marie, Rose (1994). Bruegel: The Complete Paintings. Germany: Taschen. p. 15. ISBN   978-3-8228-5991-9.
  21. Peter Gay and R.K. Webb, Modern Europe to 1815 (1973), p. 210.
  22. Tom Monaghan, Renaissance, Reformation and the Age of Discovery, 1450–1700 (Heinemann, 2002)
  23. Donald J. Harreld, "Atlantic Sugar and Antwerp's Trade with Germany in the Sixteenth Century," Journal of Early Modern History , 2003, Vol. 7 Issue 1/2, pp 148–163
  24. Outhwaite, R. B. (1966). "The Trials of Foreign Borrowing: The English Crown and the Antwerp Money Market in the Mid-Sixteenth Century". The Economic History Review. 19 (2): 289–305. doi:10.2307/2592253. JSTOR   2592253.
  25. (Braudel 1985 p. 143.)
  26. 1 2 Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver, Burdett. p.  163.
  27. 1 2 Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). " Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective Archived 1 February 2023 at the Wayback Machine ". PUQ. p.308. ISBN   2-7605-1588-5
  28. Sugg, Richard (2012). Mummies, Cannibals and Vampires: the History of Corpse Medicine from the Renaissance to the Victorians. Taylor & Francis. ISBN   9781136577369. Archived from the original on 1 February 2023. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  29. Isidore Singer; Cyrus Adler, eds. (1916). "Antwerp". Archived copy. The Jewish Encyclopedia. pp. 658–660. Archived from the original on 1 February 2023. Retrieved 8 February 2018.{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  30. Gay and Webb, Modern Europe to 1815 (1973), p. 210-11.
  31. Boxer Charles Ralph, The Dutch seaborne empire, 1600–1800, p. 18, Taylor & Francis, 1977 ISBN   0-09-131051-2, ISBN   978-0-09-131051-6 Google books Archived 4 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  32. Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver, Burdett. p.  164.
  33. Pelle, Kimberley D (2008). Findling, John E (ed.). Encyclopedia of World's Fairs and Expositions. McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 414. ISBN   978-0-7864-3416-9.
  34. Michael Ryckewaert, Planning Perspectives , July 2010, Vol. 25 Issue 3, pp 303–322.
  35. Javier Gimeno Martínez, "Selling Avant-garde: How Antwerp Became a Fashion Capital (1990–2002)," Urban Studies November 2007, Vol. 44 Issue 13, pp 2449–2464
  36. De Ceuninck, Koenraad (2009). De gemeentelijke fusies van 1976. Een mijlpaal voor de lokale besturen in België. Die keure, Brugge.
  37. "The Underpass". Visit Antwerpen. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  38. "Middelheim Museum". Visit Antwerpen. Archived from the original on 13 April 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  39. "A walk around Hobokense Polder". Visit Antwerpen. Archived from the original on 13 April 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  40. "Luchttemperatuur en neerslag Referentieperiode: 1991-2020" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal Meteorological Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 April 2023. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  41. "Temperature estreme in Antwerpen" (in Italian). Temperature estreme in Toscoma. Archived from the original on 4 April 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2022.
  42. "Antwerp timeline 1300–1399". Strecker.be. Archived from the original on 7 May 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
  43. "Antwerp timeline 1400–1499". Strecker.be. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
  44. Braudel, Fernand The Perspective of the World, 1985
  45. 1 2 "Antwerp timeline 1500–1599". Strecker.be. Archived from the original on 2 May 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
  46. Coornaert, Émile (1961). Les Français et le commerce international à Anvers : fin du XVe, XVIe siècle. Paris: Marcel Rivière et cie. p. 96.
  47. Boumans, R; Craeybeckx, J (1947). Het bevolkingscijfer van Antwerpen in het derde kwart der XVIe eeuw. T.G. pp. 394–405.
  48. van Houtte, J. A. (1961). "Anvers aux XVe et XVIe siècles : expansion et apogée". Annales. Économies, Sociétés, Civilisations. 16 (2): 249. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  49. Description of the French Fury matter, see chapter 'Declaration of independence' in article 'William the Silent'
  50. "Antwerp timeline 1600–1699". Strecker.be. Archived from the original on 7 May 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
  51. "Antwerp timeline 1700–1799". Strecker.be. Archived from the original on 4 August 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
  52. "Antwerp timeline 1800–1899". Strecker.be. Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
  53. "Antwerp timeline 1900–1999". Strecker.be. Archived from the original on 7 January 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
  54. "Wachtregister asiel 2012-2021". npdata.be. Archived from the original on 1 October 2023. Retrieved 12 April 2023.
  55. Auteur: Dajo Hermans. "56 procent van Antwerpse kinderen is allochtoon – Het Nieuwsblad". Nieuwsblad.be. Archived from the original on 26 June 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  56. "Antwerpen in 2020 voor 55% allochtoon" (in Dutch). Express.be. 17 May 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  57. 1 2 3 4 5 "Origin | Statbel". statbel.fgov.be. Archived from the original on 18 February 2022. Retrieved 10 February 2022.
  58. "An Introduction to Jainism: History, Religion, Gods, Scriptures and Beliefs". Commisceo Global. Archived from the original on 2 October 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  59. Daneels, Door Gilbert Roox, foto's Wim. "Diamant met curry". De Standaard (in Flemish). Archived from the original on 28 October 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2018.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  60. Inside Knowledge: Streetwise in Asia Archived 1 February 2023 at the Wayback Machine p.163
  61. Vanneste, Tijl (6 October 2015). Global Trade and Commercial Networks: Eighteenth-Century Diamond Merchants. Routledge. ISBN   9781317323372. Archived from the original on 1 February 2023. Retrieved 9 October 2020 via Google Books.
  62. Indians shine antwerp diamond centre polls Archived 3 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine International Business Times
  63. Belgium Real Estate Yearbook 2009 Archived 4 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine p.23
  64. 1 2 Recession takes the sparkle out of Antwerp's diamond quarter|World news Archived 3 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine . The Guardian. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
  65. "Antwerp and diamonds, the facts – Baunat Diamonds". baunatdiamonds.com. Archived from the original on 1 February 2023. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  66. The Global Diamond Industry: Economics and Development, Volume 2 Archived 1 February 2023 at the Wayback Machine p.3.6
  67. "The Armenian of Belgium: an Uninterrupted Presence Since the 4th Century". AGBU – Armenian non-profit organization. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  68. "Wind farm | Sustainable Port of Antwerp". Archived from the original on 30 April 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
  69. John Tagliabue (5 November 2012). "An Industry Struggles to Keep Its Luster". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  70. 1 2 "Diamond". Business in Antwerp. Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  71. Tagliabue, John (2012). "An Industry Struggles to Keep Its Luster". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on 26 November 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  72. "The industry | Antwerp World Diamond Centre". awdc.be. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
  73. Hofmeester, Karin (March 2013). "Shifting trajectories of diamond processing: from India to Europe and back, from the fifteenth century to the twentieth*". Journal of Global History. 8 (1): 25–49. doi:10.1017/S174002281300003X. ISSN   1740-0228. S2CID   220685101.
  74. 1 2 "WSJ: Indians Unseat Antwerp's Jews As the Biggest Diamond Traders". Stefangeens.com. 27 May 2003. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  75. Simons, Marlise (1 January 2006). "Twilight in Diamond Land: Antwerp's Loss, India's Gain". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  76. Rankin, Jennifer (20 November 2022). "Belgium's trade in Russian diamonds continues despite moral pressure". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 November 2022. Retrieved 24 November 2022.
  77. "Museum Plantin-Moretus". Visit Antwerpen. Archived from the original on 13 April 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  78. "Plantin-Moretus House-Workshops-Museum Complex". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 15 March 2023. Retrieved 15 March 2023.
  79. "M HKA, Museum of Contemporary Art Antwerp". Visit Antwerpen. Archived from the original on 13 April 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  80. "MoMu | Fashion Museum Antwerp". Visit Antwerpen. Archived from the original on 13 April 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  81. "Verenigingen gevestigd in 'Den Bengel'. ANTWERPSE JAZZCLUB". Cafe Den Bengel. 27 February 2016. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  82. "Linkerwoofer 2018". linkerwoofer.be. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  83. "Linkerwoofer". visitantwerpen.be. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  84. "stubru.be". stubru.be (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  85. Martínez (2007). "Selling Avant-garde: How Antwerp Became a Fashion Capital (1990–2002)". Urban Studies. 44 (12): 2449. Bibcode:2007UrbSt..44.2449M. doi:10.1080/00420980701540879. S2CID   154858870.
  86. "Fashion & shopping". Visit Antwerpen. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  87. "Ons verhaal – Antwerpse Brouw Compagnie" (in Dutch). 21 October 2019. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  88. "Lakker Antwerps". Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
  89. "Food & drinks". Visit Antwerpen. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  90. "World Choir Games 2021". Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
  91. "Cycling at the 1920 Antwerpen Summer Games: Men's Road Race, Individual". sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
  92. Sports-reference.com 1920 Summer Olympics cycling team road race, team Olympics at Sports-Reference.com
  93. "ROYAL ANTWERP FOOTBALL CLUB". Archived from the original on 3 July 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  94. Antwerp to host FIBA 3x3 World Cup 2022 Archived 27 July 2021 at the Wayback Machine FIBA, 18 January 2021. Accessed 30 April 2021.

Further reading