Anyang

Last updated
Anyang
安阳市
Yinxu.jpg
ChinaHenanAnyang.png
Location of Anyang City jurisdiction in Henan
China Northern Plain relief location map.png
Red pog.svg
Anyang
Location in the North China Plain
China edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Anyang
Anyang (China)
Coordinates(Anyang municipal government): 36°05′56″N114°23′31″E / 36.099°N 114.392°E / 36.099; 114.392 Coordinates: 36°05′56″N114°23′31″E / 36.099°N 114.392°E / 36.099; 114.392
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Province Henan
Municipal seat Wenfeng District
Area
[1]
   Prefecture-level city 7,355 km2 (2,840 sq mi)
  Urban
543.5 km2 (209.8 sq mi)
  Metro
2,392 km2 (924 sq mi)
Elevation
69 m (226 ft)
Population
 (2020 census for total, 2010 otherwise) [2]
   Prefecture-level city 5,477,614
  Density740/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
   Urban
1,146,839
  Urban density2,100/km2 (5,500/sq mi)
   Metro
2,426,699
  Metro density1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal Code
455000,456100,456300,456400,456500
Area code(s) 0372
ISO 3166 code CN-HA-05
GDP CNY110.6 billion (2009)
Major Nationalities Han
County-level divisions 9
License plate prefixes E
Website www.anyang.gov.cn

Anyang (simplified Chinese :安阳; traditional Chinese :安陽; pinyin :Ānyáng; [án.jǎŋ] ) is a prefecture-level city in Henan province, China. The northernmost city in Henan, Anyang borders Puyang to the east, Hebi and Xinxiang to the south, and the provinces of Shanxi and Hebei to its west and north respectively.

Contents

It had a total population of 5,173,188 as of the 2010 census, 2,426,699 of whom lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of four urban districts and Anyang and Tangyin counties, now largely agglomerated with the city proper.

Anyang is the location of the ancient city of Yin, which was the capital of the Shang dynasty and the first stable capital of China.

History

Early history

Ancient Shang era Houmuwu ding bronze artifact unearthed at Anyang. HouMuWuDingFullView.jpg
Ancient Shang era Houmuwu ding bronze artifact unearthed at Anyang.

Xiaonanhai, on the far western edge of the city, was home to prehistoric cavemen during the Stone Age. Over 7,000 artifacts (including stone tools and animal bone fossils) have been unearthed here, representing what has been dubbed the Xiaonanhai culture.[ citation needed ]

Around 2000 BC, the legendary sage-kings Zhuanxu and Emperor Ku are said to have established their capitals in the area around Anyang from where they ruled their kingdoms. Today their mausoleums are situated in Sanyang village south of Neihuang County.[ citation needed ]

At the beginning of the 14th century BC, King Pangeng of the Shang Dynasty established his capital 2 km (1.2 mi) north of the modern city on the banks of the Huan River. The city, known as Yin , was the first stable capital in Chinese history and from that point on the dynasty that founded it would also become known as the Yin Dynasty.

The capital served 12 kings in 8 generations including Wu Ding, under whom the dynasty reached the zenith of its power, until it was wiped out along with the dynasty that was founded by King Wu of the Zhou in 1046 BC.

Anyang's Tangyin County was the seat of Yue Village, the birthplace of the famous Song dynasty general, Yue Fei. This was also the historic home of Zhou Tong, Yue's military arts tutor (though fictional sources place him in Shaanxi).

Modern era

The former Pingyuan Province (1949-52) of which Anyang was a part PRC-1949-Pingyuan-map.png
The former Pingyuan Province (1949–52) of which Anyang was a part

The town was known as Zhangde (彰德) until 1912, when it was given its present name of Anyang, following the establishment of the Republic of China.

In August 1949, Anyang prefecture was detached from Henan and along with Puyang and Xinxiang  consigned to the short lived experimental province of Pingyuan by the ruling Communist government. All three were eventually returned to Henan's territory in November 1953, with the dissolution of Pingyuan.

Geography and climate

Anyang has a total administrative area of 7,413 square kilometres (2,862 sq mi), with elevation in this area tending to increase from east to west. The city actually lies on the border between steppe and the North China Plain, and as such, it has a four-season, monsoon-influenced humid continental climate/semi-arid climate (Köppen Dwa/BSk). [3] Winters are cold and very dry, with a January 24-hour average of −0.8 °C (30.6 °F). Summers are hot and humid, with July averaging 27.2 °C (81.0 °F). A majority of the annual precipitation of 552 mm (21.7 in) falls in July and August alone, and the annual mean temperature is 14.28 °C (57.7 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 43% in July to 58% in May, the city receives 2,225 hours of bright sunshine annually, with April to June the sunniest period. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −21.7 °C (−7 °F) to 43.2 °C (110 °F). [4] [5]

Climate data for Anyang (1981–2010 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)20.7
(69.3)
27.2
(81.0)
31.3
(88.3)
37.0
(98.6)
39.5
(103.1)
43.2
(109.8)
41.8
(107.2)
39.5
(103.1)
39.3
(102.7)
34.6
(94.3)
27.7
(81.9)
26.3
(79.3)
43.2
(109.8)
Average high °C (°F)4.3
(39.7)
8.1
(46.6)
13.8
(56.8)
21.8
(71.2)
27.1
(80.8)
31.7
(89.1)
31.8
(89.2)
30.6
(87.1)
27.0
(80.6)
21.3
(70.3)
12.9
(55.2)
6.5
(43.7)
19.7
(67.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)−0.8
(30.6)
2.6
(36.7)
8.2
(46.8)
15.9
(60.6)
21.3
(70.3)
26.0
(78.8)
27.2
(81.0)
25.9
(78.6)
21.4
(70.5)
15.2
(59.4)
7.2
(45.0)
1.3
(34.3)
14.3
(57.7)
Average low °C (°F)−4.8
(23.4)
−1.9
(28.6)
3.3
(37.9)
10.5
(50.9)
15.6
(60.1)
20.5
(68.9)
23.0
(73.4)
21.9
(71.4)
16.9
(62.4)
10.3
(50.5)
2.8
(37.0)
−2.6
(27.3)
9.6
(49.3)
Record low °C (°F)−21.7
(−7.1)
−16.7
(1.9)
−10.1
(13.8)
−2.7
(27.1)
5.5
(41.9)
10.2
(50.4)
15.8
(60.4)
11.6
(52.9)
5.5
(41.9)
−1.4
(29.5)
−11.4
(11.5)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−21.7
(−7.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)5.2
(0.20)
7.7
(0.30)
18.1
(0.71)
21.2
(0.83)
46.4
(1.83)
62.3
(2.45)
150.6
(5.93)
132.2
(5.20)
57.7
(2.27)
30.0
(1.18)
15.1
(0.59)
5.1
(0.20)
551.6
(21.69)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)2.22.94.44.66.67.512.210.17.15.43.82.469.2
Average relative humidity (%)60555657616176797268676365
Mean monthly sunshine hours 142.0148.9180.2219.4251.6232.5190.2200.1187.1180.2152.8140.32,225.3
Percent possible sunshine 46494956585443485052504750
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 1971–2000) [6] [7]

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Anyang administers 4 districts, 1 county-level city and 4 counties.

Map

Economy

Anyang's opening to the outside world has enabled its foreign economic relations and trade to progress rapidly. Sixteen foreign-funded enterprises (joint ventures, cooperative enterprises and wholly foreign-owned enterprises) have been established. Recently, Anyang has established an economic and technological development zone covering a total area of 22.8 km2 (8.8 sq mi), and issued a series of preferential policies to attract many domestic Chinese and foreign businesses. A multichannel, all-round foreign relations and trade network has been set up to lay a foundation for developing Anyang's economy.

Tourism

Statue in China National Writing Museum Wzbwg3.png
Statue in China National Writing Museum

Anyang city is an ancient city with a history of over 3,000 years and is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China, and also one of the best preserved. It is one of the key birthplaces of Chinese ancient culture. Here are the primitive caves of 25,000 years ago, the overlapping strata of the Yangshao Culture, Longshan Culture and Xiaotun Culture, the memorial mausoleums of ancient Emperor Zhuanxu and Emperor Ku over 4,000 years ago, the first library of inscriptions on bones and tortoise shells, the Soul Spring Temple, known as the "First Ancient Buddhist Temple in Henan", and 10,000-Buddha Ravine, as well as unique Wenfeng Pagoda, Xiuding Temple Pagoda and Mingfu Temple Pagoda. The city has three large museums: the Anyang Museum, the National Museum of Chinese Writing, and the Yinxu Museum on the ruins and royal tombs of the Shang Dynasty. Anyang also has beautiful natural scenery—the Taihang Linlu Hill Scenic Area on the 400-km Taihang Mountains and the grand 1,500-km Red Flag Canal.

Hall of Heavenly Kings and Wenfeng Pagoda at Tianning Temple Tianning Temple.JPG
Hall of Heavenly Kings and Wenfeng Pagoda at Tianning Temple

Changchun Temple

Changchun Temple, a Taoist shrine, was built on the hillside of the mountains surrounding it during the Tang dynasty. It was officially opened to the public on 1 May 2014, after a period of cautious restoration.

Tianning Temple

Tianning Si (Mansion Temple) was established during the Zhou dynasty, and has recently been restored by the Protection and Research Institute of Ancient Architecture of Anyang City, and opened to the public. The main structures within the temple compound include: the gate house, the three-room (8.4 m x 14 m) Hall of the Heavenly King with hanging-eaves over the gables rebuilt in 2002, [8] the slightly larger Precious Hall of the Great Hero (17.8 m x 11.65 m) with single-eave gabled roof originally from the Qing dynasty and rebuilt in 2001, [9] and the Wenfeng Pagoda.

Wenfeng Pagoda

Wenfeng Ta (Literature Peak Pagoda) on the grounds of the Tianning Temple is believed to have been constructed in 925 and is known, from inscriptions concerning the reconstruction of the temple, to have been in place by 952. The current pagoda was constructed during the Ming dynasty and received its current name during the Qing dynasty due to its proximity to the Confucian temple. The five-story dark red brick octagonal tower is 38.65m high and is, unusually, larger at the top than the bottom and is topped with a 10-metre Lamaist stupa-style dagoba steeple. The pagoda stands on a two-metre-high stone pedestal and is decorated with multi-eave pent roofs and carvings of Buddhas and bodhisattvas. The unique pagoda is the symbol of Anyang.[ citation needed ]

Yinxu ruins and museum

Yinxu Ruin area Yinxu.jpg
Yinxu Ruin area

Located about 2 km (1.2 mi) northwest of Anyang are the ruins of the Shang dynasty capital known as Yin. This massive archaeological site was discovered in 1899, excavated in the decades that followed, and first opened to the public in the 1980s as the Garden Museum of Yinxu. The current Yinxu museum was opened on 16 March 2005, and includes the famous Tomb of Fu Hao.

The site was later designated a UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2006.

See also

Notes

  1. 最新人口信息 www.hongheiku.com (in Chinese). hongheiku. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  2. 最新人口信息 www.hongheiku.com (in Chinese). hongheiku. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  3. Updated Asian Map of the Köppen climate classification system.
  4. "Archived copy" 中国气象科学数据共享服务网 (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on March 2, 2015. Retrieved February 25, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. 安阳高烧43.2℃ 市民无处话清凉. dahe.cn (in Chinese).
  6. 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration . Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  7. 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
  8. "Hall of the Heavenly King". Tianning Temple. The Hall, an architecture of hanging-eaves over the gables, has a space of 3 rooms with a length of 14m, a width of 8.4m and a height of 9.6m. It was designed and rebuilt on the site by the Protection and Research Institute of Ancient Architecture of Anyang City in 2002.
  9. "Precious Hall of the Great Hero". Tianning Temple. The Precious Hall of the Great Hero, Tianning Temple, The Precious Hall of the Great Hero, as architecture of single-eave and gabled roof, is 11.65 m long and 17.8 m wide. Rebuilt in the 25th year of Qianlong in Qing Dynasty, it was thoroughly restored by the Protection and Research Institute of Ancient Architecture of Anyang City in 2001.

Related Research Articles

Luoyang Prefecture-level city in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province. Governed as a prefecture-level city, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Pingdingshan to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, Jiyuan to the north, and Jiaozuo to the northeast. As of December 31, 2018, Luoyang had a population of 6,888,500 inhabitants with 2,751,400 people living in the built-up area made of the city's five out of six urban districts and Yanshy county, now being conurbated.

Zhumadian Prefecture-level city in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Zhumadian is a prefecture-level city in southern Henan province, China. It borders Xinyang to the south, Nanyang to the west, Pingdingshan to the northwest, Luohe to the north, Zhoukou to the northeast, and the province of Anhui to the east.

Yinxu Site of the last capital of the Shang dynasty

Yinxu is the site of one of the ancient and major historical capitals of China. It is the source of the archeological discovery of oracle bones and oracle bone script, which resulted in the identification of the earliest known Chinese writing. The archeological remnants known as Yinxu represent the ancient city of Yin, the last capital of China's Shang dynasty which existed through eight generations for 255 years, and through the reign of 12 kings. Yinxu was discovered, or rediscovered, in 1899. It is now one of China's oldest and largest archeological sites, and was selected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2006. Yinxu is located in northernmost Henan province near the modern city of Anyang, and near the Hebei and Shanxi province borders. Public access to the site is permitted.

Xinxiang Prefecture-level city in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Xinxiang is a prefecture-level city in northern Henan province, China.

Taian Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Tai'an is a prefecture-level city in Western Shandong Province of the People's Republic of China. Centered on Mount Tai, the city borders the provincial capital of Jinan to the north, Zibo to the east, Linyi to the southeast, Liaocheng to the extreme west and Jining to the south. To the west, Tai'an is separated from the province of Henan by the Yellow River.

Puyang Prefecture-level city in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Puyang is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Henan province, People's Republic of China. Located on the northern shore of the Yellow River, it borders Anyang in the west, Xinxiang in the southwest, and the provinces of Shandong and Hebei in the east and north respectively.

Tomb of Fu Hao

The Tomb of Fu Hao is an archaeological site at Yinxu, the ruins of the ancient Shang dynasty capital Yin, within the modern city of Anyang in Henan Province, China. Discovered in 1976 by Zheng Zhenxiang, it was identified as the final resting place of the queen and military general Fu Hao, who died about 1200 BCE and was likely the Lady Hao inscribed on oracle bones by king Wu Ding and one of his many wives.

Zhoukou Prefecture-level city in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Zhoukou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, China. It borders Zhumadian to the southwest, Xuchang and Luohe to the west, Kaifeng to the northwest, Shangqiu to the northeast, and the province of Anhui on all other sides. As of the 2020 census, its population was 9,026,015 inhabitants. However, as of the 2010 census, 1,445,963 lived in the built-up made up of Chuanhui district and the northern part of Shangshui county.

Liaocheng Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Liaocheng, also known as the Water City, is a prefecture-level city in western Shandong province, China. It borders the provincial capital of Jinan to the southeast, Dezhou to the northeast, Tai'an to the south, and the provinces of Hebei and Henan to the west. The Grand Canal flows through the city center. Its population was 5,789,863 at the 2010 census whom 1,229,768 lived in the built-up area made up of Donchangfu district, even though large parts remain rural.

Runan County County in Henan, China

Runan County is a county under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Zhumadian, in the southeast of Henan Province, China.

Dengzhou County-level & Sub-prefectural city in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Dengzhou, formerly Deng County, is a city in Nanyang, Henan, China. It has an area of 2,294 km2 (886 sq mi) and a population of 1,500,000. The urban area is 35 km², and the urban population is 300,000. The city is located in the southwest of Henan province, adjacent to the borders between Henan, Hubei and Shaanxi. It geometrically lies in the center of the triangle of Zhengzhou, Wuhan and Xi'an, with equal distance to any of these three cities.

Dengfeng County-level city in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Dengfeng is a county-level city of Henan Province, South Central China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Zhengzhou. In ancient times, it was known as Yangcheng.

Cao County County in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Cao County or Caoxian is a county in Heze City in southwestern Shandong Province, China. It borders Henan Province to the west.

Hua County County in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Hua County or Huaxian is a county under the administration of Anyang City, in the north of Henan province, China.

Linzhou, Henan County-level city in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Linzhou, formerly Lin County or Linxian ( ), is a county-level city in Anyang, Henan, China. Adjacent to Shanxi Province and Hebei Province, it is located in the north of Henan Province and at the eastern foot of the Taihang Mountains. It covers an area of 2046 square kilometers and has a population of about one million.

Wenfeng is a district of the city of Anyang, Henan province, China.

Yindu District District in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Yindu District is a district of the city of Anyang, Henan province, China. The archeological site of Yinxu is located in Yindu District's Xijiao Township.

Anyang County County in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Anyang County is a county in the north of Henan province, China. It is under the administration of Anyang city.

Tangyin County County in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Tangyin County is a county in the north of Henan province, China. It is under the administration of Anyang City.

Neihuang County County in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Neihuang County is a county in the north of Henan province, China, bordering Hebei province to the north. It is under the administration of Anyang city.