Aosta

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Aosta

Aoste  (French)
Aoûta  (Arpitan)
Città di Aosta
Ville d'Aoste
Aosta and mountains.jpg
Aerial view of Aosta
Blason ville It Aoste.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Aosta
Aosta
Italy provincial location map 2016.svg
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Aosta
Location of Aosta in Aosta Valley
Italy Aosta Valley location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Aosta
Aosta (Aosta Valley)
Coordinates: 45°44′N7°19′E / 45.733°N 7.317°E / 45.733; 7.317 Coordinates: 45°44′N7°19′E / 45.733°N 7.317°E / 45.733; 7.317
Country Italy
Region Aosta Valley
Frazioni Arpuilles, Beauregard, Bibian, Bioulaz, Borgnalle, Brenloz, Busséyaz, Cache, La Combe, Les Capucins, Chabloz, Champailler, Collignon, Cossan, Cotreau, Duvet, Entrebin, Excenex, Les Fourches, Laravoire, Montfleury, Movisod, Pallin, Papet, Pléod, Porossan, La Riondaz, La Rochère, Roppoz, Saraillon, Saumont, Seyssinod, Signayes, Talapé, Tsanté, Tzambarlet, Vignole
Government
  Mayor Gianni Nuti (Ind.)
Area
[1]
  Total21.37 km2 (8.25 sq mi)
Elevation
583 m (1,913 ft)
Population
 (30 November 2013) [2]
  Total34,800
  Density1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)
Demonyms Italian: Aostani
French: Aostois
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
11100
Dialing code 0165
Patron saint St. Gratus
Saint daySeptember 7
Website Official website

Aosta ( UK: /ɑːˈɒstə/ , [3] US: /ɑːˈɔːstə/ , [4] Italian:  [aˈɔsta] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); French : Aoste [ɔst] , [lower-alpha 1] formerly Aouste; Arpitan : Aoûta [aˈuta] , Veulla [ˈvəla] or Ouhta [ˈuhta] ; Latin : Augusta Praetoria Salassorum; Walser : Augschtal; Piedmontese : Osta) is the principal city of Aosta Valley, a bilingual region in the Italian Alps, 110 km (68 mi) north-northwest of Turin. It is situated near the Italian entrance of the Mont Blanc Tunnel, at the confluence of the Buthier and the Dora Baltea, and at the junction of the Great and Little St Bernard Pass routes.

Contents

History

Arches of the Roman Theatre. Roman Theatre Aosta 2.JPG
Arches of the Roman Theatre.
Porta Praetoria. Porta pretoria Aosta1.jpg
Porta Prætoria.

Aosta was settled in proto-historic times and later became a centre of the Salassi, many of whom were killed or sold into slavery by the Romans in 25 BC. [6] The campaign was led by Terentius Varro, who then founded the Roman colony of Augusta Praetoria Salassorum, housing 3,000 retired veterans. After 11 BC Aosta became the capital of the Alpes Graies ("Grey Alps") province of the Empire. Its position at the confluence of two rivers, at the end of the Great and the Little St Bernard Pass, gave it considerable military importance, and its layout was that of a Roman military camp.

After the fall of the Western Empire, the city was conquered, in turn, by the Burgundians, the Ostrogoths, and the Byzantines. The Lombards, who had annexed it to their Italian kingdom, were expelled by the Frankish Empire under Pepin the Short. Under his son, Charlemagne, Aosta acquired importance as a post on the Via Francigena, leading from Aachen to Italy. After 888 AD it was part of the renewed Kingdom of Italy under Arduin of Ivrea and Berengar of Friuli.

In the 10th century Aosta became part of the Kingdom of Burgundy. After the fall of the latter in 1032, it became part of the lands of Count Humbert I of Savoy. [7]

The privilege of holding the assembly of the states-general was granted to the inhabitants in 1189. An executive council was nominated from this body in 1536, and continued to exist until 1802. After the Congress of Vienna restored the rule of Savoy it was reconstituted and formally recognized by Charles Albert of Sardinia, at the birth of his grandson Prince Amedeo, who was created duke of Aosta. [7]

The gonfalon of Aosta/Aoste in the salon ducal of the Hotel-de-Ville. Gonfanon Aoste Salon ducal.JPG
The gonfalon of Aosta/Aoste in the salon ducal of the Hôtel-de-Ville.

Climate

Aosta has either a warm-summer humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb), or a subtropical highland climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb). It is considered temperate continental (Dc) in the Trewartha climate classification.

Climate data for Aosta
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)3.9
(39.0)
5.9
(42.6)
10.4
(50.7)
14.5
(58.1)
19.0
(66.2)
22.7
(72.9)
25.1
(77.2)
24.1
(75.4)
20.8
(69.4)
15.1
(59.2)
8.7
(47.7)
4.8
(40.6)
14.6
(58.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)−0.1
(31.8)
1.7
(35.1)
5.4
(41.7)
9.3
(48.7)
13.6
(56.5)
17.0
(62.6)
19.2
(66.6)
18.4
(65.1)
15.6
(60.1)
10.5
(50.9)
4.9
(40.8)
1.1
(34.0)
9.7
(49.5)
Average low °C (°F)−4.0
(24.8)
−2.5
(27.5)
0.5
(32.9)
4.2
(39.6)
8.2
(46.8)
11.4
(52.5)
13.4
(56.1)
12.8
(55.0)
10.4
(50.7)
5.9
(42.6)
1.2
(34.2)
−2.5
(27.5)
4.9
(40.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)51
(2.0)
60
(2.4)
56
(2.2)
64
(2.5)
81
(3.2)
81
(3.2)
64
(2.5)
82
(3.2)
68
(2.7)
65
(2.6)
75
(3.0)
58
(2.3)
805
(31.8)
Source: https://it.climate-data.org/location/3041/

Main sights

Prehistoric

Ancient remains

Tour du Lepreux. Aosta Torre del Lebbroso.jpg
Tour du Lépreux.

The ancient town walls of Augusta Prætoria Salassorum are still preserved almost in their entirety, enclosing a rectangle 724 by 572 metres (2,375 by 1,877 ft). [8] They are 6.4 metres (21 ft) high, built of concrete faced with small blocks of stone. At the bottom, the walls are nearly 2.75 metres (9.0 ft) thick, and at the top 1.83 metres (6.0 ft).

Towers stand at angles to the enceinte and others are positioned at intervals, with two at each of the four gates, making twenty towers in total. They are roughly 6.5 metres (21 ft) square, and project 4.3 metres (14 ft) from the wall. Of the 20 original towers, the following are well preserved: [9]

The east and south gates exist intact. The latter, a double gate with three arches flanked by two towers known as the Porta Praetoria (1st century AD) was the eastern gate to the city, and has preserved its original forms apart from the marble covering. [10] It is formed by two series of arches enclosing a small square.

The rectangular arrangement of the streets is modeled on a Roman plan dividing the town into 64 blocks (insulae). The main road, about 10 metres (33 ft) wide, divides the city into two equal halves, running from east to west. This arrangement makes it clear that guarding the road was the main raison d'être of the city.

The Roman theatre, of which the southern façade remains today, is 22 metres (72 ft) tall. [11] [12] The structure, dating from the late reign of Augustus, occupied an area of 81 by 64 metres (266 by 210 ft); it could contain up to 4,000 spectators. In the nearby was the amphitheatre, built under Claudius. A marketplace surrounded by storehouses on three sides with a temple in the centre with two on the open (south) side, as well as a thermae, have also been discovered.

Arch of Augustus. Arco Augusto Aosta.jpg
Arch of Augustus.

Outside the town walls is the Arch of Augustus, a triumphal arch in honour of Augustus, built in 35 BC to celebrate the victory of consul Varro Murena over the Salassi. [13] About 8 kilometres (5 miles) to the west is a single-arched Roman bridge, called the Pont d'Aël. It has a closed passage, lighted by windows for foot passengers in winter, and above it an open footpath.

Aosta Cathedral. Aosta Cattedrale.JPG
Aosta Cathedral.

There are considerable remains of the ancient road from Eporedia (modern Ivrea) to Augusta Praetoria into the Aosta Valley. The modern railway follows this route, notable for the Pont Saint-Martin, which has a single arch with a span of 35 metres (115 ft) and a roadway 4.5 metres (15 ft) wide; the cutting of Donnas; and the Roman bridges of Châtillon (Pont Saint-Vincent) and Aosta (Pont de Pierre).

Other sights

Transport

Aosta lies on the crossroad of two major trans-alpine trunk roads: national road 26 (Italian: SS26, French: RN26 [14] ) connecting the city of Chivasso to Little St Bernard Pass on the Italy-France border, and national road 27 (Italian: SS27, French: RN27 [15] ) connecting the city of Aosta to the Great St Bernard Pass on the Italy-Switzerland border. Aosta is also served by the A5 motorway between Turin and Courmayeur. [16]

Aosta railway station, opened in 1886, forms part of the Chivasso–Ivrea–Aosta railway. Direct trains only connect Aosta up to the city of Ivrea. The branch line to nearby Pré-Saint-Didier, in the Valdigne, on the way towards Courmayeur was closed in 2015. Train service is operated by Trenitalia. [17]

The main bus hub is located near the Aosta train station. Buses connect the city of Aosta to the nearby valleys and to destinations outside the region, including Turin, Milan, Chamonix (France) and Martigny (Switzerland). [18]

Aosta airport is located 5 km to the east of the city.

Notable people

See also

Twin towns - sister cities

Aosta is twinned with: [19] [20]

See also

Notes

Related Research Articles

Aosta Valley An autonomous region of Italy

The Aosta Valley is a mountainous autonomous region in northwestern Italy. It is bordered by Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France, to the west, Valais, Switzerland, to the north, and by Piedmont, Italy, to the south and east. The regional capital is Aosta.

Courmayeur Comune in Aosta Valley, Italy

Courmayeur is a town and comune in northern Italy, in the autonomous region of Aosta Valley.

Aostan French is the variety of French spoken in the Aosta Valley, Italy.

The development of music in the Aosta Valley region of Italy reflects the multilingual make-up of the region including French, Valdôtain and recently Italian. The strong traditions of choral singing, village bands, and folk music are nurtured both by the Italian as well as German speakers of the area.

Aosta Cathedral

Aosta Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Aosta, in north-west Italy, built in the 4th century. It is the episcopal seat of the Diocese of Aosta.

Ayas, Aosta Valley Comune in Aosta Valley, Italy

Ayas is a comune sparso in the Aosta Valley region of northwestern Italy, with 1359 inhabitants in 2010.

Canavese Traditional region in Italy

Canavese is a subalpine geographical and historical area of North-West Italy which lies today within the Metropolitan City of Turin in Piedmont. Its main town is Ivrea and it is famous for its castles.

The Salassi were a Gallic tribe whose lands lay on the Italian side of the Little St Bernard Pass across the Graian Alps to Lyons, and the Great St Bernard Pass over the Pennine Alps. The Romans finally defeated and enslaved many of them in 25 BCE, and founded the city of Augusta Praetoria Salassorum, modern Aosta, in their territory.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Aosta

The Italian Catholic Diocese of Aosta has existed in its modern form since 1817. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Turin.

Eccellenza Piedmont-Aosta Valley is the regional Eccellenza football division for clubs in the regions of Piedmont and Aosta Valley, Italy. It is competed amongst 36 teams, in two different groups. The winners of the Groups are promoted to Serie D. The clubs who finish second also have the chance to gain promotion, they are entered into a national play-off which consists of two rounds.

Aoste, Isère Commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Aoste is a commune in the Isère department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southeastern France.

Vallée dAoste Lard dArnad Cured pork product from Italy

Vallée d’Aoste Lard d’Arnad (PDO) is a variety of lardo produced exclusively within the municipal boundaries of the commune of Arnad in lower Aosta Valley, Italy. It was awarded European Union protected designation of origin (PDO) status in 1996 and is promoted by the Comité pour la valorisation des produits typiques d'Arnad - Lo Doil producers association.

Augusta may refer to:

Pont de Pierre (Aosta) Roman segmental arch bridge

The Pont de Pierre, meaning "Stone Bridge", is a Roman bridge in the Italian city of Aosta in the Aosta Valley. The bridge crossed the Buthier about 600 m (2,000 ft) from the eastern exit of the Roman colony Augusta Praetoria; in later times the torrente changed its course, leaving the ancient bridge today without water.

Pont dAël

The Pont d'Aël is a Roman aqueduct, located in a village of the same name in the comune of Aymavilles in Aosta Valley, northern Italy. It was built in the year 3BC for irrigation purposes and supplying water for the newly founded colony of Augusta Praetoria, which is now known as Aosta. The water was directed through a neighbouring valley 66 m above the floor of the Aosta valley, through a sophisticated system. The aqueduct is 6 km long in total. In addition to its unusual position, the construction, which was originally thought to be a three-story structure, shows more unique features such as a control corridor below the water line, as well as explicit private funding. Today, the water channel of the aqueduct serves as a public walking trail.

Aulus Terentius Varro Murena was a Roman general and politician of the 1st century BC.

Valdôtain is a dialect of Arpitan (Franco-Provençal) spoken in the Aosta Valley in Italy. It is commonly known as patois or patoué.

Aosta railway station

Aosta railway station is the main station serving the city and comune of Aosta, in the autonomous region of Aosta Valley, northwestern Italy. Opened in 1886, it forms part of the Chivasso–Ivrea–Aosta railway, and is also a junction station for a branch line to nearby Pré-Saint-Didier, in the Valdigne, on the way towards Courmayeur.

Valle d'Aosta Calcio was an Italian association football club, based in Aosta, Aosta Valley.

Arch of Augustus (Aosta)

The Arch of Augustus is a monument in the city of Aosta, northern Italy.

References

Inline citations
  1. "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. Bilancio demografico Anno 2013 Novembre (dati provvisori). Provincia: Valle d'Aosta/Vallée d'Aoste, Istat.
  3. "Aosta". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press . Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  4. "Aosta". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  5. Jean-Marie Pierret (1994). Phonétique historique du français et notions de phonétique générale (in French). Louvain-la-Neuve: Peeters. p. 104.
  6. John Lemprière, Lorenzo DaPonte, & John David Ogilby (1839), Bibliotheca Classica: Or, A Dictionary of All the Principal Names and Terms, (Tenth American Edition), New York: W.E. Dean. Salassi, p. 281
  7. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Aosta". Encyclopædia Britannica . 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 158.
  8. "Aostalife.it - The Town Walls". www.aostalife.it. Retrieved 2017-02-13.
  9. "Aostalife.it - The Towers". www.aostalife.it. Retrieved 2017-02-13.
  10. Toy, Sidney. Castles: Their Construction and History. New York: Dover Publications, 1985. p. 30.
  11. "Aostalife.it - The Roman Theatre". www.aostalife.it. Retrieved 2017-02-13.
  12. "Roman Theatre | Aosta Valley". www.lovevda.it. Retrieved 2017-02-13.
  13. "Aostalife.it - The Arch of Augustus". www.aostalife.it. Retrieved 2017-02-13.
  14. Bulletin officiel de la région autonome Vallée d'Aoste - n.12/2012
  15. Bulletin officiel de la région autonome Vallée d'Aoste - n.12/2012
  16. "Our Network - Autostrade per l'Italia". www.autostrade.it. Retrieved 2017-02-13.
  17. "Acquista il biglietto con le nostre offerte - Trenitalia". www.trenitalia.com (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-02-09.
  18. Sanson, Fabrizio. "Home SAVDA Autoservizi e Autolinee della Valle d'Aosta". savda.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-02-09.
  19. "Relazione al Conto Consuntivo" (PDF). comune.aosta.it (in Italian). Aosta. 2017. p. 107. Retrieved 2019-12-13.
  20. "Coopération Internationale". chamonix.fr (in French). Chamonix-Mont-Blanc. Retrieved 2019-12-13.
General references

Further reading